Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)
Thematic Edizione: Contemporary world political geography - unity in diversity. Guest Editor: Marcin Solarz

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)
Thematic Edizione: “Innovation in geospatial and 3D data” focuses on the newest achievements in the field of Geodata, which are used in Geosciences and for various applications such as urban planning, territorial management, damage assessment, environmental monitoring, 3D city modelling, renewable energy assessment, land registry, heritage documentation.

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)
Thematic Edizione: Re-inventing territorial organization of the local tier: municipal splits in Central and Eastern Europe. Guest Editors: Pawel Swianiewicz, Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)
Thematic Edizione: UTCI application in different spatial and temporal scales. Editors: Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Bożena Kicińska.

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)
Thematic Edizione: History and space: challenges, methods, applications. Editors: Piotr Werner, Izabela Gołębiowska, Izabela Karsznia

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Organisation of Contemporary Urban Space. Towards Planning, Arrangement and Management of Cities. Guest Editors: Mikołaj Madurowicz, Andrzej Lisowski

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Evolution of Cultural Landscapes. Longue duree of local wine landscapes. Guest Editors: Jerzy Makowski, Joanna Miętkiewska-Brynda

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)
Thematic Edizione: Innovations in Peripheral Regions. Guest Editor: Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 4 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)
Thematic Edizione: APEX - new possibilities for airborne remote sensing

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)
Thematic Edizione: The Future of Islands

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)
Thematic issue: Geoinformatics

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)
Thematic Edizione: Integrated Landscape Studies

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 1 (October 2012)

Volume 15 (2011): Edizione 1 (January 2011)

Volume 14 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2008): Edizione 1 (December 2008)

Volume 12 (2006): Edizione 1 (December 2006)

Volume 11 (2004): Edizione 1 (December 2004)

Volume 10 (2002): Edizione 1 (December 2002)

Volume 9 (2000): Edizione 1 (March 2000)

Volume 8 (1998): Edizione 1 (March 1998)

Volume 7 (1996): Edizione 1 (March 1996)

Volume 6 (1994): Edizione 1 (March 1994)

Volume 5 (1992): Edizione 1 (March 1992)

Volume 4 (1990): Edizione 1 (March 1990)

Volume 3 (1988): Edizione 1 (March 1988)

Volume 2 (1986): Edizione 1 (March 1986)

Volume 1 (1984): Edizione 1 (March 1984)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 14 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

34 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Geochemical Landscape Concept and Its Usefulness in Physical Geography

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 5 - 12

Astratto

Abstract

The article describes the theoretical foundations of the “geochemical school” of land-scape studies and analyses its methodology. The scope of its usefulness in contemporary land-scape research, both cognitive (pure) and focused on practice, is discussed.

Parole chiave

  • Polynov
  • landscape geochemistry
  • complex physical geography
  • methodology of geography
Accesso libero

Landscape Representativeness Within the Network of Ecological Corridors Linking Natura 2000 Areas in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 13 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

This paper analyses landscape representativeness within the ecological corridor network linking Natura 2000 areas in Poland. The criteria used to designate the network did not include landscape representativeness. Nevertheless, the selection of areas covered by the network was found to be adequate to preserve landscape diversity in Poland. The selected areas include the most valuable parts of various landscape types.

Parole chiave

  • ecological network
  • landscape representativeness
  • landscape protection
  • ecological corridors
Accesso libero

Selected Methods of Estimating Water Retention Capacity – A Comparative Study With the Pińczów Region As An Example

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 21 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

Protection of areas with high retention capacities is crucial in sustaining the natural balance. This paper compares three methods used to identify such areas. The Pińczów region has been chosen as a tested area. The results obtained for selected groups of geocomplexes have been analysed.

Parole chiave

  • landscape assessment
  • retention
  • Pińczów region
Accesso libero

Temporal Changes of Land Cover in Relation to Chosen Environmental Variables in Different Types of Landscape

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 33 - 45

Astratto

Abstract

Good understanding of relations between historical land cover changes and accompanying environmental components should be a starting point for landscape modelling and forecasting its future patterns. Analysis presented here focuses on the relationships between chosen environmental conditions and agricultural land cover changes in the period of over 150 years. The study area consisted of fragments of Nidziańska Basin and South Pomeranian Lake District macroregions. The land cover data was derived from a number of archival and contemporary topographical maps. Long-term changes of land cover were then related to underlying landscape elements (geological deposits and morphometric landforms). With the help of canonical analysis major correlations were identified and described.

Parole chiave

  • Land cover changes
  • redundancy analysis ()
  • abiotic components
Accesso libero

Cooling and Warming of Climate of the Earth’s Northern Hemisphere (On the Basis of Fluctuations of the Oxygen Isotope Δ18O and Dendrological Data)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 47 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

Content fluctuations of the oxygen isotope δ18O in the Devon Island ice core during the last 100 000 years are a measure of climate fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere. The course of content of the oxygen isotope δ18O and the sums of solar radiation reaching the upper edge of the atmosphere are characterized by approximate minima and maxima (by positive correlation). This proves that, during the last hundred thousand years, climate fluctuations (cooling and warming) in the Northern Hemisphere were conditioned by long-term changes of the orbit and altitude of the Earth’s axis. Climate fluctuation forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere were developed for the next 40 000 years on the basis of the established periods of change of the oxygen isotope δ18O and the known solar radiation periodicity. Climate changes in Europe during the last 25000 years were presented together with a forecast for 1000 years (according to organic substances in deposits and radiation) as well as climate changes in Europe in the period from -500 years BP to 2100 AD (according to δ18O and pine tree-rings). It showed that climate changes depended on the concentration of planet mass in relation to the ecliptic plane (from the gravitational impact of planets on the Sun). Concentration courses of planet mass in the Solar System and climate fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere were compared. Of interest are examples of synchronic fluctuations, i.e. dispersal of planet mass in the Solar System, the widths of pine and spruce tree rings and air temperatures in Europe.

Parole chiave

  • isotope δO
  • Devon Island
  • tree the ring widths
  • solar radiation
  • periods
  • moment of inertia of planets
  • mass momentum of largest planets
  • forecast
Accesso libero

Changes in Thermal Conditions in the High Mountain Areas and Contemporary Warming in the Central Europe

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 59 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of the report is to determine trends in thermal conditions in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains. The results of studies were compared with the results of analogous analyses, carried out for the area of lowland Poland. The study makes use of the data from the weather stations in Zakopane and on Kasprowy Wierch Mt. from the years 1951-2006, mainly from 1966-2006. The thermal conditions in lowland Poland was determined on the basis of the area-averaged time series (45 stations). Various thermal characteristics were considered. The increase of the rate of upward trend in temperature at the turn of the 21st century, as well as the change of the seasonal distribution of the warming in comparison with the preceding long-term periods, have been documented. Symptoms of increase of the thermal continentality have also been observed.

Parole chiave

  • contemporary warming
  • trend
  • Tatra Mountains
  • lowland Poland
Accesso libero

Changes in Storm Frequency in the Mediterranean Sea Region

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 71 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

Storms in the European part of the Mediterranean Sea Basin are characterized in the paper. Data on storm days comes from the years 1986-2008, from fourteen stations located on the coast and on islands of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Valencia, Palma de Majorca, Marseille, Ajaccio – Corsica, Cagliari – Sardinia, Palermo – Sicily, Naples, Luqa – Malta, Thessaloniki, Athens, Souda – Crete, Rhodes Airport – Rhodes and Larnaca – Cyprus). The greatest number of storm days was noted in Corsica (870 - on the average 37,8 per year) and the least in Gibraltar (371 – 16,1). In most of the examined stations storms took place most frequently in the fall (from 19 to 46%). The smallest number of storm days was observed in winter (western and central part of the region) and in summer (eastern part). From a year-to-year analysis of storm days, it was found that their trend, at almost at all the stations, is negative. The strongest negative trend was observed in Valencia, Naples and Cagliari (-8,5 days/10 years). A growing trend, reaching 3 storm days/10 years, was only found in Cyprus.

Parole chiave

  • storms
  • Southern Europe
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • year
  • seasons
  • change trends in time
Accesso libero

Weather Condition Characteristics at the H. Arctowski Station (South Shetlands, Antarctica) for 2006, in Comparison With Multi-Year Research Results

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 79 - 89

Astratto

Abstract

The maritime Antarctic is characterised by highly variable weather conditions throughout the year, as well as over multi-year periods. The annual variability of weather conditions constitutes an important basis for biological and geographical studies, allowing for the monitoring of the functioning and changes of the geographical environment of the west coast of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica). Year-round meteorological observations (1.2006-12.2006) measured: atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, air temperature, relative humidity, total precipitation, snow cover, and Admiralty Bay ice cover.

Parole chiave

  • Antarctica
  • Arctowski Station
  • meteorological condition
  • climate
Accesso libero

Principles of the New Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) and its Application to Bioclimatic Research in European Scale

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 91 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

During the last century about 100 indices were developed to assess influences of the atmosphere on human being. However, most of them have not close relationships with physiological reactions in man. In 1999 International Society of Biometeorology established special study group do develop new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Since 2005 these efforts have been reinforced by the COST Action 730 (Cooperation in Science and Technical Development). In February 2009 the Action was terminated and UTCI was developed.

The new UTCI index represents air temperature of the reference condition with the same physiological response as the actual condition. The index base on Fiala model that is one of the most advanced multi-node thermophysiological models and include the capability to predict both whole body thermal effects (hypothermia and hyperthermia; heat and cold discomfort), and local effects (facial, hands and feet cooling and frostbite). The model consists of two interacting systems: the controlling active system; and the controlled passive system. The assessment scale of UTCI bases on the intensity of objective physiological reactions to environmental heat stress in wide range of weather and climates. The index can be applicable in various research, for example in weather forecasts, bioclimatological assessments, bioclimatic mapping in all scales (from micro to macro), urban design, engineering of outdoor spaces, consultancy for where to live, outdoor recreation and climatotherapy, epidemiology and climate impact research.

The paper presents thermophysiological principles of UTCI as well as some examples of its application to assess bioclimatic differentiation of Europe.

Parole chiave

  • human heat balance
  • UTCI
  • heat stress
  • Europe’s bioclimate
Accesso libero

Bioclimatic Conditions of Paris, Rome and Budapest on the Basis of the Universal Thermal Climate Index

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 103 - 109

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the main features of the bioclimatic conditions of three European cities using a new Universal Thermal Climate Index. Daily values of meteorological variables for 12 UTC for the cities for 1990-2001 were used in the study. Using the frequency of UTCI and one-way Anova, the results showed that in all the three cities “no thermal stress” dominated throughout the year. “Extreme” values of heat as well as “cold stress” were observed but in none of the cities “extreme cold stress” occurred. The values of UTCI differed for all the three cities in each studied year. The cities differed from each other in each month during the whole year with the exception of spring - March and April.

Parole chiave

  • bioclimate
  • UTCI
  • Paris
  • Rome
  • Budapest
Accesso libero

The Role of Terrain Relief, Buildings, and Green Spaces in the Diversification of Lviv’s Local Climate

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 111 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

This paper outlines the results of a study of Lviv’s specific thermal characteristics. The study relied on a series of measurements taken over a 15-month period (from February 2007, through April 2008) at 6 automatic meteorological stations, representing a variety of physiogeographic conditions and land use. The study reveals substantial variations of temperature levels (annual [1-3°C], seasonal [2-4°C], and daily [2-12°C] averages), indicating the presence of an urban heat island. The result of the study is a map of the distribution of average annual air temperatures on the territory of Lviv.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • temperature variation
  • urban heat island
  • vertical temperature gradient
  • temperature distribution map
  • Lviv
Accesso libero

Impact of Build-Up Areas and Housing Estate Vegetation on Diversity of the Local Climate in Warsaw

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 121 - 134

Astratto

Abstract

The more important research results on the impact of building development and vegetation on the local climate, conducted in Warsaw in the years 1959–2009 by the Department of Climatology, are presented. Majority of the issues associated with determining the deformation of air temperature limits (urban heat islands), humidity and wind vector areas, because of buildings in housing estates, located in various parts of the city, were resolved in master’s thesis. Areas with high building density are characterized by slow cooling and warming pace, especially during the summer months. Spatial changes in the urban heat islands in the east-west direction well describe the latitudinal profiles (W-E) of air temperature differences (∆T ≥ 0) between the city and its urban fringe. The urban heat island ∆T does not appears till 5PM, initially in the Central City District. Spatial diversity of effective temperature and catathermal cooling allowed to mark off in housing estates („Stawki”, „Służew nad Dolinką”, „Sady Żoliborskie”) places with perceptible conditions, e.g. heat, warmth, comfort, cold.

Parole chiave

  • Intensity of heat island
  • diurnal changes
  • annual changes
  • air temperature
  • latitudinal profiles
  • town
Accesso libero

Comparison of Air Temperature Characteristics in Forest Communities in Puszcza Borecka and in Open Space

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 135 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

Changes in similarities of five forest communities and of open space taking place during the year were analyzed in the scope of twelve daily and monthly characteristics of air temperature. The density of tree crowns having impact on the level of solar radiation reaching the ground during the day and the level of long term nocturnal emissions is the most important factor shaping thermal conditions in the forest.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • similarities of thermal conditions
  • forest communities
  • Puszcza Borecka (Borecka Primeval Forest)
  • J.H. Ward clustering method
Accesso libero

Regional Conditions for Maximum Probable Discharge in Poland’s Rivers

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 145 - 167

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to obtain and verify the methods of catchment regionalization for annual maximum discharge. An identification of Polish rivers was performed based on regional frequency analyses including recognition of regions homogeneous with respect to their physical properties and river flow parameters. The results suggest a division into two regional groups: mountain and lowland catchments. Statistical tests verify the regionalization obtained and allow to calculate regional probability curves for these two catchment groups. The results obtained may be helpful in the analysis of floods in ungauged catchments and in those where hydrological observations were performed during a short period, especially when the dependence of the maximum probable flows on their physico-geographical features in catchments under analysis has been proved.

Parole chiave

  • annual probable maximum flow
  • regional frequency analysis
  • flood
  • recurrence period
  • catchment typology
Accesso libero

Estimation of the Degree of Extremality of High-Water Flows in Selected Rivers in Poland in 1971–2006

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 169 - 176

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the results of estimation and comparison of risk of extreme floods on rivers of various hydrological regime. The hypothesis that extreme events occur with the same frequency in all rivers was rejected. The limit between extreme and common floods on 30 rivers from different geographical regions of Poland was defined on the basis of standardized flow-duration curve in 1971-2006. These analyses resulted in designing five curve groups. Four measures of flood magnitude have been proposed. The time distribution of extreme events during the last decades was estimated for the most dynamic rivers.

Parole chiave

  • extreme flood
  • threshold values
  • standardized flow-duration curve
  • hydrological regime
Accesso libero

Variability of Spring Riverflow of Selected Lowland Rivers

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 177 - 183

Astratto

Abstract

This paper aims at identification of changes in the spring discharge of six lowland rivers in Poland in 1966-2006. The contribution of the spring flow (February, March, April) in the annual flow was analysed as well as the 0.95 quantile time series of the daily flow. To investigate how the date of the occurrence of the spring riverflow changes, for each hydrological year the day up to which 50% of the annual flow had been reached was determined (CMD, the center of mass data). A test based on linear regression was applied, which determined the direction and rate of the changes. In five rivers, a statistically insignificant tendency to increase the contribution of the spring flow in the annual flow has been observed. A decreasing tendency in the spring discharge of all rivers has been shown; in two cases the changes are statistically significant. The tendencies in the CMD time series are not consistent.

Parole chiave

  • spring flow
  • discharge
  • lowland rivers in Poland
Accesso libero

Basic Parameters of the Thermal Regime of Rivers in the Vistula River Catchment

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 185 - 192

Astratto

Abstract

Seasonal and multi-annual variability of river water temperature has been analysed based on data from 24 gauge stations of the IMGW network. It has been characterised by means of several values of the thermal regime parameters: mean annual, semi-annual (November-April, May-October) and amplitude. The variability of water temperature in the catchment and in the stream network has been estimated. Measurement data included seven stations at the Vistula river. On the background of natural variability, rivers or their segments have been distinguished where water temperature is impacted by anthropopressure.

Parole chiave

  • thermal regime
  • river water temperature
  • Vistula river catchment
Accesso libero

Changes in Morphology of Selected Segments of the Vistula River Bed

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 193 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents a reconstruction and an analysis of the Vistula river bed changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, performed on the basis of topographic maps. The analysis took into account both natural (floods, changes in rock-debris supply) and anthropogenic (e.g., river regulation, construction of water reservoirs) causes, which resulted in significant changes of the morphology of the Vistula river bed. To estimate the river bed changes the author used such parameters as: the length of the banks and changes of their location, the width of the river bed, and the surface of the river bed forms and their share in the river bed surface area.

Parole chiave

  • morphology of the Vistula river bed
  • historical topographic maps
Accesso libero

Restoring the Social Value of Rivers Through Education: the Case of the Vistula River in Warsaw

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 203 - 212

Astratto

Abstract

The article discusses the values of the Vistula River in Poland’s capital city, Warsaw. The author presents the results of studies identifying residents’ perceptions of the river and outlines local community processes that aim to restore the river’s social value, notably through education.

Parole chiave

  • public awareness
  • Vistula River
  • river value
  • perception
  • geography education
Accesso libero

Colluvic Umbrisols As a Result of the Erosion Process of Rolling and Hilly Country in Agricultural Area

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 213 - 219

Astratto

Abstract

Agricultural activity, especially agricultural mechanization, leads to acceleration of erosion in rolling and hilly country. The level of the erosion process, already during territorial observations, may be assessed by the thickness of the humus horizon. In the vicinity of Bytów, the deluvial humus horizons have even achieved thickness of 100 cm. These horizons are also richer in organic matter than humus horizons located on flat-topped mountains and mountain sides. Deluvial horizons are characterized by a somewhat less acid reaction, sometimes even neutral, and somewhat greater dehydration of the sorption complex by alkaline cations.

Parole chiave

  • Colluvic Umbrisols
  • thickness of the humus horizon
  • fractional composition of humus
  • reaction
  • dehydration of the sorption complex by alkaline ions
Accesso libero

Issues of Secondary Succession in the Subalpine Forest Glades of the Carpathian Mountains. (Case Study)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 221 - 227

Astratto

Abstract

Results of research on the process of spontaneous overgrowth of subalpine forest glades in the Gorce National Park are presented in the paper. Research was carried out in 2006-2008. The condition and directions of changes of glades undergoing conservation efforts of different intensity were examined.

Parole chiave

  • secondary succession
  • Carpathian Mountains
  • Gorce National Park
  • subalpine forest glades
  • environmental protection
  • non-forest ecosystems
Accesso libero

Shopping Centres in Warsaw and Bratislava: A Comparative Analysis

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 229 - 239

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to summarise the development of shopping centres and their current locations, types and sizes in Warsaw and Bratislava using a comparative analysis method. Both cities are situated in post-communist countries where the transformation of the retail sector shows many similarities. Before the 1990s, globalisation processes could not be observed in the retail sector in either of these countries. After the 1990s, some new forms of retailing started to appear in both Warsaw and Bratislava. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and modern shopping centres came to existence as a new form of retailing which influenced other traditional forms of retailing in these cities.

Parole chiave

  • shopping centre
  • retailing
  • globalisation
  • Warsaw
  • Bratislava
Accesso libero

Social Capital in Rural Areas in Poland the Case of the Świętokrzyskie Province

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 241 - 253

Astratto

Abstract

The study tackles the issue of the spatial distribution of social capital in Polish rural areas, using the example of the Świętokrzyskie province. R. Putnam’s theory was adopted as to social capital referring to social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. A synthetic indicator of the quality of social capital was developed, which included 4 components: civic and religious engagement, reciprocity, honesty, trust and local press readership. The research was conducted mainly on the basis of unpublished data. Gminas (municipalities) with a high, an average and a low level of social capital were identified. The highest level of social capital was recorded in highly urbanised gminas with a favourable demographic structure. An average level of social capital was characteristic of typical agricultural gminas. A low level of social capital was recorded in areas with well developed industrial functions. The farmers employed at industrial plants in addition to working on their own farms, which was a prevailing practice in the time of the centrally planned economy, had a largely adverse impact on the weakening of bridging capital, and in recent years the population has not been capable to develop bonding capital as yet.

Parole chiave

  • social capital
  • civic engagement
  • religious engagement
  • reciprocity
  • honesty
  • trust
  • local press readership
  • social capital indicator
  • rural areas
  • Poland
  • Świętokrzyskie province
Accesso libero

Changes in the Administrative Hierarchy of Cities and Entrepreneurship in Suburban Areas (The Cases of Kielce and Radom)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 255 - 264

Astratto

Abstract

The systemic transformation of Poland after 1989 led to an acceleration of restructuring processes both in the national economy and in individual regions. The dynamics of changes was exceptionally high in rural areas. The most rapid changes occurred in areas which are situated within the range of the direct influence of bigger cities. This paper strives to compare the changes in entrepreneurship which took place in the suburban areas of Kielce and Radom during the transformation period, before and after the introduction of the administrative reform in Poland.

We sought answers to the following questions:

– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in sub-urban areas in case of two cities of a similar size, of which only Kielce has remained the regional (voivodship) capital?

– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in relation to the distance from the central city?

In order to answer the above questions, the entrepreneurship indicators for agriculture, industry and service sectors were calculated for the analysed areas between 1995 and 2005.

Parole chiave

  • entrepreneurship
  • suburban zone
  • administrative changes
Accesso libero

Residents’ Relationship with the Territory and the Spatial Planning of Residential Housing Developments

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 265 - 272

Astratto

Abstract

Residential housing developments built using the prefabricated method during the 1970s undoubtedly have their very own specificities. There exists a wide variety of opinions of the housing developments themselves, as well as of their social condition. The aim of this article is to identify residents’ relationships with the residential housing development territory and to demonstrate the variety of those relationships as conditioned by various types of spatial planning. Various planning elements were taken in to account: building layout, green spaces, and recreational grounds. Residents’ relationships with the territory are conveyed by individual residents’ evaluations of their residential housing development (housing development evaluation, feelings of belonging) and external manifestations of attachment to the development (local involvement). The described topics are demonstrated using the examples of 4 residential housing developments in Warsaw.

Parole chiave

  • relationship with territory
  • residential housing development
  • spatial planning in residential housing developments
Accesso libero

The Peripheral Housing Estate as a Form of Urban Spatial Development. The Status Quo and Perspectives

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 273 - 281

Astratto

Abstract

Presentation of contemporary trends in development of such residential units as peripheral housing estates in large Polish cities, as exemplified by Warsaw, is the objective of the paper. Such units are compared with their counterparts being built in Berlin.

Research was carried out in three housing estates in the western part of the Bemowo District of Warsaw, i.e. Lazurowa (developer J.W. Construction), Nad Jeziorem (developer DoR Group) and Villa L’Azur (developer Bouygues Immobilier Polska). The first two were completed at the turn of 2008/2009. The third is in the final stage of construction. All three are located inside immediate city borders.

Within framework of research were carried out analysis of developers’ materials, cartographic materials from the City Hall as well as field research. The results were juxtaposed with research made in 2008 in Berlin.

Parole chiave

  • housing estate
  • peripheral housing estate
  • Warsaw
  • spatial planning
  • developers
  • urban spatial development
Accesso libero

Socio-Economic Conditions in Warsaw Districts and the Availability of Extracurricular Activities in Primary Schools

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 283 - 294

Astratto

Abstract

Polish schools achieve their educational aims, as set out in the curriculum, within the framework of obligatory class periods. Extracurricular activities may be organised when schools receive additional funding from local government budgets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the relationship between the socio-economic conditions of individual Warsaw districts and the availability of extracurricular activities in those districts’ primary schools. The analysis carried out during this study disproved the initial assumption that more affluent districts with higher per capita incomes and a higher proportion of expenditures directed towards educational aims would be characterised by a larger offer of extracurricular activities. Rather, what distinguishes districts with the highest availability of extracurricular activities is their peripheral location within the territory of Warsaw. There, schools ensure longer hours of supervision for children and organised the time after class, which offers support to the parents. It is likely that it is the parents who, due to their relatively longer commute between home and work, support the organisation of such activities, not least financially.

Parole chiave

  • Warsaw districts
  • primary schools
  • extracurricular activities
Accesso libero

The Relations Between Man and the Natural Environment as the Methodological Basis for Delimitation of Regions

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 295 - 301

Astratto

Abstract

The concept of regional geography as a science examining the relations between man and the natural environment is presented. Spatial coexistence of natural and socio-economic phenomena is a premise to search for causative relations. Their theoretic fundaments are described by the principle of factors limiting human activity, diversification as the general characteristic of the natural environment having impact on man and his activity, the principle of indirect chain links, changeability of relations in time and their interactions. Among others, correlation and regression analysis, the class differences method and tests of independence are used in research on the concordance of spatial coexistence of characteristics of the natural environment and socio-economic characteristics. The issue of the relations between man and the environment, examined on different scales, is associated with issues of the geographic region. A region may be perceived as an area characterized by a similarity of relations between the natural environment and human activity.

Parole chiave

  • regional geography
  • region
  • delimitation of regions
  • relations between man and the natural environment
Accesso libero

Variety of Economic Share of Tourism on Tropical Islands

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 303 - 314

Astratto

Abstract

The author seeks an answer to the question whether a higher intensity of tourism movement is connected with a higher share of tourism in the economy in selected tropical island territories. With the use of the Spearman correlation coefficient, the existence of the average positive correlation between the intensity of tourism movement and the share of tourism in the economy has been determined. In the second part of paper, the author looks at the conditions which affect the role of tourism in the economy in proportion to the intensity of tourism movement. For this purpose, the Chi-square test and detailed case studies of chosen tropical islands are discussed.

Parole chiave

  • tropical islands
  • economic significance of tourism
  • tourism intensity
Accesso libero

Settlement and Transport Network Diversification and Complexity in Honduras

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 315 - 323

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the article is to examine the level of diversity and complexity of the Honduras settlement and transport networks and to identify processes responsible for the development of such networks. According to the analysis, the networks disproportion is not high in Honduras but it can increase in the future due to the attraction of the core areas, emergence of growth poles, migrations and concentration of international trade. The settlement and transport networks are hierarchised.

Parole chiave

  • settlement network
  • transport network
  • Honduras
  • Landsat ETM+ images interpretation
  • spatial model
  • Zipf’s rule
Accesso libero

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in Central European Education Systems

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 325 - 329

Astratto

Abstract

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme has been introduced in the Central and Eastern European countries since the beginning of the 1990s. Developed in the 1960s by the International Baccalaureate Organisation in Geneva, it became since then an important part of the world educational system. The number of schools authorised by the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) has increased considerably. This paper aims to present the history of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in nine countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia).

Parole chiave

  • International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme
  • geographical education
Accesso libero

Why is the City Maps’ Content of Eastern and Central European Countries So Extensive?

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 331 - 339

Astratto

Abstract

Significant changes in the wealth, variety and level of graphic form of city maps are noticeable in recent years, particularly those from Central and Eastern European countries. This is a consequence of the political and economic transformation, resulting in the abolition of censorship and introduction of the free market. City maps published in Western Europe have evolved as well during the aforementioned period due to higher political and economic stability. The paper compares city maps content of 18 European countries and shows the influence of Soviet cartographic style on city maps image in post-communist countries.

Parole chiave

  • urban cartography
  • city maps’ content
  • political factors
Accesso libero

The Role of Map Legends in the Process of Map Use. Conclusions from An Exploratory Study

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 341 - 348

Astratto

Abstract

Map and geospatial information is an essential tool in many fields of human activities. Although cartographers were extensively involved in cognitive map design research during the second part of the 20th century, the map use process as well as the significance of individual map design elements have not been studied in sufficient depth. The article discusses the results of a controlled experiment. The exploratory study aimed to simulate the execution of some problem-solving tasks based on the information derived from thematic maps with differently designed legends, viz.: list-legend, grouping-legend and natural-legend. On the basis of think-aloud protocols, it has been confirmed that some differences in map reading depend on the legend used.

Parole chiave

  • map legend
  • map use
  • think-aloud method
Accesso libero

Choropleth Map and Diagram Map – About Merging Methods of Cartographic Presentation

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 349 - 361

Astratto

Abstract

Various aspects of merging the chosen presentation methods (choropleth and diagram) on one map are discussed in the article. Attention is focused on the graphic match of both methods, on the character and reference of data presented in this manner. Examples of such matches are shown, from the simplest application to complicated anamorphic presentations.

Parole chiave

  • cartographic presentation methods
  • choropleth map
  • diagram map
34 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Geochemical Landscape Concept and Its Usefulness in Physical Geography

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 5 - 12

Astratto

Abstract

The article describes the theoretical foundations of the “geochemical school” of land-scape studies and analyses its methodology. The scope of its usefulness in contemporary land-scape research, both cognitive (pure) and focused on practice, is discussed.

Parole chiave

  • Polynov
  • landscape geochemistry
  • complex physical geography
  • methodology of geography
Accesso libero

Landscape Representativeness Within the Network of Ecological Corridors Linking Natura 2000 Areas in Poland

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 13 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

This paper analyses landscape representativeness within the ecological corridor network linking Natura 2000 areas in Poland. The criteria used to designate the network did not include landscape representativeness. Nevertheless, the selection of areas covered by the network was found to be adequate to preserve landscape diversity in Poland. The selected areas include the most valuable parts of various landscape types.

Parole chiave

  • ecological network
  • landscape representativeness
  • landscape protection
  • ecological corridors
Accesso libero

Selected Methods of Estimating Water Retention Capacity – A Comparative Study With the Pińczów Region As An Example

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 21 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

Protection of areas with high retention capacities is crucial in sustaining the natural balance. This paper compares three methods used to identify such areas. The Pińczów region has been chosen as a tested area. The results obtained for selected groups of geocomplexes have been analysed.

Parole chiave

  • landscape assessment
  • retention
  • Pińczów region
Accesso libero

Temporal Changes of Land Cover in Relation to Chosen Environmental Variables in Different Types of Landscape

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 33 - 45

Astratto

Abstract

Good understanding of relations between historical land cover changes and accompanying environmental components should be a starting point for landscape modelling and forecasting its future patterns. Analysis presented here focuses on the relationships between chosen environmental conditions and agricultural land cover changes in the period of over 150 years. The study area consisted of fragments of Nidziańska Basin and South Pomeranian Lake District macroregions. The land cover data was derived from a number of archival and contemporary topographical maps. Long-term changes of land cover were then related to underlying landscape elements (geological deposits and morphometric landforms). With the help of canonical analysis major correlations were identified and described.

Parole chiave

  • Land cover changes
  • redundancy analysis ()
  • abiotic components
Accesso libero

Cooling and Warming of Climate of the Earth’s Northern Hemisphere (On the Basis of Fluctuations of the Oxygen Isotope Δ18O and Dendrological Data)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 47 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

Content fluctuations of the oxygen isotope δ18O in the Devon Island ice core during the last 100 000 years are a measure of climate fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere. The course of content of the oxygen isotope δ18O and the sums of solar radiation reaching the upper edge of the atmosphere are characterized by approximate minima and maxima (by positive correlation). This proves that, during the last hundred thousand years, climate fluctuations (cooling and warming) in the Northern Hemisphere were conditioned by long-term changes of the orbit and altitude of the Earth’s axis. Climate fluctuation forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere were developed for the next 40 000 years on the basis of the established periods of change of the oxygen isotope δ18O and the known solar radiation periodicity. Climate changes in Europe during the last 25000 years were presented together with a forecast for 1000 years (according to organic substances in deposits and radiation) as well as climate changes in Europe in the period from -500 years BP to 2100 AD (according to δ18O and pine tree-rings). It showed that climate changes depended on the concentration of planet mass in relation to the ecliptic plane (from the gravitational impact of planets on the Sun). Concentration courses of planet mass in the Solar System and climate fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere were compared. Of interest are examples of synchronic fluctuations, i.e. dispersal of planet mass in the Solar System, the widths of pine and spruce tree rings and air temperatures in Europe.

Parole chiave

  • isotope δO
  • Devon Island
  • tree the ring widths
  • solar radiation
  • periods
  • moment of inertia of planets
  • mass momentum of largest planets
  • forecast
Accesso libero

Changes in Thermal Conditions in the High Mountain Areas and Contemporary Warming in the Central Europe

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 59 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of the report is to determine trends in thermal conditions in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains. The results of studies were compared with the results of analogous analyses, carried out for the area of lowland Poland. The study makes use of the data from the weather stations in Zakopane and on Kasprowy Wierch Mt. from the years 1951-2006, mainly from 1966-2006. The thermal conditions in lowland Poland was determined on the basis of the area-averaged time series (45 stations). Various thermal characteristics were considered. The increase of the rate of upward trend in temperature at the turn of the 21st century, as well as the change of the seasonal distribution of the warming in comparison with the preceding long-term periods, have been documented. Symptoms of increase of the thermal continentality have also been observed.

Parole chiave

  • contemporary warming
  • trend
  • Tatra Mountains
  • lowland Poland
Accesso libero

Changes in Storm Frequency in the Mediterranean Sea Region

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 71 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

Storms in the European part of the Mediterranean Sea Basin are characterized in the paper. Data on storm days comes from the years 1986-2008, from fourteen stations located on the coast and on islands of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Valencia, Palma de Majorca, Marseille, Ajaccio – Corsica, Cagliari – Sardinia, Palermo – Sicily, Naples, Luqa – Malta, Thessaloniki, Athens, Souda – Crete, Rhodes Airport – Rhodes and Larnaca – Cyprus). The greatest number of storm days was noted in Corsica (870 - on the average 37,8 per year) and the least in Gibraltar (371 – 16,1). In most of the examined stations storms took place most frequently in the fall (from 19 to 46%). The smallest number of storm days was observed in winter (western and central part of the region) and in summer (eastern part). From a year-to-year analysis of storm days, it was found that their trend, at almost at all the stations, is negative. The strongest negative trend was observed in Valencia, Naples and Cagliari (-8,5 days/10 years). A growing trend, reaching 3 storm days/10 years, was only found in Cyprus.

Parole chiave

  • storms
  • Southern Europe
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • year
  • seasons
  • change trends in time
Accesso libero

Weather Condition Characteristics at the H. Arctowski Station (South Shetlands, Antarctica) for 2006, in Comparison With Multi-Year Research Results

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 79 - 89

Astratto

Abstract

The maritime Antarctic is characterised by highly variable weather conditions throughout the year, as well as over multi-year periods. The annual variability of weather conditions constitutes an important basis for biological and geographical studies, allowing for the monitoring of the functioning and changes of the geographical environment of the west coast of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica). Year-round meteorological observations (1.2006-12.2006) measured: atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, air temperature, relative humidity, total precipitation, snow cover, and Admiralty Bay ice cover.

Parole chiave

  • Antarctica
  • Arctowski Station
  • meteorological condition
  • climate
Accesso libero

Principles of the New Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) and its Application to Bioclimatic Research in European Scale

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 91 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

During the last century about 100 indices were developed to assess influences of the atmosphere on human being. However, most of them have not close relationships with physiological reactions in man. In 1999 International Society of Biometeorology established special study group do develop new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Since 2005 these efforts have been reinforced by the COST Action 730 (Cooperation in Science and Technical Development). In February 2009 the Action was terminated and UTCI was developed.

The new UTCI index represents air temperature of the reference condition with the same physiological response as the actual condition. The index base on Fiala model that is one of the most advanced multi-node thermophysiological models and include the capability to predict both whole body thermal effects (hypothermia and hyperthermia; heat and cold discomfort), and local effects (facial, hands and feet cooling and frostbite). The model consists of two interacting systems: the controlling active system; and the controlled passive system. The assessment scale of UTCI bases on the intensity of objective physiological reactions to environmental heat stress in wide range of weather and climates. The index can be applicable in various research, for example in weather forecasts, bioclimatological assessments, bioclimatic mapping in all scales (from micro to macro), urban design, engineering of outdoor spaces, consultancy for where to live, outdoor recreation and climatotherapy, epidemiology and climate impact research.

The paper presents thermophysiological principles of UTCI as well as some examples of its application to assess bioclimatic differentiation of Europe.

Parole chiave

  • human heat balance
  • UTCI
  • heat stress
  • Europe’s bioclimate
Accesso libero

Bioclimatic Conditions of Paris, Rome and Budapest on the Basis of the Universal Thermal Climate Index

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 103 - 109

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the main features of the bioclimatic conditions of three European cities using a new Universal Thermal Climate Index. Daily values of meteorological variables for 12 UTC for the cities for 1990-2001 were used in the study. Using the frequency of UTCI and one-way Anova, the results showed that in all the three cities “no thermal stress” dominated throughout the year. “Extreme” values of heat as well as “cold stress” were observed but in none of the cities “extreme cold stress” occurred. The values of UTCI differed for all the three cities in each studied year. The cities differed from each other in each month during the whole year with the exception of spring - March and April.

Parole chiave

  • bioclimate
  • UTCI
  • Paris
  • Rome
  • Budapest
Accesso libero

The Role of Terrain Relief, Buildings, and Green Spaces in the Diversification of Lviv’s Local Climate

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 111 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

This paper outlines the results of a study of Lviv’s specific thermal characteristics. The study relied on a series of measurements taken over a 15-month period (from February 2007, through April 2008) at 6 automatic meteorological stations, representing a variety of physiogeographic conditions and land use. The study reveals substantial variations of temperature levels (annual [1-3°C], seasonal [2-4°C], and daily [2-12°C] averages), indicating the presence of an urban heat island. The result of the study is a map of the distribution of average annual air temperatures on the territory of Lviv.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • temperature variation
  • urban heat island
  • vertical temperature gradient
  • temperature distribution map
  • Lviv
Accesso libero

Impact of Build-Up Areas and Housing Estate Vegetation on Diversity of the Local Climate in Warsaw

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 121 - 134

Astratto

Abstract

The more important research results on the impact of building development and vegetation on the local climate, conducted in Warsaw in the years 1959–2009 by the Department of Climatology, are presented. Majority of the issues associated with determining the deformation of air temperature limits (urban heat islands), humidity and wind vector areas, because of buildings in housing estates, located in various parts of the city, were resolved in master’s thesis. Areas with high building density are characterized by slow cooling and warming pace, especially during the summer months. Spatial changes in the urban heat islands in the east-west direction well describe the latitudinal profiles (W-E) of air temperature differences (∆T ≥ 0) between the city and its urban fringe. The urban heat island ∆T does not appears till 5PM, initially in the Central City District. Spatial diversity of effective temperature and catathermal cooling allowed to mark off in housing estates („Stawki”, „Służew nad Dolinką”, „Sady Żoliborskie”) places with perceptible conditions, e.g. heat, warmth, comfort, cold.

Parole chiave

  • Intensity of heat island
  • diurnal changes
  • annual changes
  • air temperature
  • latitudinal profiles
  • town
Accesso libero

Comparison of Air Temperature Characteristics in Forest Communities in Puszcza Borecka and in Open Space

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 135 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

Changes in similarities of five forest communities and of open space taking place during the year were analyzed in the scope of twelve daily and monthly characteristics of air temperature. The density of tree crowns having impact on the level of solar radiation reaching the ground during the day and the level of long term nocturnal emissions is the most important factor shaping thermal conditions in the forest.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • similarities of thermal conditions
  • forest communities
  • Puszcza Borecka (Borecka Primeval Forest)
  • J.H. Ward clustering method
Accesso libero

Regional Conditions for Maximum Probable Discharge in Poland’s Rivers

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 145 - 167

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to obtain and verify the methods of catchment regionalization for annual maximum discharge. An identification of Polish rivers was performed based on regional frequency analyses including recognition of regions homogeneous with respect to their physical properties and river flow parameters. The results suggest a division into two regional groups: mountain and lowland catchments. Statistical tests verify the regionalization obtained and allow to calculate regional probability curves for these two catchment groups. The results obtained may be helpful in the analysis of floods in ungauged catchments and in those where hydrological observations were performed during a short period, especially when the dependence of the maximum probable flows on their physico-geographical features in catchments under analysis has been proved.

Parole chiave

  • annual probable maximum flow
  • regional frequency analysis
  • flood
  • recurrence period
  • catchment typology
Accesso libero

Estimation of the Degree of Extremality of High-Water Flows in Selected Rivers in Poland in 1971–2006

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 169 - 176

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the results of estimation and comparison of risk of extreme floods on rivers of various hydrological regime. The hypothesis that extreme events occur with the same frequency in all rivers was rejected. The limit between extreme and common floods on 30 rivers from different geographical regions of Poland was defined on the basis of standardized flow-duration curve in 1971-2006. These analyses resulted in designing five curve groups. Four measures of flood magnitude have been proposed. The time distribution of extreme events during the last decades was estimated for the most dynamic rivers.

Parole chiave

  • extreme flood
  • threshold values
  • standardized flow-duration curve
  • hydrological regime
Accesso libero

Variability of Spring Riverflow of Selected Lowland Rivers

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 177 - 183

Astratto

Abstract

This paper aims at identification of changes in the spring discharge of six lowland rivers in Poland in 1966-2006. The contribution of the spring flow (February, March, April) in the annual flow was analysed as well as the 0.95 quantile time series of the daily flow. To investigate how the date of the occurrence of the spring riverflow changes, for each hydrological year the day up to which 50% of the annual flow had been reached was determined (CMD, the center of mass data). A test based on linear regression was applied, which determined the direction and rate of the changes. In five rivers, a statistically insignificant tendency to increase the contribution of the spring flow in the annual flow has been observed. A decreasing tendency in the spring discharge of all rivers has been shown; in two cases the changes are statistically significant. The tendencies in the CMD time series are not consistent.

Parole chiave

  • spring flow
  • discharge
  • lowland rivers in Poland
Accesso libero

Basic Parameters of the Thermal Regime of Rivers in the Vistula River Catchment

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 185 - 192

Astratto

Abstract

Seasonal and multi-annual variability of river water temperature has been analysed based on data from 24 gauge stations of the IMGW network. It has been characterised by means of several values of the thermal regime parameters: mean annual, semi-annual (November-April, May-October) and amplitude. The variability of water temperature in the catchment and in the stream network has been estimated. Measurement data included seven stations at the Vistula river. On the background of natural variability, rivers or their segments have been distinguished where water temperature is impacted by anthropopressure.

Parole chiave

  • thermal regime
  • river water temperature
  • Vistula river catchment
Accesso libero

Changes in Morphology of Selected Segments of the Vistula River Bed

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 193 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents a reconstruction and an analysis of the Vistula river bed changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, performed on the basis of topographic maps. The analysis took into account both natural (floods, changes in rock-debris supply) and anthropogenic (e.g., river regulation, construction of water reservoirs) causes, which resulted in significant changes of the morphology of the Vistula river bed. To estimate the river bed changes the author used such parameters as: the length of the banks and changes of their location, the width of the river bed, and the surface of the river bed forms and their share in the river bed surface area.

Parole chiave

  • morphology of the Vistula river bed
  • historical topographic maps
Accesso libero

Restoring the Social Value of Rivers Through Education: the Case of the Vistula River in Warsaw

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 203 - 212

Astratto

Abstract

The article discusses the values of the Vistula River in Poland’s capital city, Warsaw. The author presents the results of studies identifying residents’ perceptions of the river and outlines local community processes that aim to restore the river’s social value, notably through education.

Parole chiave

  • public awareness
  • Vistula River
  • river value
  • perception
  • geography education
Accesso libero

Colluvic Umbrisols As a Result of the Erosion Process of Rolling and Hilly Country in Agricultural Area

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 213 - 219

Astratto

Abstract

Agricultural activity, especially agricultural mechanization, leads to acceleration of erosion in rolling and hilly country. The level of the erosion process, already during territorial observations, may be assessed by the thickness of the humus horizon. In the vicinity of Bytów, the deluvial humus horizons have even achieved thickness of 100 cm. These horizons are also richer in organic matter than humus horizons located on flat-topped mountains and mountain sides. Deluvial horizons are characterized by a somewhat less acid reaction, sometimes even neutral, and somewhat greater dehydration of the sorption complex by alkaline cations.

Parole chiave

  • Colluvic Umbrisols
  • thickness of the humus horizon
  • fractional composition of humus
  • reaction
  • dehydration of the sorption complex by alkaline ions
Accesso libero

Issues of Secondary Succession in the Subalpine Forest Glades of the Carpathian Mountains. (Case Study)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 221 - 227

Astratto

Abstract

Results of research on the process of spontaneous overgrowth of subalpine forest glades in the Gorce National Park are presented in the paper. Research was carried out in 2006-2008. The condition and directions of changes of glades undergoing conservation efforts of different intensity were examined.

Parole chiave

  • secondary succession
  • Carpathian Mountains
  • Gorce National Park
  • subalpine forest glades
  • environmental protection
  • non-forest ecosystems
Accesso libero

Shopping Centres in Warsaw and Bratislava: A Comparative Analysis

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 229 - 239

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to summarise the development of shopping centres and their current locations, types and sizes in Warsaw and Bratislava using a comparative analysis method. Both cities are situated in post-communist countries where the transformation of the retail sector shows many similarities. Before the 1990s, globalisation processes could not be observed in the retail sector in either of these countries. After the 1990s, some new forms of retailing started to appear in both Warsaw and Bratislava. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and modern shopping centres came to existence as a new form of retailing which influenced other traditional forms of retailing in these cities.

Parole chiave

  • shopping centre
  • retailing
  • globalisation
  • Warsaw
  • Bratislava
Accesso libero

Social Capital in Rural Areas in Poland the Case of the Świętokrzyskie Province

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 241 - 253

Astratto

Abstract

The study tackles the issue of the spatial distribution of social capital in Polish rural areas, using the example of the Świętokrzyskie province. R. Putnam’s theory was adopted as to social capital referring to social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. A synthetic indicator of the quality of social capital was developed, which included 4 components: civic and religious engagement, reciprocity, honesty, trust and local press readership. The research was conducted mainly on the basis of unpublished data. Gminas (municipalities) with a high, an average and a low level of social capital were identified. The highest level of social capital was recorded in highly urbanised gminas with a favourable demographic structure. An average level of social capital was characteristic of typical agricultural gminas. A low level of social capital was recorded in areas with well developed industrial functions. The farmers employed at industrial plants in addition to working on their own farms, which was a prevailing practice in the time of the centrally planned economy, had a largely adverse impact on the weakening of bridging capital, and in recent years the population has not been capable to develop bonding capital as yet.

Parole chiave

  • social capital
  • civic engagement
  • religious engagement
  • reciprocity
  • honesty
  • trust
  • local press readership
  • social capital indicator
  • rural areas
  • Poland
  • Świętokrzyskie province
Accesso libero

Changes in the Administrative Hierarchy of Cities and Entrepreneurship in Suburban Areas (The Cases of Kielce and Radom)

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 255 - 264

Astratto

Abstract

The systemic transformation of Poland after 1989 led to an acceleration of restructuring processes both in the national economy and in individual regions. The dynamics of changes was exceptionally high in rural areas. The most rapid changes occurred in areas which are situated within the range of the direct influence of bigger cities. This paper strives to compare the changes in entrepreneurship which took place in the suburban areas of Kielce and Radom during the transformation period, before and after the introduction of the administrative reform in Poland.

We sought answers to the following questions:

– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in sub-urban areas in case of two cities of a similar size, of which only Kielce has remained the regional (voivodship) capital?

– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in relation to the distance from the central city?

In order to answer the above questions, the entrepreneurship indicators for agriculture, industry and service sectors were calculated for the analysed areas between 1995 and 2005.

Parole chiave

  • entrepreneurship
  • suburban zone
  • administrative changes
Accesso libero

Residents’ Relationship with the Territory and the Spatial Planning of Residential Housing Developments

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 265 - 272

Astratto

Abstract

Residential housing developments built using the prefabricated method during the 1970s undoubtedly have their very own specificities. There exists a wide variety of opinions of the housing developments themselves, as well as of their social condition. The aim of this article is to identify residents’ relationships with the residential housing development territory and to demonstrate the variety of those relationships as conditioned by various types of spatial planning. Various planning elements were taken in to account: building layout, green spaces, and recreational grounds. Residents’ relationships with the territory are conveyed by individual residents’ evaluations of their residential housing development (housing development evaluation, feelings of belonging) and external manifestations of attachment to the development (local involvement). The described topics are demonstrated using the examples of 4 residential housing developments in Warsaw.

Parole chiave

  • relationship with territory
  • residential housing development
  • spatial planning in residential housing developments
Accesso libero

The Peripheral Housing Estate as a Form of Urban Spatial Development. The Status Quo and Perspectives

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 273 - 281

Astratto

Abstract

Presentation of contemporary trends in development of such residential units as peripheral housing estates in large Polish cities, as exemplified by Warsaw, is the objective of the paper. Such units are compared with their counterparts being built in Berlin.

Research was carried out in three housing estates in the western part of the Bemowo District of Warsaw, i.e. Lazurowa (developer J.W. Construction), Nad Jeziorem (developer DoR Group) and Villa L’Azur (developer Bouygues Immobilier Polska). The first two were completed at the turn of 2008/2009. The third is in the final stage of construction. All three are located inside immediate city borders.

Within framework of research were carried out analysis of developers’ materials, cartographic materials from the City Hall as well as field research. The results were juxtaposed with research made in 2008 in Berlin.

Parole chiave

  • housing estate
  • peripheral housing estate
  • Warsaw
  • spatial planning
  • developers
  • urban spatial development
Accesso libero

Socio-Economic Conditions in Warsaw Districts and the Availability of Extracurricular Activities in Primary Schools

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 283 - 294

Astratto

Abstract

Polish schools achieve their educational aims, as set out in the curriculum, within the framework of obligatory class periods. Extracurricular activities may be organised when schools receive additional funding from local government budgets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the relationship between the socio-economic conditions of individual Warsaw districts and the availability of extracurricular activities in those districts’ primary schools. The analysis carried out during this study disproved the initial assumption that more affluent districts with higher per capita incomes and a higher proportion of expenditures directed towards educational aims would be characterised by a larger offer of extracurricular activities. Rather, what distinguishes districts with the highest availability of extracurricular activities is their peripheral location within the territory of Warsaw. There, schools ensure longer hours of supervision for children and organised the time after class, which offers support to the parents. It is likely that it is the parents who, due to their relatively longer commute between home and work, support the organisation of such activities, not least financially.

Parole chiave

  • Warsaw districts
  • primary schools
  • extracurricular activities
Accesso libero

The Relations Between Man and the Natural Environment as the Methodological Basis for Delimitation of Regions

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 295 - 301

Astratto

Abstract

The concept of regional geography as a science examining the relations between man and the natural environment is presented. Spatial coexistence of natural and socio-economic phenomena is a premise to search for causative relations. Their theoretic fundaments are described by the principle of factors limiting human activity, diversification as the general characteristic of the natural environment having impact on man and his activity, the principle of indirect chain links, changeability of relations in time and their interactions. Among others, correlation and regression analysis, the class differences method and tests of independence are used in research on the concordance of spatial coexistence of characteristics of the natural environment and socio-economic characteristics. The issue of the relations between man and the environment, examined on different scales, is associated with issues of the geographic region. A region may be perceived as an area characterized by a similarity of relations between the natural environment and human activity.

Parole chiave

  • regional geography
  • region
  • delimitation of regions
  • relations between man and the natural environment
Accesso libero

Variety of Economic Share of Tourism on Tropical Islands

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 303 - 314

Astratto

Abstract

The author seeks an answer to the question whether a higher intensity of tourism movement is connected with a higher share of tourism in the economy in selected tropical island territories. With the use of the Spearman correlation coefficient, the existence of the average positive correlation between the intensity of tourism movement and the share of tourism in the economy has been determined. In the second part of paper, the author looks at the conditions which affect the role of tourism in the economy in proportion to the intensity of tourism movement. For this purpose, the Chi-square test and detailed case studies of chosen tropical islands are discussed.

Parole chiave

  • tropical islands
  • economic significance of tourism
  • tourism intensity
Accesso libero

Settlement and Transport Network Diversification and Complexity in Honduras

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 315 - 323

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the article is to examine the level of diversity and complexity of the Honduras settlement and transport networks and to identify processes responsible for the development of such networks. According to the analysis, the networks disproportion is not high in Honduras but it can increase in the future due to the attraction of the core areas, emergence of growth poles, migrations and concentration of international trade. The settlement and transport networks are hierarchised.

Parole chiave

  • settlement network
  • transport network
  • Honduras
  • Landsat ETM+ images interpretation
  • spatial model
  • Zipf’s rule
Accesso libero

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in Central European Education Systems

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 325 - 329

Astratto

Abstract

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme has been introduced in the Central and Eastern European countries since the beginning of the 1990s. Developed in the 1960s by the International Baccalaureate Organisation in Geneva, it became since then an important part of the world educational system. The number of schools authorised by the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) has increased considerably. This paper aims to present the history of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in nine countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia).

Parole chiave

  • International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme
  • geographical education
Accesso libero

Why is the City Maps’ Content of Eastern and Central European Countries So Extensive?

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 331 - 339

Astratto

Abstract

Significant changes in the wealth, variety and level of graphic form of city maps are noticeable in recent years, particularly those from Central and Eastern European countries. This is a consequence of the political and economic transformation, resulting in the abolition of censorship and introduction of the free market. City maps published in Western Europe have evolved as well during the aforementioned period due to higher political and economic stability. The paper compares city maps content of 18 European countries and shows the influence of Soviet cartographic style on city maps image in post-communist countries.

Parole chiave

  • urban cartography
  • city maps’ content
  • political factors
Accesso libero

The Role of Map Legends in the Process of Map Use. Conclusions from An Exploratory Study

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 341 - 348

Astratto

Abstract

Map and geospatial information is an essential tool in many fields of human activities. Although cartographers were extensively involved in cognitive map design research during the second part of the 20th century, the map use process as well as the significance of individual map design elements have not been studied in sufficient depth. The article discusses the results of a controlled experiment. The exploratory study aimed to simulate the execution of some problem-solving tasks based on the information derived from thematic maps with differently designed legends, viz.: list-legend, grouping-legend and natural-legend. On the basis of think-aloud protocols, it has been confirmed that some differences in map reading depend on the legend used.

Parole chiave

  • map legend
  • map use
  • think-aloud method
Accesso libero

Choropleth Map and Diagram Map – About Merging Methods of Cartographic Presentation

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2018
Pagine: 349 - 361

Astratto

Abstract

Various aspects of merging the chosen presentation methods (choropleth and diagram) on one map are discussed in the article. Attention is focused on the graphic match of both methods, on the character and reference of data presented in this manner. Examples of such matches are shown, from the simplest application to complicated anamorphic presentations.

Parole chiave

  • cartographic presentation methods
  • choropleth map
  • diagram map

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo