Rivista e Edizione

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Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)
Thematic Edizione: Contemporary world political geography - unity in diversity. Guest Editor: Marcin Solarz

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)
Thematic Edizione: “Innovation in geospatial and 3D data” focuses on the newest achievements in the field of Geodata, which are used in Geosciences and for various applications such as urban planning, territorial management, damage assessment, environmental monitoring, 3D city modelling, renewable energy assessment, land registry, heritage documentation.

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)
Thematic Edizione: Re-inventing territorial organization of the local tier: municipal splits in Central and Eastern Europe. Guest Editors: Pawel Swianiewicz, Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)
Thematic Edizione: UTCI application in different spatial and temporal scales. Editors: Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Bożena Kicińska.

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)
Thematic Edizione: History and space: challenges, methods, applications. Editors: Piotr Werner, Izabela Gołębiowska, Izabela Karsznia

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Organisation of Contemporary Urban Space. Towards Planning, Arrangement and Management of Cities. Guest Editors: Mikołaj Madurowicz, Andrzej Lisowski

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Evolution of Cultural Landscapes. Longue duree of local wine landscapes. Guest Editors: Jerzy Makowski, Joanna Miętkiewska-Brynda

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)
Thematic Edizione: Innovations in Peripheral Regions. Guest Editor: Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 4 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)
Thematic Edizione: APEX - new possibilities for airborne remote sensing

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)
Thematic Edizione: The Future of Islands

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)
Thematic issue: Geoinformatics

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)
Thematic Edizione: Integrated Landscape Studies

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 1 (October 2012)

Volume 15 (2011): Edizione 1 (January 2011)

Volume 14 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2008): Edizione 1 (December 2008)

Volume 12 (2006): Edizione 1 (December 2006)

Volume 11 (2004): Edizione 1 (December 2004)

Volume 10 (2002): Edizione 1 (December 2002)

Volume 9 (2000): Edizione 1 (March 2000)

Volume 8 (1998): Edizione 1 (March 1998)

Volume 7 (1996): Edizione 1 (March 1996)

Volume 6 (1994): Edizione 1 (March 1994)

Volume 5 (1992): Edizione 1 (March 1992)

Volume 4 (1990): Edizione 1 (March 1990)

Volume 3 (1988): Edizione 1 (March 1988)

Volume 2 (1986): Edizione 1 (March 1986)

Volume 1 (1984): Edizione 1 (March 1984)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)
Thematic Edizione: APEX - new possibilities for airborne remote sensing

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Data acquisition with the APEX hyperspectral sensor

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 5 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

APEX (Airborne Prism EXperiment) is a high spectral and spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of the European Space Agency. Since the acceptance of the instrument in 2010, it has been operated jointly by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium) and the Remote Sensing Laboratories (RSL, Zurich, Switzerland). During this period, several flight campaigns have been performed across Europe, gathering over 4 Terabytes of raw data. Following radiometric, geometric and atmospheric processing, this data has been provided to a multitude of Belgian and European researchers, institutes and agencies, including the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) and the Belgian Science Policy Office (BelSPO). The applications of APEX data span a wide range of research topics, e.g. landcover mapping (mountainous, coastal, countryside and urban regions), the assessment of important structural and (bio)physical characteristics of vegetative and non-vegetative species, the tracing of atmospheric gases, and water content analysis (chlorophyll, suspended matter). Recurrent instrument calibration, accurate flight planning and preparation, and experienced pilots and instrument operators are crucial to successful data acquisition campaigns. In this paper, we highlight in detail these practical aspects of a typical APEX data acquisition campaign.

Parole chiave

  • Hyperspectral
  • data acquisition
  • airborne
  • APEX
  • mission planning
Accesso libero

Geometric correction of APEX hyperspectral data

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 11 - 15

Astratto

Abstract

Hyperspectral imagery originating from airborne sensors is nowadays widely used for the detailed characterization of land surface. The correct mapping of the pixel positions to ground locations largely contributes to the success of the applications. Accurate geometric correction, also referred to as “orthorectification”, is thus an important prerequisite which must be performed prior to using airborne imagery for evaluations like change detection, or mapping or overlaying the imagery with existing data sets or maps. A so-called “ortho-image” provides an accurate representation of the earth’s surface, having been adjusted for lens distortions, camera tilt and topographic relief. In this paper, we describe the different steps in the geometric correction process of APEX hyperspectral data, as applied in the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC) at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium). APEX ortho-images are generated through direct georeferencing of the raw images, thereby making use of sensor interior and exterior orientation data, boresight calibration data and elevation data. They can be referenced to any userspecified output projection system and can be resampled to any output pixel size.

Parole chiave

  • Hyperspectral
  • APEX
  • Geometric correction
  • Airborne
  • Georeferencing
  • Boresight calibration
Accesso libero

Atmospheric correction of APEX hyperspectral data

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 16 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

Atmospheric correction plays a crucial role among the processing steps applied to remotely sensed hyperspectral data. Atmospheric correction comprises a group of procedures needed to remove atmospheric effects from observed spectra, i.e. the transformation from at-sensor radiances to at-surface radiances or reflectances. In this paper we present the different steps in the atmospheric correction process for APEX hyperspectral data as applied by the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC) at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium). The MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission program (MODTRAN) is used to determine the source of radiation and for applying the actual atmospheric correction. As part of the overall correction process, supporting algorithms are provided in order to derive MODTRAN configuration parameters and to account for specific effects, e.g. correction for adjacency effects, haze and shadow correction, and topographic BRDF correction. The methods and theory underlying these corrections and an example of an application are presented.

Parole chiave

  • Hyperspectral
  • atmospheric correction
  • automatic workflow
  • reflectance
  • APEX
  • MODTRAN
Accesso libero

The application of APEX images in the assessment of the state of non-forest vegetation in the Karkonosze Mountains

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 21 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Information about vegetation condition is needed for the effective management of natural resources and the estimation of the effectiveness of nature conservation. The aim of the study was to analyse the condition of non-forest mountain communities: synanthropic communities and natural grasslands. UNESCO’s M&B Karkonosze Transboundary Biosphere Reserve was selected as the research area. The analysis was based on 40 field test polygons and APEX hyperspectral images. The field measurements allowed the collection of biophysical parameters - Leaf Area Index (LAI), fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR) and chlorophyll content - which were correlated with vegetation indices calculated using the APEX images. Correlations were observed between the vegetation indices (general condition, plant structure) and total area of leaves (LAI), as well as fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR). The outcomes show that the non-forest communities in the Karkonosze are in good condition, with the synanthropic communities characterised by better condition compared to the natural communities.

Parole chiave

  • Mountain meadows
  • vegetation condition
  • APEX
  • hyperspectal remote sensing
  • vegetation indices
  • biophysical parameters
Accesso libero

Forest species mapping using airborne hyperspectral APEX data

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 28 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

The accurate mapping of forest species is a very important task in relation to the increasing need to better understand the role of the forest ecosystem within environmental dynamics. The objective of this paper is the investigation of the potential of a multi-temporal hyperspectral dataset for the production of a thematic map of the dominant species in the Forêt de Hardt (France). Hyperspectral data were collected in June and September 2013 using the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) sensor, covering the visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral regions with a spatial resolution of 3 m by 3 m. The map was realized by means of a maximum likelihood supervised classification. The classification was first performed separately on images from June and September and then on the two images together. Class discrimination was performed using as input 3 spectral indices computed as ratios between red edge bands and a blue band for each image. The map was validated using a testing set selected on the basis of a random stratified sampling scheme. Results showed that the algorithm performances improved from an overall accuracy of 59.5% and 48% (for the June and September images, respectively) to an overall accuracy of 74.4%, with the producer’s accuracy ranging from 60% to 86% and user’s accuracy ranging from 61% to 90%, when both images (June and September) were combined. This study demonstrates that the use of multi-temporal high-resolution images acquired in two different vegetation development stages (i.e., 17 June 2013 and 4 September 2013) allows accurate (overall accuracy 74.4%) local-scale thematic products to be obtained in an operational way.

Parole chiave

  • Vegetation map
  • Hyperspectral
  • Aerial
  • Supervised classification
  • Multi-temporal dataset
  • Forest ecosystem
Accesso libero

Assessment of Imaging Spectroscopy for rock identification in the Karkonosze Mountains, Poland

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 34 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

Based on laboratory, field and airborne-acquired hyperspectral data, this paper aims to analyse the dominant minerals and rocks found in the Polish Karkonosze Mountains. Laboratory spectral characteristics were measured with the ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer and images were obtained from VITO’s Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) scanner. The terrain is covered mainly by lichens or vascular plants creating significant difficulties for rock identification. However, hyperspectral airborne imagery allowed for subpixel classifications of different types of granites, hornfels and mica schist within the research area. The hyperspectral data enabled geological mapping of bare ground that had been masked out using three advanced algorithms: Spectral Angle Mapper, Linear Spectral Unmixing and Matched Filtering. Though all three methods produced positive results, the Matched Filtering method proved to be the most effective. The result of this study was a set of maps and post classification statistical data of rock distribution in the area, one for each method of classification.

Parole chiave

  • Rock identification
  • Imaging Spectroscopy
  • APEX hyperspectral airborne imagery data
  • Spectral Angle Mapper
  • Linear Spectral Unmixing
  • Matched Filtering
Accesso libero

Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with the use of APEX hyperspectral airborne imagery: Karpacz area, Poland – a case study

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 41 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

Asbestos and asbestos containing products are harmful to human health, and therefore its use has been legally forbidden in the EU. Since there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland, the objective of this study was to map asbestos-cement roofing with the use of hyperspectral APEX data (288 bands at the spatial resolution of 2.7 m) in the Karpacz area (southwest Poland). A field survey constituted the basis for training and verification polygons in the classification process. A SAM classification method was performed with the following classification results: 62% producer’s accuracy, 73% user’s accuracy and an overall accuracy of 95%. The asbestos-cement roofing for buildings may be discriminated with a high classification accuracy with the use of hyperspectral imagery. The vast majority of the classified buildings were characterised by their small area (i.e. residential type buildings), which reduced the overall accuracy of the classification.

Parole chiave

  • Asbestos
  • asbestos containing products
  • SAM classification
  • APEX data
  • asbestos removal process
  • Poland
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Data acquisition with the APEX hyperspectral sensor

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 5 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

APEX (Airborne Prism EXperiment) is a high spectral and spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of the European Space Agency. Since the acceptance of the instrument in 2010, it has been operated jointly by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium) and the Remote Sensing Laboratories (RSL, Zurich, Switzerland). During this period, several flight campaigns have been performed across Europe, gathering over 4 Terabytes of raw data. Following radiometric, geometric and atmospheric processing, this data has been provided to a multitude of Belgian and European researchers, institutes and agencies, including the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) and the Belgian Science Policy Office (BelSPO). The applications of APEX data span a wide range of research topics, e.g. landcover mapping (mountainous, coastal, countryside and urban regions), the assessment of important structural and (bio)physical characteristics of vegetative and non-vegetative species, the tracing of atmospheric gases, and water content analysis (chlorophyll, suspended matter). Recurrent instrument calibration, accurate flight planning and preparation, and experienced pilots and instrument operators are crucial to successful data acquisition campaigns. In this paper, we highlight in detail these practical aspects of a typical APEX data acquisition campaign.

Parole chiave

  • Hyperspectral
  • data acquisition
  • airborne
  • APEX
  • mission planning
Accesso libero

Geometric correction of APEX hyperspectral data

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 11 - 15

Astratto

Abstract

Hyperspectral imagery originating from airborne sensors is nowadays widely used for the detailed characterization of land surface. The correct mapping of the pixel positions to ground locations largely contributes to the success of the applications. Accurate geometric correction, also referred to as “orthorectification”, is thus an important prerequisite which must be performed prior to using airborne imagery for evaluations like change detection, or mapping or overlaying the imagery with existing data sets or maps. A so-called “ortho-image” provides an accurate representation of the earth’s surface, having been adjusted for lens distortions, camera tilt and topographic relief. In this paper, we describe the different steps in the geometric correction process of APEX hyperspectral data, as applied in the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC) at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium). APEX ortho-images are generated through direct georeferencing of the raw images, thereby making use of sensor interior and exterior orientation data, boresight calibration data and elevation data. They can be referenced to any userspecified output projection system and can be resampled to any output pixel size.

Parole chiave

  • Hyperspectral
  • APEX
  • Geometric correction
  • Airborne
  • Georeferencing
  • Boresight calibration
Accesso libero

Atmospheric correction of APEX hyperspectral data

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 16 - 20

Astratto

Abstract

Atmospheric correction plays a crucial role among the processing steps applied to remotely sensed hyperspectral data. Atmospheric correction comprises a group of procedures needed to remove atmospheric effects from observed spectra, i.e. the transformation from at-sensor radiances to at-surface radiances or reflectances. In this paper we present the different steps in the atmospheric correction process for APEX hyperspectral data as applied by the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC) at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium). The MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission program (MODTRAN) is used to determine the source of radiation and for applying the actual atmospheric correction. As part of the overall correction process, supporting algorithms are provided in order to derive MODTRAN configuration parameters and to account for specific effects, e.g. correction for adjacency effects, haze and shadow correction, and topographic BRDF correction. The methods and theory underlying these corrections and an example of an application are presented.

Parole chiave

  • Hyperspectral
  • atmospheric correction
  • automatic workflow
  • reflectance
  • APEX
  • MODTRAN
Accesso libero

The application of APEX images in the assessment of the state of non-forest vegetation in the Karkonosze Mountains

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 21 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Information about vegetation condition is needed for the effective management of natural resources and the estimation of the effectiveness of nature conservation. The aim of the study was to analyse the condition of non-forest mountain communities: synanthropic communities and natural grasslands. UNESCO’s M&B Karkonosze Transboundary Biosphere Reserve was selected as the research area. The analysis was based on 40 field test polygons and APEX hyperspectral images. The field measurements allowed the collection of biophysical parameters - Leaf Area Index (LAI), fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR) and chlorophyll content - which were correlated with vegetation indices calculated using the APEX images. Correlations were observed between the vegetation indices (general condition, plant structure) and total area of leaves (LAI), as well as fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR). The outcomes show that the non-forest communities in the Karkonosze are in good condition, with the synanthropic communities characterised by better condition compared to the natural communities.

Parole chiave

  • Mountain meadows
  • vegetation condition
  • APEX
  • hyperspectal remote sensing
  • vegetation indices
  • biophysical parameters
Accesso libero

Forest species mapping using airborne hyperspectral APEX data

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 28 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

The accurate mapping of forest species is a very important task in relation to the increasing need to better understand the role of the forest ecosystem within environmental dynamics. The objective of this paper is the investigation of the potential of a multi-temporal hyperspectral dataset for the production of a thematic map of the dominant species in the Forêt de Hardt (France). Hyperspectral data were collected in June and September 2013 using the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) sensor, covering the visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral regions with a spatial resolution of 3 m by 3 m. The map was realized by means of a maximum likelihood supervised classification. The classification was first performed separately on images from June and September and then on the two images together. Class discrimination was performed using as input 3 spectral indices computed as ratios between red edge bands and a blue band for each image. The map was validated using a testing set selected on the basis of a random stratified sampling scheme. Results showed that the algorithm performances improved from an overall accuracy of 59.5% and 48% (for the June and September images, respectively) to an overall accuracy of 74.4%, with the producer’s accuracy ranging from 60% to 86% and user’s accuracy ranging from 61% to 90%, when both images (June and September) were combined. This study demonstrates that the use of multi-temporal high-resolution images acquired in two different vegetation development stages (i.e., 17 June 2013 and 4 September 2013) allows accurate (overall accuracy 74.4%) local-scale thematic products to be obtained in an operational way.

Parole chiave

  • Vegetation map
  • Hyperspectral
  • Aerial
  • Supervised classification
  • Multi-temporal dataset
  • Forest ecosystem
Accesso libero

Assessment of Imaging Spectroscopy for rock identification in the Karkonosze Mountains, Poland

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 34 - 40

Astratto

Abstract

Based on laboratory, field and airborne-acquired hyperspectral data, this paper aims to analyse the dominant minerals and rocks found in the Polish Karkonosze Mountains. Laboratory spectral characteristics were measured with the ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer and images were obtained from VITO’s Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) scanner. The terrain is covered mainly by lichens or vascular plants creating significant difficulties for rock identification. However, hyperspectral airborne imagery allowed for subpixel classifications of different types of granites, hornfels and mica schist within the research area. The hyperspectral data enabled geological mapping of bare ground that had been masked out using three advanced algorithms: Spectral Angle Mapper, Linear Spectral Unmixing and Matched Filtering. Though all three methods produced positive results, the Matched Filtering method proved to be the most effective. The result of this study was a set of maps and post classification statistical data of rock distribution in the area, one for each method of classification.

Parole chiave

  • Rock identification
  • Imaging Spectroscopy
  • APEX hyperspectral airborne imagery data
  • Spectral Angle Mapper
  • Linear Spectral Unmixing
  • Matched Filtering
Accesso libero

Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with the use of APEX hyperspectral airborne imagery: Karpacz area, Poland – a case study

Pubblicato online: 20 Apr 2016
Pagine: 41 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

Asbestos and asbestos containing products are harmful to human health, and therefore its use has been legally forbidden in the EU. Since there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland, the objective of this study was to map asbestos-cement roofing with the use of hyperspectral APEX data (288 bands at the spatial resolution of 2.7 m) in the Karpacz area (southwest Poland). A field survey constituted the basis for training and verification polygons in the classification process. A SAM classification method was performed with the following classification results: 62% producer’s accuracy, 73% user’s accuracy and an overall accuracy of 95%. The asbestos-cement roofing for buildings may be discriminated with a high classification accuracy with the use of hyperspectral imagery. The vast majority of the classified buildings were characterised by their small area (i.e. residential type buildings), which reduced the overall accuracy of the classification.

Parole chiave

  • Asbestos
  • asbestos containing products
  • SAM classification
  • APEX data
  • asbestos removal process
  • Poland

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