Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)
Thematic Edizione: Contemporary world political geography - unity in diversity. Guest Editor: Marcin Solarz

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)
Thematic Edizione: “Innovation in geospatial and 3D data” focuses on the newest achievements in the field of Geodata, which are used in Geosciences and for various applications such as urban planning, territorial management, damage assessment, environmental monitoring, 3D city modelling, renewable energy assessment, land registry, heritage documentation.

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)
Thematic Edizione: Re-inventing territorial organization of the local tier: municipal splits in Central and Eastern Europe. Guest Editors: Pawel Swianiewicz, Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)
Thematic Edizione: UTCI application in different spatial and temporal scales. Editors: Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Bożena Kicińska.

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)
Thematic Edizione: History and space: challenges, methods, applications. Editors: Piotr Werner, Izabela Gołębiowska, Izabela Karsznia

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Organisation of Contemporary Urban Space. Towards Planning, Arrangement and Management of Cities. Guest Editors: Mikołaj Madurowicz, Andrzej Lisowski

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Evolution of Cultural Landscapes. Longue duree of local wine landscapes. Guest Editors: Jerzy Makowski, Joanna Miętkiewska-Brynda

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)
Thematic Edizione: Innovations in Peripheral Regions. Guest Editor: Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 4 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)
Thematic Edizione: APEX - new possibilities for airborne remote sensing

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)
Thematic Edizione: The Future of Islands

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)
Thematic issue: Geoinformatics

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)
Thematic Edizione: Integrated Landscape Studies

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 1 (October 2012)

Volume 15 (2011): Edizione 1 (January 2011)

Volume 14 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2008): Edizione 1 (December 2008)

Volume 12 (2006): Edizione 1 (December 2006)

Volume 11 (2004): Edizione 1 (December 2004)

Volume 10 (2002): Edizione 1 (December 2002)

Volume 9 (2000): Edizione 1 (March 2000)

Volume 8 (1998): Edizione 1 (March 1998)

Volume 7 (1996): Edizione 1 (March 1996)

Volume 6 (1994): Edizione 1 (March 1994)

Volume 5 (1992): Edizione 1 (March 1992)

Volume 4 (1990): Edizione 1 (March 1990)

Volume 3 (1988): Edizione 1 (March 1988)

Volume 2 (1986): Edizione 1 (March 1986)

Volume 1 (1984): Edizione 1 (March 1984)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 11 (2004): Edizione 1 (December 2004)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

38 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Concept of the Natural System and Its Importance for the Development of Integrated Research on the Natural Environment

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

The development of the concept of an areal natural unit as a result of the needs of the economic practice and the popularisation of the general systems theory. Ecosystems and geosystems. Hierarchy of the natural system. Topological and chorological units. The issue of a universal natural unit. Applications. The influence of the concept under discussion on the development of the integrated research on the natural environement.

Parole chiave

  • holistic approach to nature
  • ecosystems and geosystems
  • partial natural systems
  • taxonomy of natural units
Accesso libero

Four Fundamental Methodological Problems of Landscape Geography

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 13 - 17

Astratto

Abstract

Fundamental methodological problems of geography as a science have been identified by Chojnicki (1999) in the following list: goal of research, separate character of research, expected results, and form of scientific explanation. This article presents methodological stand-points taken be landscape geographers towards the above problems, which proved to be as diverse as in the case of the human geography. The article highlights negative consequences of such state of affairs.

Parole chiave

  • physical geography
  • geoecology
  • landscape geography
  • methodology
  • explanation
Accesso libero

Landscape Boundaries – Belts or Lines ? Examples from Southern and Northern Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 19 - 25

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of width of landscape boundary remains widely discussed from more then one century. The author attempts to describe a width of some landscape boundaries of a higher rank by describing the mosaic of a lower rank landscape units. The research was realised within upland landscape of Nida Basin and lowland landscape of Wigry National Park.

Parole chiave

  • boundary
  • landscape unit
  • landscape typology
Accesso libero

Application of Soil Science Research to the Determination of the Pollution Resistance Potential of Landscape

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 27 - 39

Astratto

Abstract

The environment resistance potential is defined as the ability of the landscape to limit the negative pollutant impact consisting a.o.in the limiting, by means of accumulation, of the amount of pollutants circulating in the environment system. In practice, their quantity is contigent on the proporties of the components, which are capable of a relatively long-lasting chemical substance accumulation (thus, above all, the properties of the soil cover). The forecast model of environment changes describes the mechanisms and distribution rate of pollution in the soil profile and the interaction with the functional landscape structure. The methodological assumptions, determining of the real, complex diagnosis of the environment condition and for forecasting of the effects of the persisting anthropopressure and for establishing the necessary measures limiting the progressing degradation. Knowing, even approximatively, the mechanism of the existing changes one can determine the optimal (under circumstances) level of pollutant input, and when its limitation is impossible, one can control the use of the environmental potential in such a way as to minimize its negative impact.

Parole chiave

  • soil
  • environment resistance potential
  • migration of pollutants
  • modelling
Accesso libero

Soil – Plant Relations on Sandy Grassland in the Middle Vistula River Valley

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 41 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

The paper is on environmental condition of sandy grassland on alluvial deposits. The soil and phytosociological study ware conducted south of Warsaw in middle Vistula river valley. Listing of vascular plants and shallow soil sampling were made in order to answer the question of plant and soil relationship. Standard chemical determination directed on trophism were done in plant and soil material. The spatial distribution of chemical parameters of plants and soils is related to local microrelief and distance of Vistula river. The plants dominating the study prefer less fertile habitats. The soil is being enriched by water from the Vistula river. High carbon content is correlated with the presence of the Salix arenaria. The greater the share of vegetation not belonging to the grass family, the greater the carbon content. Potassium and phosphorus looks like to be the less plant-dependent elements. Its documents an initial stage of development of the Vistula river valley environment.

Parole chiave

  • sandy grassland
  • fluvisol
  • poor trophism habitats
Accesso libero

Chemistry of Raw Humus Vs. Chemistry of Atmospheric Precipitation on the Example of Pine Forests of the Pomeranian Lakeland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 51 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

This research, conducted for the purposes of the protection of the National Park Bory Tucholskie, contains the results of the investigation of the chemical composition of humus (forest litter) and of atmospheric precipitation. The gathered material allowed determining the fate (accumulation or removal) of chemical elements contained in the pine forest humus as well as to compare the abundance of nutrients in humus and in atmospheric precipitation.

Parole chiave

  • forest litter
  • humus
  • atmospheric precipitation
Accesso libero

Magnetic Susceptibility of Chernozems

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 57 - 61

Astratto

Abstract

Among other forms, iron contained in soil is a component of magnetic minerals, both primary and secondary ones, produced by various soil forming processes. The composition of the soil magnetic fraction, characterised by a magnetic susceptibility, is the consequence of its origin. The character of susceptibility changes along the analysed chernozems’ profiles indicates a similarity of the parent rock, as well as the pedogenic processes forming the chernozems from the territories of Poland and the Ukraine. The influence of anthropogenic factors could be seen in the increased susceptibility within the humus horizon of the degraded chernozem.

Parole chiave

  • soil magnetism
  • chernozems
Accesso libero

Plough Sole as the Result of the Agricultural Land Use

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 63 - 69

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was the estimate of the substratum compaction in various soil types and under various conditions of use. The compaction characteristics were performed on the basis of bulk density of soil. It was performed on various types of soil, built of various materials, occurring in the vicinity of Płock. The soils are farming land. The greatest sub-stratum compaction was observed in arable lands, built of light loam, silt and loamy sand. The difference in bulk density between the layer at the depth of 25 – 35 cm and the adjacent horizons reaches 0.3 Mg per cubic metre. In soils used for green crops the substratum layer does not show a large difference between the adjacent layers, but the values of bulk density are equal to about 1.6 – 1.8 Mg per cubic metre already near the surface. Higher values of bulk density at the depth of 25 – 35 cm were observed in 68% of soils under investigation.

Parole chiave

  • soil compaction
  • bulk density
  • arable land
  • hay-growing meadows
  • pastures
Accesso libero

Orographic Barrier of the Great Himalayas

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 71 - 74

Astratto

Abstract

The entire geographical literature, starting with school textbooks, presents the Himalayas as a classical model of an impermeable orographic barrier, halting the masses of monsoon air and causing aridity of the Tibetan landscapes. Despite of that, however, the author, during his trips to Western and, particularly, to Central Tibet, organised exactly during the summer monsoon, always found the southern regions of these provinces flooded to a large extent with water. It is also puzzling that catastrophic floods occurring in China (connected with the high water in rivers originating in Tibet) are correlated in time with the period of the summer monsoon in the Himalayas.

Parole chiave

  • geoecology
  • high mountains
  • monsoon
Accesso libero

Wall-Sided Glaciers

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 75 - 80

Astratto

Abstract

In the literature devoted to geomorphology and glaciology not much has been written about wall-sided glaciers, thanks to which high mountains have their specific landscape character. It is also difficult to find in the literature of the subject a classification of the wallsided glacier forms which would take into account the richness and variety of this phenomenon. After many years of experience in almost all highest mountains of Asia, South America and Europe, the authors decided to fill this gap and therefore to provoke a discussion among the geomorphologists.

Parole chiave

  • geoecology
  • high mountains
  • wall-sided glaciers
Accesso libero

Change of Grain Size Parameters of Sediments as a Result of Wind Activity. Barchans Jarangiyn Els in Gobi, Mongolia

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 81 - 91

Astratto

Abstract

Research conducted on the Jarangiyn els field on the Gobi desert in Mongolia took place during the transformation of barchans resulting from the changes in wind direction. The investigation undertaken by the authors had as its goal the evaluation of the changes in the morphology of the forms, extended by the interpretation of the grain size parameters distribution in the longitudinal profiles of the dunes. The results indicate that the processes of barchan transformation are recorded in grain size parameters.

Parole chiave

  • barchans
  • dune transformation
  • grain size parameters
Accesso libero

The Origins of the Plitvice Lakes (Croatia)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 93 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

The question of the origin of the Plitvice Lakes, situated in the Dynarics Mountains, in central Croatia is still unexplained. Not so many place in a literature is dedicated to this issue. It is said that the Plitvice Lakes are of tectonic or karst origin. In the article the complicated origin of the lakes is shown. To define their origin the author proposes the term “tectonic – barriered”. As a result of tectonical movements which occured on the researched area, many tectonic faults were formed. At the bottom of the lakes barriers of sedra – rock of biogenic origin started to grow. The process of sedra creating has been lasting till today and as a result a very complicated, permanently transformed lakes system has formed. At present, below the lowest located lake of the Plitvice Lakes new lakes appear, which demonstrate about existing and growing submarine barriers.

Parole chiave

  • origin
  • Plitvice
  • lakes
  • tectonic
  • barriers
  • sedra
Accesso libero

Climate of the Europe. Past, Present, Future

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 101 - 118

Astratto

Abstract

The advancing warming of Earth climate has largely been influenced by natural causes, i.e. increased Solar activity and decreasing volcanic activity on Earth. It still remains unknown which part of the warming process results from the increased amount of Solar energy reaching Earth surface, and which is being caused by the anthropogenic part of atmosphere’s greenhouse effect. The facts speaking in favour of natural factors include synchronic changes of mean air temperature on the Northern hemisphere between 1856 – 2002, mean consecutive 11-year Wolf numbers, and the location of mass centres of the four biggest planets in our Solar system.

The theory of natural causes of climate warming is also backed by synchronic changes in carbon dioxide concentration and paleotemperature within the last 160,000 years and 450,000 years, recreated based Antarctica ice cores. Warmings occur every 100,000 years. They are triggered by increased Solar radiation in large geographic latitudes resulting from changes in Earth orbit and Earth axis slant (according to the already accepted Milankovic theory).

“Parallelism” of changes in CO2 concentration and paleotemperture shows that the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide is shaped by the amount of Solar radiation reaching Earth – through shifts in ocean waters temperature. It is more credible to claim that “CO2 concentration in atmosphere rises along with the amount of Solar radiation reaching Earth surface (i.e. when it is warmer).”

Parole chiave

  • Solar radiation
  • temperature
  • greenhouse effect
  • spectre
  • volcanic platforms
  • Solar activity
  • planet mass momentum
  • forecast
Accesso libero

Contemporary Warming and Daily Values of Temperature (on the Example of Warsaw)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 119 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

This paper aims at presenting changes in everyday air temperature values, triggered by the contemporary warming process. The analysis has been based on the mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature values measured in Warsaw between 1951 – 2003. The mean daily temperature in that period was between −24.6 and 28.4°C, absolute minimum temperature was −30.7°C, absolute maximum temperature amounted to 36.4°C.

Calculations indicate that the number of days with mean temperature ≤ −5.0°C (minimum < 0.0°C, maximum < 0.0°C) in the last several years decreased. This trend slowed down at the beginning of 21st century, nevertheless, the number of days with mean daily temperature > 20.0°C and maximum temperature > 25.0°C was growing, particularly in the 1990’s and even more so in early 2000’s. Also since 1990’s, there has been increasingly more nights with minimum temperature > 15.0°C, which has been particularly apparent in 2001. Contemporary warming is then marked with an increasing frequency of the hottest days and decreasing frequency of the coldest days. These changes were asymmetrical beyond 1950’s, yet, in late 1990’s they coincided.

Parole chiave

  • contemporary warming
  • mean daily temperature
  • maximum temperature
  • minimum temperature
Accesso libero

The Climatic Background of Agricultural Production in Poland (1951 – 2000)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 127 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

This article presents the results of studies conducted on the variability of thermal and precipitation conditions in Poland in the second half of the 20th century, especially taking into consideration periods which were unfavorable for agricultural production. Averaged spatial temperatures and precipitation totals from consecutive years 1951 to 2000 were used. A significant increase in spring temperatures was noted, while the winters also became warmer. This had a significant effect upon the change of the thermal vegetation period’s duration. No changing trends were noted with regard to the amount of precipitation.The analysis of the seasonal structure during the anomalous years, with regard to temperature and the amount of precipitation, made it possible to pinpoint years particularly unfavorable for agricultural production. There was a certain repeatability of unfavorable conditions, tied to the existence of a relatively stable 8-year cycle of temperature change, which was especially noticeable during the wintertime. During the last two decades of the 20th century, high temperature values, occurring also in the summertime, in combination with insufficient precipitation, contributed to the occurrence of dry spells and even periods of drought. The occurrence of dry spells during the vegetation period and the extreme shortening of the vegetation period have a significant effect upon the amount of grain crop production.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • atmospheric precipitation
  • variability
  • crop production
  • Poland
Accesso libero

Application and Verification of a Water Balance Model With Distributed Parameters (On the Example of Rega River Basin)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 139 - 149

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of the study reported was to apply and verify a model of water balance of spatially distributed parameters in a meso-scale river catchment. The model was applied in the basin of Rega river, with the use of meteorological and hydrological measurement data from the years 1956–1995. In modelling, due account was taken of the land use changes having occurred during the 40-year period considered. The output from modelling was constituted by the raster maps of area evaporation, surface runoff and supply of the underground water resources. On the basis of these results the magnitude of outflow and the structure of water balance were calculated for three river gauge profiles. The deviations of the model-based calculated outflow values from the measured ones were maximally equal +10% for the entire 40-year period and +20% in one of the 5-year sub-periods.

Parole chiave

  • hydrological modeling
  • Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
  • water balance
Accesso libero

The Size of the Basic Unit in Geographical Analysis

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 151 - 160

Astratto

Abstract

In geographical analysis such as mathematical classification and modeling, the study area is divided into a network of basic (quasi-homogenous) units. A technique often used in the delimitation of the basic unit to be analyzed is the division of the study area into a network of uniform geometrical figures (block-centered grid). This article presents two objective methods for dividing the surface area of the study region into a network of basic units. The geometric method makes it possible to determine the optimal size of the basic unit, relative to the surface area being analyzed. This method may be used in analysis conducted on a regional scale, in which case the analysis and the results are characterized by a greater degree of generalization. Geostatistical methods (semivariance analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis) make it possible to determine the size of the cell in the grid of quasi-homogenous units, based on the spatial variation of elements in the natural environment and on the placement of data points. These methods can be recommended for the analysis of small areas (e.g. small drainage areas), when highly detailed data and results are required.

Parole chiave

  • quasi-homogenous units
  • semivariance
  • nearest-neighbor method
Accesso libero

Inferring Changes in Dynamic Groundwater Storage from Recession Curve Analysis of Discharge Data

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 161 - 168

Astratto

Abstract

Groundwater storage is an important element of terrestrial water storage. It influences the baseflow component of the river discharge which constitutes the majority of the outflow of Polish rivers. An evaluation of changes in the dynamic groundwater storage from point measurements of groundwater levels is usually a difficult task as groundwater data are scarce in time and space. Alternative approach involves recession curve analysis of discharge data. This study describes an approach to estimate the long-term changes in dynamic groundwater storage from daily discharges on a basin scale. Recession curve analysis is applied for identification of groundwater system functioning through derivation of master recession curve. The Master Recession Curve Tool developed by Lamb is used for automate analysis. Then results are coupled with a concept of nonlinear reservoir expressing discharge-storage relationship. As a result the volume of the groundwater storage and its temporal changes are derived on a yearly base, as a difference between highest values of storage during spring season and lowest values appearing in late summer or early autumn. The results show high annual variability of dynamic groundwater storage. The approach is presented on the example of lowland basin situated in central Poland, on the Mazovian Lowland (N 52°14’ – N 52°14’ and E 11°10’ – E 11°10’).

Parole chiave

  • baseflow
  • master recession curve
  • dynamic groundwater storage
Accesso libero

Inertia of the Catchment Systems Within the Polish Lowlands

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 169 - 174

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents a method for assessing the hydrological inertia of the river catchment areas using the autocorrelation function. The method presented can be used as the criterion for the determination of the degree of hazard to the river basins from the potential hydrological droughts. The basins with high inertia are less susceptible to the shortages of supply and are less threatened by the occurrence of hydrological droughts.

Parole chiave

  • Hydrological inertia of the catchments
  • hydrological droughts
  • autocorrelation function
Accesso libero

The Role of Lakes in Natural Groundwater Drainage

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 175 - 184

Astratto

Abstract

In the paper it is shown that the lakes of the North-Eastern Poland fulfil various functions in the groundwater phase of the water circulation. The value of the resultant of the groundwater supply to the lake, and in some cases also its direction, depend on the volume of the water undergoing a total exchange in the reservoir in the given year. In through-flow lakes the runoff increase coefficient also influences this value.

Parole chiave

  • lake
  • water balance of a lake
  • groundwater drainage
Accesso libero

The Development of the Utilisation of Water Power in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 185 - 194

Astratto

Abstract

First hydroelectric power stations in Poland were built in 19th century, mostly in the region of Podhale (Carpathian tributaries of the Vistula River) and in the Old Polish Industrial District (for the needs of the iron and steel industry) from the initiative of Stanisław Staszic. They were used in mills and saw mills, for home lighting in settlements, etc. After World War I two medium size hydroelectric power stations were constructed in Pomerania (Gródek and Żar) and the construction of a dam (at that time the largest in Europe) was started in Rożnów on the Dunajec River (50 MW); the hydroelectric power station was opened as late as 1941. A small growth in this field took place in the 1950s and 1960s, and in the late 1960s / early 1970s large hydroelectric power stations were built (Solina, Włocławek, Żydowo). The largest growth occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the two giant peak-load, pumped-storage power stations were put into operation (Porąbka-Żar: 500 MW and Żarnowiec: 680 MW), reaching the total power of 2000 MW. The most recent two large installations are: Czorsztyn-Niedzica (92 MW, 1997) and the modernisation of Solina (200 MW, 2003).

Parole chiave

  • hydro power
  • hydroelectric power stations
  • water power industry
  • water power engineering history of technology
  • Poland
Accesso libero

An Interdisciplinary Study of the Farafra Oasis (Egypt) by a Team from the Institute of Developing Countries at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies of Warsaw University

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 195 - 197

Astratto

Abstract

During January and February 2004, an interdisciplinary group from the Institute of Developing Countries at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies of Warsaw University spent time at the Farafra Oasis in Egypt, observing changes in resource management and transformations in the society. The aim was to compare the results with those of earlier studies conducted in 1993.

Parole chiave

  • Farafra Oasis (Egypt)
  • interdisciplinary studies
  • preliminary notes
Accesso libero

Geopolitical Essence of Central Europe in Writings of Eugeniusz Romer

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 199 - 206

Astratto

Abstract

Eugeniusz Romer maintained that the notion of Central Europe, introduced at the end of the 19th century by German geographers was of a distinct geopolitical character. The thesis that Poland is situated in a transitional zone between the Western and the Eastern Europe denies Poland the right to an independent political existence. Romer’s opinion was that the location of Poland is characterised by its bridge-like situation between the Baltic and the Black Seas. This location determines the geopolitical identity of Poland as well as its rights to independence. Romer’s arguments, supported by cartographic, demographic and ethnographic research became the basis for the determination of the area and the borders of Poland at the peace conference in Paris (1919 – 1920).

Parole chiave

  • geopolitics
  • transitional situation
  • bridge-like situation
  • territorial expansion
  • natural and political borders
Accesso libero

The Significance of Geographic Location for the Success of Territorial Secession. African Example

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 207 - 216

Astratto

Abstract

Political and economic factors always play the main role in the secession of territory. Various aspects of geographic location may however facilitate or hinder secession, as well as the effective functioning of the newly emerged state. For Africa, geographic location in secession may be of greater importance than in the case of other continents. This is caused for the most part by the fact that African states are some of the poorest in the world and are often unable to effectively counteract secession through military means. The lack of well-formed democratic state institutions in turn impedes the peaceful resolution of problems constituting the basis of secessionist tendencies. These are precisely the conditions under which geographic location plays a more critical role.

Parole chiave

  • separatism
  • secession of territory
  • geographic location
Accesso libero

Abortions in Russia Before and After the Fall of the Soviet Union

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 217 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

The initial section of the article elaborates on diverse attitudes towards abortion, and specifies the number of abortions performed before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. The following section presents spatial characteristic of the performed abortions against the largest Russian administrative units. Regional conditioning has been analysed based on the number of abortions per 100 labours and number of abortions among women in labour age (between 15 and 49 years of age). The article also discusses the activity of non-governmental women organisations which aim at providing medical information and participate in the family planning initiatives. Finally, the article presents the rules and conditions of allowing to perform abortion and significant changes in Russian legislation on that issue.

Parole chiave

  • abortion
  • non-governmental women organisations
  • Russia
  • Soviet Union
Accesso libero

Development of the Jewish Urban Settlement in Israel in View of the Theory of the Innovation Diffusion

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 229 - 240

Astratto

Abstract

Presentation of the current state and development tendencies of Jewish urban settlement in Israel against the innovation diffusion theory.

Analysis of the growth tempo of the number of cities in Israel allows to claim that urban Jewish settlement network develops in accordance with the innovation diffusion model.

Assuming that the theory fits the urban settlement development pattern on the surveyed territories, the directions taken by the impulses sent by innovation sources have been determined based on the corridor settlement development theory.

The hypothesis has been verified against the factors influencing spatial development directions of the Jewish urban settlement using a dynamic (synchronic-comparative) diffusion process simulation model, built with the Monte Carlo method.

The conducted analyses and procedures verifying the model distribution of Jewish settlement in Israeli cities in 1948, 1967 and 1992 allowed to conclude that the highest stochastic concordance between the model accounting for the innovation diffusion theory elements, and the real distribution of Jewish settlement cities holds for 1948 and 1967. According to the diffusion innovation theory, these years correspond to the colonisation stage. The model diversifies from reality for late 1967, when network densification process was coming to an end and city competition stage was starting.

Despite statistical validity of the hypotheses, the results show that besides the analysed factors influencing the development of Jewish urban settlement, other variables, not accounted for in the model, are also significantly influential.

Parole chiave

  • Jewish urban settlement
  • theory of innovation diffusion
Accesso libero

The Effect of Changes in Administrative Division on the Economic Position of the Largest Cities in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 241 - 247

Astratto

Abstract

Among the functions fulfilled by cities in relation to their hinterland, an important function is that of public administration. Changes in administrative division, instituted in Poland in 1999, have either weakened or strengthened the economical role of many cities.

A city’s position within the hierarchy of the centers of public administration within a country has, in Poland’s case, a significant effect upon the geographical movements of companies. An attempt was made to preliminarily gauge the effect of administrative changes upon the location of corporate offices. Changes in the distribution of companies providing the selected types of services in the 100 largest Polish cities were taken into account. The relationship between the change in the number of companies in each city and the potential social and economic role of the city in the general sense was examined.

Parole chiave

  • administrative division
  • city
  • economical importance
  • services
Accesso libero

Changes in Poland’s Industry After 1989

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 249 - 261

Astratto

Abstract

This paper has as its goals the presentation and evaluation of the changes in Poland’s industry during the economic transformation. After having listed the main characteristics of the industry in the period before 1989, the author points out the changing role of the industry in the national economy as well as changes in ownership and quantity. An evaluation of the changes in employment in industry, the value and structure of fixed assets, capital expenditures (incl. the role of direct foreign investments) as well as of the dynamics and structure of the industrial production has been made. Processes of restructuring of indusstry and spatial changes in the industry deployment are another topic discussed in the paper.

Parole chiave

  • Poland
  • industry
  • production
  • restructuring
  • investments (foreign investments)
  • fixed assets
Accesso libero

The Development of Tourism in Protected Areas and the Exploitation of the Natural Environment by Local Communities in Africa and Asia

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 263 - 269

Astratto

Abstract

From an economic point of view, protected areas do not bring in high profits, in comparison to other possible ways of land usage. National parks and nature reserves are costly in their creation, as well as in their subsequent upkeep and management. In developing countries, their operation can be the source of many political and economic problems. Usually, local communities neighboring protected areas perceive the existence of a protected zone negatively, although they are often able to avail themselves of park resources in various ways. Besides being given the opportunity to rationally make use of certain park resources, community members may be employed as park attendants, which is a practice that is widespread. A part of the profits obtained from the developing tourist industry may be allocated towards local development programs, e.g. the building of a new hospital or school. Some national parks, while lacking the adequate infrastructure necessary for tourism, grapple with a lack of funds. The lack of earning opportunities in connection with the development of tourism results in the local community’s over-exploitation of park resources. This often manifests itself in an increased incidence of poaching in the protected area.

Parole chiave

  • national park
  • tourism
  • natural environment exploitation
  • local communities
  • Comoé National Park
  • Salonga National Park
  • Amboseli National Park
  • Volcanoes National Park
  • Khao Yai National Park
  • Mgahinga National Park
Accesso libero

Nature and Tourism on Tropical and Subtropical Islands

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 271 - 280

Astratto

Abstract

Tropical and subtropical islands have become an important tourist destination. The islands are concentrated in eight areas of the world. Evaluating the natural tourist potential of these areas, it seems that the most attractive are the islands of Mid and West Indian Ocean and the Polynesia. Yet, these locations are less popular then the theoretically less naturally attractive Caribbean, Mediterranean and East Atlantic islands.

This leads to the conclusion that nature is not the most important decisive factor in choosing tourist destinations, and “tourist paradises” are formed on islands regardless of their natural attributes. Tourists are mainly attracted by the “myth” of a tropical island, and the most important criterion is the distance from home and travel time.

Parole chiave

  • tourism
  • tropical islands
  • nature
Accesso libero

Types of Topographic Map Generalization: The Example of the 1: 50 000 Map

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 281 - 290

Astratto

Abstract

The author first discusses the various ways of classifying cartographic generalization techniques, and then analyzes the course of the generalization process during the creation of a 1:50 000 topographic map on the basis of a 1:10 000 map. Using this analysis as a foundation, the author identifies, discusses and illustrates with examples the five types of cartographic generalization.

Parole chiave

  • topographic map
  • map generalization
Accesso libero

Concept of the New Topographic Map of Poland at the Scale of 1: 50 000

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 291 - 300

Astratto

Abstract

The factual and technical foundations of the concept for the 1:50 000 topographic map published in Poland between 1995 and 2002 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography are discussed in this article. While discussing content and graphic design, the author gives particular attention to the novel way of representing built-up areas.

Parole chiave

  • topographic map
  • Poland
Accesso libero

The Problem of Cartographic Representation in Relation To the Polish Cultural Landscape

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 301 - 310

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of representing the Polish cultural landscape consists of two components. The first component is the choice of content. Wishing to define the breadth of the content of a cultural landscape map, one needs to remember that it is composed of two facets. The first facet, the material result of human activity, is easily discernable in the field and easily illustrated on a map. Elements included in this facet are: sacred and secular historical structures, the spatial layout of cities, archeological sites etc. The second facet of cultural landscape needs to be considered in immaterial terms. It is difficult to illustrate on a map, because its elements do not lend themselves to being topographically situated. One could mention, for example, religions, customs and traditions, a common historical past etc. Most often, one can only indirectly speculate about this facet of the cultural landscape, on the basis of the material characteristics of the cultural landscape.

The second problem related to presenting cultural landscape on a map is the choice of graphic form for the map. The problem is to a large extent tied to difficulties stemming from the necessity of maintaining semantic correctness (the relation between “symbol” and “object”). In practice, during the graphic editing of a map representing the cultural landscape, one should remember to: a) choose a scale suitable for the representation, upon which depend the degree of detail and the generalization of the content; b) correctly depict the variation boundaries, taking into account sharp and fuzzy boundaries; c) make a well-designed symbol key.

Parole chiave

  • landscape
  • cultural landscape
  • cultural heritage
Accesso libero

Development and Function of Maps in the Transmission of Press Information in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 311 - 322

Astratto

Abstract

In view of changing political and economical situation in Poland during the last 150 years, the role and development of press maps in transmission the information is being addressed. Maps published in the newspapers, to a large extent reflected the main topics addressed by the press as well as features of transmission policy of the time. The number of maps published substantially increased during the times of military conflicts and political changes. The press maps, together with the maps addressing criminal and lately common terrorist’s activities, played the most important role among all published maps. Besides providing the information and allowing understanding the background of the events, in some cases the press maps played educational role and in other cases, through the mass media they became accessible to the general public. The early 1990s brought a gradual increase in number of maps published. The political changes in Poland after 1989 resulting in, among others, the introduction of market economy, suppression of censorship and state mass media monopoly, did have significant impact on the development of Polish press and indirectly also on journalistic cartography. Furthermore the use of computers revolutionized the processes of preparing maps.

Parole chiave

  • history of press cartography
  • function of press map
  • censorship
  • infographic
Accesso libero

Geoinformatics – An Integrated Spatial Research Tool

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 323 - 331

Astratto

Abstract

The structure of geoinformatics can be understood in many ways, what can be seen from the more or the less complex schemas published in various articles. Geoinformatics creates new possibilities for the precise analysis of spatial phenomena, such as for following their dynamics or defining the associations existing between their components. The use of remote sensing data in such research, takes to another level those areas of knowledge, in which there nevertheless still is a scarcity of reliable materials. It also enables the current monitoring of those phenomena which can’t be investigated and estimated in any other way, as well as the modeling of spatial (geographical) phenomena. Since 1996, many studies have been performed at the Laboratory of Remote Sensing of the Environment at the University of Warsaw, in which remote sensing data were integrated with data obtained by other means.

Parole chiave

  • geoinformatics
  • remote sensing
  • geography
Accesso libero

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Environmental Research and Water Management

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 333 - 347

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents the content of digital thematic maps: sozological and hydrographic as well as the basic principles of their preparation. It contains selected examples of applications of these maps in the research of natural environment and water management in the Upper Silesia region and its surroundings. This area is one of the most transformed regions due to human economic activity in Europe.

Parole chiave

  • GIS
  • environmental protection
  • water management
  • hydrology
  • thematic maps
Accesso libero

Examples of Object-Oriented Classification Performed on High-Resolution Satellite Images

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 349 - 358

Astratto

Abstract

Information about the types of land cover and its use is obtained by the visual interpretation of the color composite of satellite images or by the use of automatic classification algorithms. For obvious reasons, the automatic classification methods make it possible to obtain information quicker and much faster than the traditional interpretation method.

The commonly used automatic methods of satellite image classification, based on supervised or unsupervised classification algorithms, are the most accurate when used with low resolution images. In the case of images with 1-meter-sized pixels, showing a diversity of land cover forms, it is not possible to obtain satisfactory results.

New classification techniques, based on object-oriented classification algorithms, have been developing for a couple of years now. In contrast to the traditional methods, the new operating procedure does not involve the classification of single pixels, but of entire objects, into which the content of the satellite image is divided. Aside from the spectral values of the pixels, the shape of the objects created by the pixels and the relationships between the objects, are also considered during the analysis. Similar to visual interpretation, variation in the texture of the image can also be taken into account in this case.

The aim of this article is to present the possibility of using high density satellite images in object-oriented classification. The classification presented is that of a high-rise built area in Wrocław and of bridges on the Vistula River in Warsaw.

Parole chiave

  • object-oriented classification
  • land use
  • satellite images
  • eCognition
Accesso libero

The Remote Sensing Method of Forest Fire Danger Rating Categorization

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 359 - 362

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents the use of satellite images in the determination of forest fire danger rating categories. The assessment was carried out based on images from the LANDSAT TM, IKONOS and NOAA satellites, with the finding that the LANDSAT TM images are the most useful. A new solution proposed is to make forest fire danger rating categories refer to forest ranger sub-districts, what gives the forest service greater control over forest fire prevention activities. Forest fire danger assessment was done taking into account remote sensing indices such as the NDVI, TNDVI, and IHT, as well by the analysis of the spatial distribution and the number of fires in the previous six years. In accordance with the Polish State Forest Classification System, three classes were specified: 1 – high fire danger, 2 – moderate fire danger, 3 – low fire danger.

Parole chiave

  • forest fire danger rating classification
  • remote sensing as used in research
38 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Concept of the Natural System and Its Importance for the Development of Integrated Research on the Natural Environment

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

The development of the concept of an areal natural unit as a result of the needs of the economic practice and the popularisation of the general systems theory. Ecosystems and geosystems. Hierarchy of the natural system. Topological and chorological units. The issue of a universal natural unit. Applications. The influence of the concept under discussion on the development of the integrated research on the natural environement.

Parole chiave

  • holistic approach to nature
  • ecosystems and geosystems
  • partial natural systems
  • taxonomy of natural units
Accesso libero

Four Fundamental Methodological Problems of Landscape Geography

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 13 - 17

Astratto

Abstract

Fundamental methodological problems of geography as a science have been identified by Chojnicki (1999) in the following list: goal of research, separate character of research, expected results, and form of scientific explanation. This article presents methodological stand-points taken be landscape geographers towards the above problems, which proved to be as diverse as in the case of the human geography. The article highlights negative consequences of such state of affairs.

Parole chiave

  • physical geography
  • geoecology
  • landscape geography
  • methodology
  • explanation
Accesso libero

Landscape Boundaries – Belts or Lines ? Examples from Southern and Northern Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 19 - 25

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of width of landscape boundary remains widely discussed from more then one century. The author attempts to describe a width of some landscape boundaries of a higher rank by describing the mosaic of a lower rank landscape units. The research was realised within upland landscape of Nida Basin and lowland landscape of Wigry National Park.

Parole chiave

  • boundary
  • landscape unit
  • landscape typology
Accesso libero

Application of Soil Science Research to the Determination of the Pollution Resistance Potential of Landscape

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 27 - 39

Astratto

Abstract

The environment resistance potential is defined as the ability of the landscape to limit the negative pollutant impact consisting a.o.in the limiting, by means of accumulation, of the amount of pollutants circulating in the environment system. In practice, their quantity is contigent on the proporties of the components, which are capable of a relatively long-lasting chemical substance accumulation (thus, above all, the properties of the soil cover). The forecast model of environment changes describes the mechanisms and distribution rate of pollution in the soil profile and the interaction with the functional landscape structure. The methodological assumptions, determining of the real, complex diagnosis of the environment condition and for forecasting of the effects of the persisting anthropopressure and for establishing the necessary measures limiting the progressing degradation. Knowing, even approximatively, the mechanism of the existing changes one can determine the optimal (under circumstances) level of pollutant input, and when its limitation is impossible, one can control the use of the environmental potential in such a way as to minimize its negative impact.

Parole chiave

  • soil
  • environment resistance potential
  • migration of pollutants
  • modelling
Accesso libero

Soil – Plant Relations on Sandy Grassland in the Middle Vistula River Valley

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 41 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

The paper is on environmental condition of sandy grassland on alluvial deposits. The soil and phytosociological study ware conducted south of Warsaw in middle Vistula river valley. Listing of vascular plants and shallow soil sampling were made in order to answer the question of plant and soil relationship. Standard chemical determination directed on trophism were done in plant and soil material. The spatial distribution of chemical parameters of plants and soils is related to local microrelief and distance of Vistula river. The plants dominating the study prefer less fertile habitats. The soil is being enriched by water from the Vistula river. High carbon content is correlated with the presence of the Salix arenaria. The greater the share of vegetation not belonging to the grass family, the greater the carbon content. Potassium and phosphorus looks like to be the less plant-dependent elements. Its documents an initial stage of development of the Vistula river valley environment.

Parole chiave

  • sandy grassland
  • fluvisol
  • poor trophism habitats
Accesso libero

Chemistry of Raw Humus Vs. Chemistry of Atmospheric Precipitation on the Example of Pine Forests of the Pomeranian Lakeland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 51 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

This research, conducted for the purposes of the protection of the National Park Bory Tucholskie, contains the results of the investigation of the chemical composition of humus (forest litter) and of atmospheric precipitation. The gathered material allowed determining the fate (accumulation or removal) of chemical elements contained in the pine forest humus as well as to compare the abundance of nutrients in humus and in atmospheric precipitation.

Parole chiave

  • forest litter
  • humus
  • atmospheric precipitation
Accesso libero

Magnetic Susceptibility of Chernozems

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 57 - 61

Astratto

Abstract

Among other forms, iron contained in soil is a component of magnetic minerals, both primary and secondary ones, produced by various soil forming processes. The composition of the soil magnetic fraction, characterised by a magnetic susceptibility, is the consequence of its origin. The character of susceptibility changes along the analysed chernozems’ profiles indicates a similarity of the parent rock, as well as the pedogenic processes forming the chernozems from the territories of Poland and the Ukraine. The influence of anthropogenic factors could be seen in the increased susceptibility within the humus horizon of the degraded chernozem.

Parole chiave

  • soil magnetism
  • chernozems
Accesso libero

Plough Sole as the Result of the Agricultural Land Use

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 63 - 69

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was the estimate of the substratum compaction in various soil types and under various conditions of use. The compaction characteristics were performed on the basis of bulk density of soil. It was performed on various types of soil, built of various materials, occurring in the vicinity of Płock. The soils are farming land. The greatest sub-stratum compaction was observed in arable lands, built of light loam, silt and loamy sand. The difference in bulk density between the layer at the depth of 25 – 35 cm and the adjacent horizons reaches 0.3 Mg per cubic metre. In soils used for green crops the substratum layer does not show a large difference between the adjacent layers, but the values of bulk density are equal to about 1.6 – 1.8 Mg per cubic metre already near the surface. Higher values of bulk density at the depth of 25 – 35 cm were observed in 68% of soils under investigation.

Parole chiave

  • soil compaction
  • bulk density
  • arable land
  • hay-growing meadows
  • pastures
Accesso libero

Orographic Barrier of the Great Himalayas

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 71 - 74

Astratto

Abstract

The entire geographical literature, starting with school textbooks, presents the Himalayas as a classical model of an impermeable orographic barrier, halting the masses of monsoon air and causing aridity of the Tibetan landscapes. Despite of that, however, the author, during his trips to Western and, particularly, to Central Tibet, organised exactly during the summer monsoon, always found the southern regions of these provinces flooded to a large extent with water. It is also puzzling that catastrophic floods occurring in China (connected with the high water in rivers originating in Tibet) are correlated in time with the period of the summer monsoon in the Himalayas.

Parole chiave

  • geoecology
  • high mountains
  • monsoon
Accesso libero

Wall-Sided Glaciers

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 75 - 80

Astratto

Abstract

In the literature devoted to geomorphology and glaciology not much has been written about wall-sided glaciers, thanks to which high mountains have their specific landscape character. It is also difficult to find in the literature of the subject a classification of the wallsided glacier forms which would take into account the richness and variety of this phenomenon. After many years of experience in almost all highest mountains of Asia, South America and Europe, the authors decided to fill this gap and therefore to provoke a discussion among the geomorphologists.

Parole chiave

  • geoecology
  • high mountains
  • wall-sided glaciers
Accesso libero

Change of Grain Size Parameters of Sediments as a Result of Wind Activity. Barchans Jarangiyn Els in Gobi, Mongolia

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 81 - 91

Astratto

Abstract

Research conducted on the Jarangiyn els field on the Gobi desert in Mongolia took place during the transformation of barchans resulting from the changes in wind direction. The investigation undertaken by the authors had as its goal the evaluation of the changes in the morphology of the forms, extended by the interpretation of the grain size parameters distribution in the longitudinal profiles of the dunes. The results indicate that the processes of barchan transformation are recorded in grain size parameters.

Parole chiave

  • barchans
  • dune transformation
  • grain size parameters
Accesso libero

The Origins of the Plitvice Lakes (Croatia)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 93 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

The question of the origin of the Plitvice Lakes, situated in the Dynarics Mountains, in central Croatia is still unexplained. Not so many place in a literature is dedicated to this issue. It is said that the Plitvice Lakes are of tectonic or karst origin. In the article the complicated origin of the lakes is shown. To define their origin the author proposes the term “tectonic – barriered”. As a result of tectonical movements which occured on the researched area, many tectonic faults were formed. At the bottom of the lakes barriers of sedra – rock of biogenic origin started to grow. The process of sedra creating has been lasting till today and as a result a very complicated, permanently transformed lakes system has formed. At present, below the lowest located lake of the Plitvice Lakes new lakes appear, which demonstrate about existing and growing submarine barriers.

Parole chiave

  • origin
  • Plitvice
  • lakes
  • tectonic
  • barriers
  • sedra
Accesso libero

Climate of the Europe. Past, Present, Future

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 101 - 118

Astratto

Abstract

The advancing warming of Earth climate has largely been influenced by natural causes, i.e. increased Solar activity and decreasing volcanic activity on Earth. It still remains unknown which part of the warming process results from the increased amount of Solar energy reaching Earth surface, and which is being caused by the anthropogenic part of atmosphere’s greenhouse effect. The facts speaking in favour of natural factors include synchronic changes of mean air temperature on the Northern hemisphere between 1856 – 2002, mean consecutive 11-year Wolf numbers, and the location of mass centres of the four biggest planets in our Solar system.

The theory of natural causes of climate warming is also backed by synchronic changes in carbon dioxide concentration and paleotemperature within the last 160,000 years and 450,000 years, recreated based Antarctica ice cores. Warmings occur every 100,000 years. They are triggered by increased Solar radiation in large geographic latitudes resulting from changes in Earth orbit and Earth axis slant (according to the already accepted Milankovic theory).

“Parallelism” of changes in CO2 concentration and paleotemperture shows that the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide is shaped by the amount of Solar radiation reaching Earth – through shifts in ocean waters temperature. It is more credible to claim that “CO2 concentration in atmosphere rises along with the amount of Solar radiation reaching Earth surface (i.e. when it is warmer).”

Parole chiave

  • Solar radiation
  • temperature
  • greenhouse effect
  • spectre
  • volcanic platforms
  • Solar activity
  • planet mass momentum
  • forecast
Accesso libero

Contemporary Warming and Daily Values of Temperature (on the Example of Warsaw)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 119 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

This paper aims at presenting changes in everyday air temperature values, triggered by the contemporary warming process. The analysis has been based on the mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature values measured in Warsaw between 1951 – 2003. The mean daily temperature in that period was between −24.6 and 28.4°C, absolute minimum temperature was −30.7°C, absolute maximum temperature amounted to 36.4°C.

Calculations indicate that the number of days with mean temperature ≤ −5.0°C (minimum < 0.0°C, maximum < 0.0°C) in the last several years decreased. This trend slowed down at the beginning of 21st century, nevertheless, the number of days with mean daily temperature > 20.0°C and maximum temperature > 25.0°C was growing, particularly in the 1990’s and even more so in early 2000’s. Also since 1990’s, there has been increasingly more nights with minimum temperature > 15.0°C, which has been particularly apparent in 2001. Contemporary warming is then marked with an increasing frequency of the hottest days and decreasing frequency of the coldest days. These changes were asymmetrical beyond 1950’s, yet, in late 1990’s they coincided.

Parole chiave

  • contemporary warming
  • mean daily temperature
  • maximum temperature
  • minimum temperature
Accesso libero

The Climatic Background of Agricultural Production in Poland (1951 – 2000)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 127 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

This article presents the results of studies conducted on the variability of thermal and precipitation conditions in Poland in the second half of the 20th century, especially taking into consideration periods which were unfavorable for agricultural production. Averaged spatial temperatures and precipitation totals from consecutive years 1951 to 2000 were used. A significant increase in spring temperatures was noted, while the winters also became warmer. This had a significant effect upon the change of the thermal vegetation period’s duration. No changing trends were noted with regard to the amount of precipitation.The analysis of the seasonal structure during the anomalous years, with regard to temperature and the amount of precipitation, made it possible to pinpoint years particularly unfavorable for agricultural production. There was a certain repeatability of unfavorable conditions, tied to the existence of a relatively stable 8-year cycle of temperature change, which was especially noticeable during the wintertime. During the last two decades of the 20th century, high temperature values, occurring also in the summertime, in combination with insufficient precipitation, contributed to the occurrence of dry spells and even periods of drought. The occurrence of dry spells during the vegetation period and the extreme shortening of the vegetation period have a significant effect upon the amount of grain crop production.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • atmospheric precipitation
  • variability
  • crop production
  • Poland
Accesso libero

Application and Verification of a Water Balance Model With Distributed Parameters (On the Example of Rega River Basin)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 139 - 149

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of the study reported was to apply and verify a model of water balance of spatially distributed parameters in a meso-scale river catchment. The model was applied in the basin of Rega river, with the use of meteorological and hydrological measurement data from the years 1956–1995. In modelling, due account was taken of the land use changes having occurred during the 40-year period considered. The output from modelling was constituted by the raster maps of area evaporation, surface runoff and supply of the underground water resources. On the basis of these results the magnitude of outflow and the structure of water balance were calculated for three river gauge profiles. The deviations of the model-based calculated outflow values from the measured ones were maximally equal +10% for the entire 40-year period and +20% in one of the 5-year sub-periods.

Parole chiave

  • hydrological modeling
  • Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
  • water balance
Accesso libero

The Size of the Basic Unit in Geographical Analysis

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 151 - 160

Astratto

Abstract

In geographical analysis such as mathematical classification and modeling, the study area is divided into a network of basic (quasi-homogenous) units. A technique often used in the delimitation of the basic unit to be analyzed is the division of the study area into a network of uniform geometrical figures (block-centered grid). This article presents two objective methods for dividing the surface area of the study region into a network of basic units. The geometric method makes it possible to determine the optimal size of the basic unit, relative to the surface area being analyzed. This method may be used in analysis conducted on a regional scale, in which case the analysis and the results are characterized by a greater degree of generalization. Geostatistical methods (semivariance analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis) make it possible to determine the size of the cell in the grid of quasi-homogenous units, based on the spatial variation of elements in the natural environment and on the placement of data points. These methods can be recommended for the analysis of small areas (e.g. small drainage areas), when highly detailed data and results are required.

Parole chiave

  • quasi-homogenous units
  • semivariance
  • nearest-neighbor method
Accesso libero

Inferring Changes in Dynamic Groundwater Storage from Recession Curve Analysis of Discharge Data

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 161 - 168

Astratto

Abstract

Groundwater storage is an important element of terrestrial water storage. It influences the baseflow component of the river discharge which constitutes the majority of the outflow of Polish rivers. An evaluation of changes in the dynamic groundwater storage from point measurements of groundwater levels is usually a difficult task as groundwater data are scarce in time and space. Alternative approach involves recession curve analysis of discharge data. This study describes an approach to estimate the long-term changes in dynamic groundwater storage from daily discharges on a basin scale. Recession curve analysis is applied for identification of groundwater system functioning through derivation of master recession curve. The Master Recession Curve Tool developed by Lamb is used for automate analysis. Then results are coupled with a concept of nonlinear reservoir expressing discharge-storage relationship. As a result the volume of the groundwater storage and its temporal changes are derived on a yearly base, as a difference between highest values of storage during spring season and lowest values appearing in late summer or early autumn. The results show high annual variability of dynamic groundwater storage. The approach is presented on the example of lowland basin situated in central Poland, on the Mazovian Lowland (N 52°14’ – N 52°14’ and E 11°10’ – E 11°10’).

Parole chiave

  • baseflow
  • master recession curve
  • dynamic groundwater storage
Accesso libero

Inertia of the Catchment Systems Within the Polish Lowlands

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 169 - 174

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents a method for assessing the hydrological inertia of the river catchment areas using the autocorrelation function. The method presented can be used as the criterion for the determination of the degree of hazard to the river basins from the potential hydrological droughts. The basins with high inertia are less susceptible to the shortages of supply and are less threatened by the occurrence of hydrological droughts.

Parole chiave

  • Hydrological inertia of the catchments
  • hydrological droughts
  • autocorrelation function
Accesso libero

The Role of Lakes in Natural Groundwater Drainage

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 175 - 184

Astratto

Abstract

In the paper it is shown that the lakes of the North-Eastern Poland fulfil various functions in the groundwater phase of the water circulation. The value of the resultant of the groundwater supply to the lake, and in some cases also its direction, depend on the volume of the water undergoing a total exchange in the reservoir in the given year. In through-flow lakes the runoff increase coefficient also influences this value.

Parole chiave

  • lake
  • water balance of a lake
  • groundwater drainage
Accesso libero

The Development of the Utilisation of Water Power in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 185 - 194

Astratto

Abstract

First hydroelectric power stations in Poland were built in 19th century, mostly in the region of Podhale (Carpathian tributaries of the Vistula River) and in the Old Polish Industrial District (for the needs of the iron and steel industry) from the initiative of Stanisław Staszic. They were used in mills and saw mills, for home lighting in settlements, etc. After World War I two medium size hydroelectric power stations were constructed in Pomerania (Gródek and Żar) and the construction of a dam (at that time the largest in Europe) was started in Rożnów on the Dunajec River (50 MW); the hydroelectric power station was opened as late as 1941. A small growth in this field took place in the 1950s and 1960s, and in the late 1960s / early 1970s large hydroelectric power stations were built (Solina, Włocławek, Żydowo). The largest growth occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the two giant peak-load, pumped-storage power stations were put into operation (Porąbka-Żar: 500 MW and Żarnowiec: 680 MW), reaching the total power of 2000 MW. The most recent two large installations are: Czorsztyn-Niedzica (92 MW, 1997) and the modernisation of Solina (200 MW, 2003).

Parole chiave

  • hydro power
  • hydroelectric power stations
  • water power industry
  • water power engineering history of technology
  • Poland
Accesso libero

An Interdisciplinary Study of the Farafra Oasis (Egypt) by a Team from the Institute of Developing Countries at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies of Warsaw University

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 195 - 197

Astratto

Abstract

During January and February 2004, an interdisciplinary group from the Institute of Developing Countries at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies of Warsaw University spent time at the Farafra Oasis in Egypt, observing changes in resource management and transformations in the society. The aim was to compare the results with those of earlier studies conducted in 1993.

Parole chiave

  • Farafra Oasis (Egypt)
  • interdisciplinary studies
  • preliminary notes
Accesso libero

Geopolitical Essence of Central Europe in Writings of Eugeniusz Romer

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 199 - 206

Astratto

Abstract

Eugeniusz Romer maintained that the notion of Central Europe, introduced at the end of the 19th century by German geographers was of a distinct geopolitical character. The thesis that Poland is situated in a transitional zone between the Western and the Eastern Europe denies Poland the right to an independent political existence. Romer’s opinion was that the location of Poland is characterised by its bridge-like situation between the Baltic and the Black Seas. This location determines the geopolitical identity of Poland as well as its rights to independence. Romer’s arguments, supported by cartographic, demographic and ethnographic research became the basis for the determination of the area and the borders of Poland at the peace conference in Paris (1919 – 1920).

Parole chiave

  • geopolitics
  • transitional situation
  • bridge-like situation
  • territorial expansion
  • natural and political borders
Accesso libero

The Significance of Geographic Location for the Success of Territorial Secession. African Example

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 207 - 216

Astratto

Abstract

Political and economic factors always play the main role in the secession of territory. Various aspects of geographic location may however facilitate or hinder secession, as well as the effective functioning of the newly emerged state. For Africa, geographic location in secession may be of greater importance than in the case of other continents. This is caused for the most part by the fact that African states are some of the poorest in the world and are often unable to effectively counteract secession through military means. The lack of well-formed democratic state institutions in turn impedes the peaceful resolution of problems constituting the basis of secessionist tendencies. These are precisely the conditions under which geographic location plays a more critical role.

Parole chiave

  • separatism
  • secession of territory
  • geographic location
Accesso libero

Abortions in Russia Before and After the Fall of the Soviet Union

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 217 - 228

Astratto

Abstract

The initial section of the article elaborates on diverse attitudes towards abortion, and specifies the number of abortions performed before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. The following section presents spatial characteristic of the performed abortions against the largest Russian administrative units. Regional conditioning has been analysed based on the number of abortions per 100 labours and number of abortions among women in labour age (between 15 and 49 years of age). The article also discusses the activity of non-governmental women organisations which aim at providing medical information and participate in the family planning initiatives. Finally, the article presents the rules and conditions of allowing to perform abortion and significant changes in Russian legislation on that issue.

Parole chiave

  • abortion
  • non-governmental women organisations
  • Russia
  • Soviet Union
Accesso libero

Development of the Jewish Urban Settlement in Israel in View of the Theory of the Innovation Diffusion

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 229 - 240

Astratto

Abstract

Presentation of the current state and development tendencies of Jewish urban settlement in Israel against the innovation diffusion theory.

Analysis of the growth tempo of the number of cities in Israel allows to claim that urban Jewish settlement network develops in accordance with the innovation diffusion model.

Assuming that the theory fits the urban settlement development pattern on the surveyed territories, the directions taken by the impulses sent by innovation sources have been determined based on the corridor settlement development theory.

The hypothesis has been verified against the factors influencing spatial development directions of the Jewish urban settlement using a dynamic (synchronic-comparative) diffusion process simulation model, built with the Monte Carlo method.

The conducted analyses and procedures verifying the model distribution of Jewish settlement in Israeli cities in 1948, 1967 and 1992 allowed to conclude that the highest stochastic concordance between the model accounting for the innovation diffusion theory elements, and the real distribution of Jewish settlement cities holds for 1948 and 1967. According to the diffusion innovation theory, these years correspond to the colonisation stage. The model diversifies from reality for late 1967, when network densification process was coming to an end and city competition stage was starting.

Despite statistical validity of the hypotheses, the results show that besides the analysed factors influencing the development of Jewish urban settlement, other variables, not accounted for in the model, are also significantly influential.

Parole chiave

  • Jewish urban settlement
  • theory of innovation diffusion
Accesso libero

The Effect of Changes in Administrative Division on the Economic Position of the Largest Cities in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 241 - 247

Astratto

Abstract

Among the functions fulfilled by cities in relation to their hinterland, an important function is that of public administration. Changes in administrative division, instituted in Poland in 1999, have either weakened or strengthened the economical role of many cities.

A city’s position within the hierarchy of the centers of public administration within a country has, in Poland’s case, a significant effect upon the geographical movements of companies. An attempt was made to preliminarily gauge the effect of administrative changes upon the location of corporate offices. Changes in the distribution of companies providing the selected types of services in the 100 largest Polish cities were taken into account. The relationship between the change in the number of companies in each city and the potential social and economic role of the city in the general sense was examined.

Parole chiave

  • administrative division
  • city
  • economical importance
  • services
Accesso libero

Changes in Poland’s Industry After 1989

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 249 - 261

Astratto

Abstract

This paper has as its goals the presentation and evaluation of the changes in Poland’s industry during the economic transformation. After having listed the main characteristics of the industry in the period before 1989, the author points out the changing role of the industry in the national economy as well as changes in ownership and quantity. An evaluation of the changes in employment in industry, the value and structure of fixed assets, capital expenditures (incl. the role of direct foreign investments) as well as of the dynamics and structure of the industrial production has been made. Processes of restructuring of indusstry and spatial changes in the industry deployment are another topic discussed in the paper.

Parole chiave

  • Poland
  • industry
  • production
  • restructuring
  • investments (foreign investments)
  • fixed assets
Accesso libero

The Development of Tourism in Protected Areas and the Exploitation of the Natural Environment by Local Communities in Africa and Asia

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 263 - 269

Astratto

Abstract

From an economic point of view, protected areas do not bring in high profits, in comparison to other possible ways of land usage. National parks and nature reserves are costly in their creation, as well as in their subsequent upkeep and management. In developing countries, their operation can be the source of many political and economic problems. Usually, local communities neighboring protected areas perceive the existence of a protected zone negatively, although they are often able to avail themselves of park resources in various ways. Besides being given the opportunity to rationally make use of certain park resources, community members may be employed as park attendants, which is a practice that is widespread. A part of the profits obtained from the developing tourist industry may be allocated towards local development programs, e.g. the building of a new hospital or school. Some national parks, while lacking the adequate infrastructure necessary for tourism, grapple with a lack of funds. The lack of earning opportunities in connection with the development of tourism results in the local community’s over-exploitation of park resources. This often manifests itself in an increased incidence of poaching in the protected area.

Parole chiave

  • national park
  • tourism
  • natural environment exploitation
  • local communities
  • Comoé National Park
  • Salonga National Park
  • Amboseli National Park
  • Volcanoes National Park
  • Khao Yai National Park
  • Mgahinga National Park
Accesso libero

Nature and Tourism on Tropical and Subtropical Islands

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 271 - 280

Astratto

Abstract

Tropical and subtropical islands have become an important tourist destination. The islands are concentrated in eight areas of the world. Evaluating the natural tourist potential of these areas, it seems that the most attractive are the islands of Mid and West Indian Ocean and the Polynesia. Yet, these locations are less popular then the theoretically less naturally attractive Caribbean, Mediterranean and East Atlantic islands.

This leads to the conclusion that nature is not the most important decisive factor in choosing tourist destinations, and “tourist paradises” are formed on islands regardless of their natural attributes. Tourists are mainly attracted by the “myth” of a tropical island, and the most important criterion is the distance from home and travel time.

Parole chiave

  • tourism
  • tropical islands
  • nature
Accesso libero

Types of Topographic Map Generalization: The Example of the 1: 50 000 Map

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 281 - 290

Astratto

Abstract

The author first discusses the various ways of classifying cartographic generalization techniques, and then analyzes the course of the generalization process during the creation of a 1:50 000 topographic map on the basis of a 1:10 000 map. Using this analysis as a foundation, the author identifies, discusses and illustrates with examples the five types of cartographic generalization.

Parole chiave

  • topographic map
  • map generalization
Accesso libero

Concept of the New Topographic Map of Poland at the Scale of 1: 50 000

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 291 - 300

Astratto

Abstract

The factual and technical foundations of the concept for the 1:50 000 topographic map published in Poland between 1995 and 2002 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography are discussed in this article. While discussing content and graphic design, the author gives particular attention to the novel way of representing built-up areas.

Parole chiave

  • topographic map
  • Poland
Accesso libero

The Problem of Cartographic Representation in Relation To the Polish Cultural Landscape

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 301 - 310

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of representing the Polish cultural landscape consists of two components. The first component is the choice of content. Wishing to define the breadth of the content of a cultural landscape map, one needs to remember that it is composed of two facets. The first facet, the material result of human activity, is easily discernable in the field and easily illustrated on a map. Elements included in this facet are: sacred and secular historical structures, the spatial layout of cities, archeological sites etc. The second facet of cultural landscape needs to be considered in immaterial terms. It is difficult to illustrate on a map, because its elements do not lend themselves to being topographically situated. One could mention, for example, religions, customs and traditions, a common historical past etc. Most often, one can only indirectly speculate about this facet of the cultural landscape, on the basis of the material characteristics of the cultural landscape.

The second problem related to presenting cultural landscape on a map is the choice of graphic form for the map. The problem is to a large extent tied to difficulties stemming from the necessity of maintaining semantic correctness (the relation between “symbol” and “object”). In practice, during the graphic editing of a map representing the cultural landscape, one should remember to: a) choose a scale suitable for the representation, upon which depend the degree of detail and the generalization of the content; b) correctly depict the variation boundaries, taking into account sharp and fuzzy boundaries; c) make a well-designed symbol key.

Parole chiave

  • landscape
  • cultural landscape
  • cultural heritage
Accesso libero

Development and Function of Maps in the Transmission of Press Information in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 311 - 322

Astratto

Abstract

In view of changing political and economical situation in Poland during the last 150 years, the role and development of press maps in transmission the information is being addressed. Maps published in the newspapers, to a large extent reflected the main topics addressed by the press as well as features of transmission policy of the time. The number of maps published substantially increased during the times of military conflicts and political changes. The press maps, together with the maps addressing criminal and lately common terrorist’s activities, played the most important role among all published maps. Besides providing the information and allowing understanding the background of the events, in some cases the press maps played educational role and in other cases, through the mass media they became accessible to the general public. The early 1990s brought a gradual increase in number of maps published. The political changes in Poland after 1989 resulting in, among others, the introduction of market economy, suppression of censorship and state mass media monopoly, did have significant impact on the development of Polish press and indirectly also on journalistic cartography. Furthermore the use of computers revolutionized the processes of preparing maps.

Parole chiave

  • history of press cartography
  • function of press map
  • censorship
  • infographic
Accesso libero

Geoinformatics – An Integrated Spatial Research Tool

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 323 - 331

Astratto

Abstract

The structure of geoinformatics can be understood in many ways, what can be seen from the more or the less complex schemas published in various articles. Geoinformatics creates new possibilities for the precise analysis of spatial phenomena, such as for following their dynamics or defining the associations existing between their components. The use of remote sensing data in such research, takes to another level those areas of knowledge, in which there nevertheless still is a scarcity of reliable materials. It also enables the current monitoring of those phenomena which can’t be investigated and estimated in any other way, as well as the modeling of spatial (geographical) phenomena. Since 1996, many studies have been performed at the Laboratory of Remote Sensing of the Environment at the University of Warsaw, in which remote sensing data were integrated with data obtained by other means.

Parole chiave

  • geoinformatics
  • remote sensing
  • geography
Accesso libero

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Environmental Research and Water Management

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 333 - 347

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents the content of digital thematic maps: sozological and hydrographic as well as the basic principles of their preparation. It contains selected examples of applications of these maps in the research of natural environment and water management in the Upper Silesia region and its surroundings. This area is one of the most transformed regions due to human economic activity in Europe.

Parole chiave

  • GIS
  • environmental protection
  • water management
  • hydrology
  • thematic maps
Accesso libero

Examples of Object-Oriented Classification Performed on High-Resolution Satellite Images

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 349 - 358

Astratto

Abstract

Information about the types of land cover and its use is obtained by the visual interpretation of the color composite of satellite images or by the use of automatic classification algorithms. For obvious reasons, the automatic classification methods make it possible to obtain information quicker and much faster than the traditional interpretation method.

The commonly used automatic methods of satellite image classification, based on supervised or unsupervised classification algorithms, are the most accurate when used with low resolution images. In the case of images with 1-meter-sized pixels, showing a diversity of land cover forms, it is not possible to obtain satisfactory results.

New classification techniques, based on object-oriented classification algorithms, have been developing for a couple of years now. In contrast to the traditional methods, the new operating procedure does not involve the classification of single pixels, but of entire objects, into which the content of the satellite image is divided. Aside from the spectral values of the pixels, the shape of the objects created by the pixels and the relationships between the objects, are also considered during the analysis. Similar to visual interpretation, variation in the texture of the image can also be taken into account in this case.

The aim of this article is to present the possibility of using high density satellite images in object-oriented classification. The classification presented is that of a high-rise built area in Wrocław and of bridges on the Vistula River in Warsaw.

Parole chiave

  • object-oriented classification
  • land use
  • satellite images
  • eCognition
Accesso libero

The Remote Sensing Method of Forest Fire Danger Rating Categorization

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 359 - 362

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents the use of satellite images in the determination of forest fire danger rating categories. The assessment was carried out based on images from the LANDSAT TM, IKONOS and NOAA satellites, with the finding that the LANDSAT TM images are the most useful. A new solution proposed is to make forest fire danger rating categories refer to forest ranger sub-districts, what gives the forest service greater control over forest fire prevention activities. Forest fire danger assessment was done taking into account remote sensing indices such as the NDVI, TNDVI, and IHT, as well by the analysis of the spatial distribution and the number of fires in the previous six years. In accordance with the Polish State Forest Classification System, three classes were specified: 1 – high fire danger, 2 – moderate fire danger, 3 – low fire danger.

Parole chiave

  • forest fire danger rating classification
  • remote sensing as used in research

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