Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)
Thematic Edizione: Contemporary world political geography - unity in diversity. Guest Editor: Marcin Solarz

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 26 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)
Thematic Edizione: “Innovation in geospatial and 3D data” focuses on the newest achievements in the field of Geodata, which are used in Geosciences and for various applications such as urban planning, territorial management, damage assessment, environmental monitoring, 3D city modelling, renewable energy assessment, land registry, heritage documentation.

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 25 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)
Thematic Edizione: Re-inventing territorial organization of the local tier: municipal splits in Central and Eastern Europe. Guest Editors: Pawel Swianiewicz, Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)
Thematic Edizione: UTCI application in different spatial and temporal scales. Editors: Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Bożena Kicińska.

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 24 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)
Thematic Edizione: History and space: challenges, methods, applications. Editors: Piotr Werner, Izabela Gołębiowska, Izabela Karsznia

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 23 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Organisation of Contemporary Urban Space. Towards Planning, Arrangement and Management of Cities. Guest Editors: Mikołaj Madurowicz, Andrzej Lisowski

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 3 (September 2018)

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)
Thematic Edizione: Evolution of Cultural Landscapes. Longue duree of local wine landscapes. Guest Editors: Jerzy Makowski, Joanna Miętkiewska-Brynda

Volume 22 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 3 (September 2017)

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)
Thematic Edizione: Innovations in Peripheral Regions. Guest Editor: Katarzyna Szmigiel-Rawska

Volume 21 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 4 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 3 (September 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 20 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)
Thematic Edizione: APEX - new possibilities for airborne remote sensing

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)
Thematic Edizione: The Future of Islands

Volume 19 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)
Thematic issue: Geoinformatics

Volume 18 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)
Thematic Edizione: Integrated Landscape Studies

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 17 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 16 (2012): Edizione 1 (October 2012)

Volume 15 (2011): Edizione 1 (January 2011)

Volume 14 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2008): Edizione 1 (December 2008)

Volume 12 (2006): Edizione 1 (December 2006)

Volume 11 (2004): Edizione 1 (December 2004)

Volume 10 (2002): Edizione 1 (December 2002)

Volume 9 (2000): Edizione 1 (March 2000)

Volume 8 (1998): Edizione 1 (March 1998)

Volume 7 (1996): Edizione 1 (March 1996)

Volume 6 (1994): Edizione 1 (March 1994)

Volume 5 (1992): Edizione 1 (March 1992)

Volume 4 (1990): Edizione 1 (March 1990)

Volume 3 (1988): Edizione 1 (March 1988)

Volume 2 (1986): Edizione 1 (March 1986)

Volume 1 (1984): Edizione 1 (March 1984)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 12 (2006): Edizione 1 (December 2006)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-6118
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1984
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

38 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Models of Landscape Units – Utopia or Necessity?

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is devoted to typology as the basic method of landscape research. The first part shows the cognitive, educational and practical roles of landscape typology models. Second part presents a new method of creating a universal model, independent of the charting scale. The results of the paper confirm the feasibility of creating a reference base of Earth’s landscapes and indicate the necessity to an international discussion on this topic.

Parole chiave

  • Landscape typology
  • methodology of geography
  • landscape reference base
access type Accesso libero

Ladakh and Zanskar

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 13 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

The Himalayan mountain chain is orographically fragmented, both in the east-west and in the north-south directions. The latter area is characterised by a greater landscape diversity, owing to its zonality and the vertical zonation of both climate and vegetation.

In terms of tectonics and orography, and taking into account the prevalent influence of the monsoon and continental climates, the Himalayan mountain system can be divided into two parts – the external arc (southern), that is the Higher (or Great) Himalayas and the internal arc (northern), that is the so-called Trans-Himalayas.

Similarly to the external arc of the Himalayas, the post-glacial relief in the Trans-Himalayas is marginal only. It is an area with a prevalence of denudation (nival, frost, gravitation and eolian) processes. Slopes of tectonic valleys or basins, covered with colourful surface deposits rising as high as even two thirds of their altitude, dominate the landscape.

The Zanskar ridges and the Ladakh range represent a transitional zone between the Trans-himalayas and Eastern Karakoram.

Parole chiave

  • geography
  • Himalayas
  • Zanskar
  • Ladakh
access type Accesso libero

Soil-Geochemical Aspects of Land Use in Abandoned Land in Central Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 25 - 30

Astratto

Abstract

It is observed increasing of abandoned land in Poland in last decade of 20th century.The part of abandoned land is usually covered by birch tree community. The entrance of birches, especially on pure sandy area, changes properties of soil. The samples of soil horizons, litter in different stages of decomposition and leaves from birch trees, were taken into analysis. The role of birch was analysed also in comparison to arable land, abandoned land without trees and different ages birch trees communities. After the entrance birch trees soil profiles were enriched in nitrogen and elements such as aluminium, iron, cadmium, lead, cobalt, zinc, which were moved from soil or come from atmospheric load and were accumulated in litter or humus horizon. Compared to arable land, some elements (for example calcium) had lower concentration under birch trees. After several years without fertilization the relationship between elements were changed. In early stages (until 10 years) in litter horizons potassium prevails calcium, later – calcium prevails potassium. Birch trees made soil environment more natural compared to arable land.

Parole chiave

  • abandoned land
  • birch
  • pine
  • plant and soil relationship
access type Accesso libero

Warming and Cooling of The Earth’s Climate and Their Causes

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 31 - 41

Astratto

Abstract

The progressing warming of the Earth’s climate is mainly caused by natural factors, that is, the increasing solar activity and the decreasing volcanic activity on the Earth. The aspects which testify to the predominance of natural factors include: synchronous changes in the average air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere in the years 1856-2002, the average consecutive 11-year Wolf numbers and the location of the mass centres of the four largest planets.

Natural causes of the climate warming are corroborated by the synchronicity of changes in the carbon dioxide concentration and paleotemperature in the last 450,000 years, revealed on the basis of an analysis of the ice core in Antarctica. Periods of climate warming occur every 100,000 years and are caused by an increased solar radiation in high latitudes, resulting from changes in the Earth’s orbit and the inclination of the Earth axis (according to the popular Milankovič theory).

Parole chiave

  • solar radiation
  • temperature
  • greenhouse effect
  • spectrum
  • solar activity
  • mass moments of planets
access type Accesso libero

Cyclic Temperature and Precipitation Fluctuations in Poland in the 19th-21st Centuries

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 43 - 53

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the work is to determine the periodicity and trends of change in air temperature and precipitation in Poland in the time period of the 18th-20th centuries, together with the forecast for the 21st century. There are interesting diagrams of the temporal changes of solar activity and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicator, with the forecast reaching the year 2100. The forecasts were obtained on the basis of interpretations of the Wolf number and NAO indicator cycles, determined with the method of “regression sinusoids”. The fluctuations of the air temperature and precipitations during winter in Warsaw and in Cracow are closely correlated.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • precipitations
  • NAO
  • spectra
  • periods
  • tendency
  • solar activity
  • forecast
access type Accesso libero

Pressure Field Over Europe and North Atlantic Favourable for The Occurrence of Clear and Cloudy Days in Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 55 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper, results of research concerning circulation conditions favouring the occurrence of clear and cloudy days in Poland are presented. An analysis of the mean pressure field over North Atlantic and Europe on such days was performed, differences between the mean pressure on such days and the mean pressure from all the days of the period 1966-2000 were determined. The pressure field was characterised by mean daily values taken from grid nodes from the area with φ 30°–70°N and λ 40°W–60°E (NCEP/NCAR database). The relation between the amount of cloudiness over Poland and pressure was estimated by means of linear correlation coefficient.

Parole chiave

  • clear and cloudy days
  • Poland
  • pressure field
  • Europe and North Atlantic
access type Accesso libero

Dangerous Weather Phenomena in Europe in The Year 2000 and their Dependence on Circulation

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 67 - 73

Astratto

Abstract

In the paper the influence of atmospheric circulation on selected dangerous weather phenomena in Europe in the year 2000 has been presented. Dangerous weather phenomena include: 30 days with thunderstorms in Poland and 26 examples of such phenomena in Europe (tornados, strong winds, thunderstorms, torrential rains, floods, etc.).

The NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation) served to determine the character of the circulation that influenced the occurrence of catastrophic phenomena in Western, Central and Southern Europe. The J. Lityński classification of circulation types was used to thunderstorms occurring in Poland only. Most catastrophic phenomena during the positive NAO phase (predominance of zonal circulation) happened in Western and Central Europe. During the negative NAO phase (predominance of meridional circulation) the regions of the Mediterranean Basin were more frequently affected. In the case of thunderstorms in Poland in the year under investigation (2000) their occurrence was related to the inflow of air masses from the northern sector.

Parole chiave

  • dangerous weather phenomena
  • thunderstorms
  • Europe
  • Poland
  • North Atlantic Oscillation NAO
  • Lityński types of atmospheric circulation
access type Accesso libero

The Influence of The North Atlantic Oscillations (NAO) on The Climate of Warsaw and Lviv

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 75 - 80

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the work is to determine the periodicity and trends of change in air temperature in Warsaw and in Lviv during the 18th-20th centuries, together with the forecast for the years 2000-2100. There are interesting diagrams of temporal changes of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicator and air temperature, with the forecast reaching the year 2100. The forecasts were obtained on the basis of interpretations of the Sun activity and the NAO indicator cycles, determined with the method of “regression sinusoids”. The fluctuations of air temperature and North Atlantic Oscillation during winter in Warsaw and in Lviv are closely correlated.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • NAO
  • spectrum
  • periods
  • tendencies
  • Wolf number
  • forecast
access type Accesso libero

Dependence of Air Quality Conditions in Cities in North-Western Poland on the Direction of Air Inflow

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 81 - 86

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the dependence of air pollution with sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on wind direction in Szczecin, Łeba, Elbląg and Zielona Góra in the period 1993-1999. It has been shown that the most disadvantageous air quality conditions in the cities listed above are on the days with air inflow from south-east, and the most advantageous on the days with advection from north-west. This dependence is particularly evident in the case of pollution with sulphur dioxide, especially in the cold half-year.

Parole chiave

  • North-western Poland
  • air pollution
  • sulphur dioxide
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • wind direction
access type Accesso libero

Changes of The Thermic Seasons in Warsaw in The Period 1933–2004

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 87 - 94

Astratto

Abstract

The beginning dates and the lengths of thermic seasons in Warsaw (1951-2004) were analysed. These characteristics of seasons are very variable, especially in winter. The changes of winter length influence strongly the dates and length of adjacent seasons, that is, of early winter and early spring. The current warming is best visible exactly during these seasons: winter becomes shorter, while early winter and – to an even longer degree – early spring become longer. The period of spring, summer and autumn is characterised by grater stability. These seasons showed a very weak tendency to change on even its lack, both as regards the length and the beginning date.

Parole chiave

  • thermic seasons
  • winter
  • early spring
  • spring
  • summer
  • autumn
  • early winters
  • current warming
access type Accesso libero

The Sedimentation Processes in Włocławek Reservoir

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 95 - 101

Astratto

Abstract

The study discusses accumulation and erosion processes which occurred in the bowl of Włocławek Reservoir in the period 1971-1992, and were analysed using digital batimetric maps. It also provides the results of the work of other authors concerning the assessment of the river sediments accumulated in the reservoir.

Analysis of digital batimetric maps has shown that the material deposited in Włocławek Reservoir in the years 1971-1992 totalled about 18.3 million m3, which corresponds to approximately 0.87 million m3 of sediments per annum, and means a 4.5% loss of the reservoir’s storage capacity. The volume of accumulation and erosion, assessed in this manner, approximates the earlier calculations performed using different research methods; it corroborates the fact that accumulation prevails in the balance of the sediments.

Parole chiave

  • GIS techniques
  • sedimentation
  • dam reservoir
  • the Vistula River
  • Włocławek Reservoir
access type Accesso libero

The Role of Morphogenetic and Anthropogenic Processes in The Development of Gullies and Methods of Their Prevention (On The Example of The Vicinity of Kazimierz Dolny)

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 103 - 110

Astratto

Abstract

The vicinity of Kazimierz Dolny is characterised by the occurrence of large denivelations and thick loess covers. Due to that, as well as to the characteristic properties of loess and frequent occurrences of torrential rains, the region is marked by numerous dissections by valleys. Not without importance is agriculture, whose intensification brought about the creation of new relief forms. Gully erosion is a serious threat for the inhabitants of the region; on the other hand, it is impossible to eliminate it. For that reason it is necessary to use modern anti-erosion measures.

Parole chiave

  • denivelations
  • thick loess covers
  • valley
  • downflow
  • suffosion
  • torrential rains
  • silting
  • anti-erosion measures
access type Accesso libero

Variability of Textural Characteristics of Sandur Deposits of Fláajökull and Falljökull (SE Iceland)

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 111 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

Studies conducted on the sandurs of Fláajökull and Falljökull aimed at the reconstruction of the dynamics of braided rivers based on the grain size parameters of deposits. The goal of the project was to estimate the degree of deposit transformation and of changes of grain size characteristics as related to the length of transport in contemporary sandur rivers.

Parole chiave

  • sandur
  • coarse clastic sediments
  • grain size parameters
  • Iceland
access type Accesso libero

Methods of Examining The Nature-Man Relationship in Warsaw Regional Geography

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 119 - 123

Astratto

Abstract

Several methods applied in the Department of Regional Geography of Warsaw University in research on the relationship between the natural environment and man were presented: chi-squared test, class diversification method, correlation methods, regression analysis. Their merits and limitations were described. The usefulness for research of different aspects of the nature-man relationship was discussed. New possibilities of applying thus obtained results (e.g. for delimitation of regions of the nature-man relationship) were identified.

Parole chiave

  • relationship research methods
  • man–nature relationships
  • regions of the nature- man relationships
access type Accesso libero

Possibilities of Balancing of Anthropogenic Changes of Relief and Water Conditions in The Tatra Mountains

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 125 - 130

Astratto

Abstract

During its entire utilisation history – lasting several hundred years – the area of the Tatra Mountains underwent multidirectional anthropopressure. As the result, all components of their natural environment have been transformed, including relief and water conditions.The analysis of the literature on this topic conducted by the author, as well as his observations performed in the area, confirmed the assumption that transformations caused by human actions developed with varying intensity and admitted various forms depending on the area of action and the magnitude of means applied.

The transformation scale presented here estimates the influence of anthropopressure on the stability of the catchment area systems of larger Tatra streams, partial catchment areas of their confluents and selected slope surfaces.

In systems, where the limits of persistence were not exceeded, stability was ensured by natural processes compensating for the consequences of anthropopressure. In systems where stability was disturbed, planned preventive measures are necessary.

Parole chiave

  • anthropopressure
  • relief
  • water conditions
  • Tatra Mountains
  • natural system
  • catchment area
  • system stability
access type Accesso libero

City Parks in Europe

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 131 - 140

Astratto

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to present European parks form the point of view of their natural environment and ecological functions which they fulfill in the city. Parks situated in valley landscapes have been used as the object of study, since these types of parks predominate in Europe. These are: Hyde Park in London, Clara Zetkin Park in Leipzig, Tiergarten in Berlin and Łazienki in Warsaw.

Parole chiave

  • city park
  • ecological functions
  • Łazienki Park
  • Hyde Park
  • Clara Zetkin Park
  • Tiergarten
  • valley
access type Accesso libero

The Natural Environment and Changes in Population Distribution

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 141 - 146

Astratto

Abstract

A search for interrelations between natural conditions and changes in population distribution may be a significant subject of regional geography research. It is especially promising to explore this issue as exemplified by France, where we have specific statistical data from censuses carried out in administrative units which have remained unchanged for years. The paper discusses methods of searching for such interrelations on the basis of chosen examples.

Parole chiave

  • population distribution
  • area denivelation
  • France
access type Accesso libero

Desertification: On Significance of The Term and Research of The Phenomenon

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 147 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

First elaborations on desertification come from the Renaissance, but the term was used for the first time by Aubréville in 1949. In later years, many significantly varying in meaning definitions were elaborated.

In later periods, researchers’ attention concentrated on different areas. At the turn of the XIXth century, interest was mainly focused on Asia, later on the peripheries of the Sahara, in recent years on desertification in post-soviet Central Asia, China and Mongolia.

Parole chiave

  • desertification
  • definitions
  • regional analysis
access type Accesso libero

Natural and Cultural Landscapes of Equatorial Africa

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 155 - 163

Astratto

Abstract

This paper attempts to characterise various cultural landscapes in the area of Equatorial Africa. To achieve this, the contents of various thematic maps and satellite photos representing: areas covered with forests (mostly secondary forests), nature reserves, areas of extensive and intensive agriculture and urban-industrial areas were overlaid with the contents of map of potential vegetation (which represent, to use a simplification, the natural, primeval landscape). The method applied allowed for distinguishing five types of cultural landscape that correspond to five levels of transformation of the primeval landscape.

The resulting map shows a mosaic-like structure of landscapes. This structure changes constantly. The surface area of regions with a certain landscape type increases or decreases, or else the regions change their locations. A detailed analysis of socio-economic processes (and the related changes in the natural environment) can constitute a basis for a prediction of cultural landscape transformation. It is the author’s opinion that such prediction could be applied in various planning projects.

Parole chiave

  • natural landscape
  • cultural landscape
  • transformation
  • prediction
access type Accesso libero

Social and Occupational Changes in Small Towns in The Swiętokrzyskie Voivodship During the Transformation of the Political System

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 165 - 173

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present social and occupational changes in small towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship in regard to their accessibility to communication with larger towns in the examined area. Because of the availability of statistic data for the analysis, the time period from 1995 to 2004 was selected.

Answers to the following question were looked for in the paper:

– is there an interdependence between the directions of the occurring social and occupational changes (a change in the number of inhabitants, changes in internal migrations, changes in the employment structure) in small towns of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship and their accessibility to communication with larger towns (exceeding five thousand inhabitants) in the examined area.

A network of towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, in the form in which it functions since 1999 is examined.

Parole chiave

  • small towns
  • social and occupational transformation
  • accessibility of transport to large and medium size towns
access type Accesso libero

Development and Distribution of Private Microfirms in Mid-Size Polish Towns During the Transformation Period

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 175 - 184

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.

Parole chiave

  • microfirms
  • mid-size towns
  • economic transformation
  • ownership and size structure of economic entities
access type Accesso libero

Depopulation of the Russian far East. Magadan Oblast: A Case Study

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 185 - 196

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents spatial differentiation and causes of depopulation processes that began in Magadan Oblast in the Russian Far East after the fall of the Soviet Union. In the region under investigation, depopulation is very intensive. The analysis of changes in population in the lower-lever administrative units allows for showing the differences in spatial distribution of depopulation in individual regions [“rayons”]. During the research surveys, allowing for a fuller understanding of the conditions and the process of depopulation, were conducted.

Parole chiave

  • depopulation
  • population
  • migrations
  • Russia
  • Far East
access type Accesso libero

Types of Demographic Evolution in The Microstates

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 197 - 203

Astratto

Abstract

In the twentieth century, changes in the population number of microstates were very diversified. It is possible, however, to observe similarities in population changes. On the basis of the following two criteria a typology of population changes was developed, i.e. the population growth rate and the variability coefficient of the population growth rate. Five types of population changes were singled out: from countries with a very small population growth and a small variability coefficient to those characterised by very large values of both of the discussed criteria.

Parole chiave

  • demography
  • microstate
  • population
access type Accesso libero

Western European Retail Chains in The Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia – Similarities and Differences

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 205 - 214

Astratto

Abstract

The paper deals with an analysis the growing presence of international retail enterprises in the Central European countries of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. Results of the research show that there are differences between the Polish market and the remaining two. The differences are in the scale of investments, the investors’ geographic origin, the number of stores within the network of the so called modern distribution channels (hyper- and supermarkets and discount stores). The diversity of location strategies used by Western European retail enterprises in the Central European markets is also shown, beginning with the methods of entering new markets (organic growth, acquisition of existing chains, franchising) and ending on the degree of concentration of retail stores in the largest cities of the three countries.

Parole chiave

  • retail chains
  • Central Europe
  • internationalization
  • foreign direct investments (FDI)
access type Accesso libero

Warsaw Metropolitan Area in an International Relations Network

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 215 - 223

Astratto

Abstract

International relations of the Warsaw Metropolitan Area are presented in the paper. International relations, their extent (number and range), character and intensity reflect on the degree to which the metropolitan area (the central city and the remaining component units) has been included into an economic and socio-political relations network. Research was carried out, taking advantage of a broad base of available information sources, general economic, cultural, scientific, transport, tourist relations as well as cooperation of international self-government units1.

Parole chiave

  • metropolitan area
  • Warsaw
  • international relations
  • economy
  • culture
  • self-government
access type Accesso libero

Trends of Economic Development of Warsaw and their Spatial Implications

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 225 - 231

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents trends of change in Warsaw’s economic structure and their influence upon the formation of the city’s functional and spatial structure. Using the latest data on the employment structure and kinds of economic entities and their distribution, an attempt has also been made to determine the degree of absorption of the city economy by pro-development activities. On the basis of experiences of other European cities activity types indicating the existence of development trends in the city economy (pro-development activities) were chosen. Next, changes in the number of economic entities in these areas in 1988-2004 were analyzed. Research on the distribution of economic entities in Warsaw is based upon data from the REGON register.

Parole chiave

  • Warsaw
  • economic development
  • economic structure
  • distribution of economic entities
access type Accesso libero

Transformation of Rural Communities in Las Huastecas Region in Mexico. Preliminary Field Research Report.

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 233 - 242

Astratto

Abstract

The article contains preliminary report of field study conducted in February 2006 in Las Huastecas Region in Mexico by members of the Department of Regional Studies on Latin America at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies of Warsaw University. The aim of the research was to determine changes in socio-economic patterns of Las Huastecas rural areas, as well as to grasp the way local inhabitants perceived them. Open and semi-structured interviews were held with local authorities and inhabitants, in many cases with the same persons that were interviewed during the previous research trip in 2001. Conclusions deal with such aspects of Las Huastecas reality, as further improvement in social and technical infrastructure, intensification of diversification of revenues including short and medium temporal migration to big cities in northern parts of Mexico as well as seasonal migration of rural labor to agribusiness sector. Some limited new initiatives related to small scale tourism, preservation of cultural heritage and aquaculture were also observed. The local inhabitants perceived their actual situation as more difficult than 5 years ago, but we have impression that many of social actors have been more active during this period.

Parole chiave

  • local development
  • economic behavior of rural inhabitants
  • perception of changes
  • Las Huastecas
  • Mexico rural areas
access type Accesso libero

On The Evolution of Tropical Islands Economies in Modern Times

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 243 - 250

Astratto

Abstract

Over several centuries the characteristic features of the economies of tropical islands were similar and unchanged. On almost all islands, independently of their genetic type, farming and fishing predominated, sprinkled with inter-island trade. With the European expansion, economies of the islands underwent transformations. The development of transportation and communication contributed to the increased accessibility of islands and to their inclusion into world economy. This phenomenon progressed particularly fast in the second half of the 20th century, when already independent island states often searched for capital necessary for their sovereign existence. Numerous unconventional solutions were proposed, but it was tourism that achieved the greatest triumphs, gradually beginning to dominate in the economy of islands of almost all types.

Parole chiave

  • Tropical islands
  • economy
  • tourism
  • economic transformation
  • Oceania
access type Accesso libero

Perspectives of Development of Ecotourism in West Africa – Examples from Niger, Mali and The Ivory Coast

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 251 - 259

Astratto

Abstract

Ecotourism, understood as a form of leisure conforming with the principles of environmental protection and promoting its natural and cultural values, is dynamically developing in almost all parts of the world. Properly carried out, ecotourism projects may be an essential instrument of regional development. Problems of ecotourism development in four areas of West Africa, i.e. the Comoé National Park (Ivory Coast), the Dogon Country (Mali), the northern Dallol Boss Region and Kouré (Niger), and the Äir and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Niger) are discussed in the article.

A common characteristic of the chosen areas are their significant natural and cultural values and the occurrence of tourist activeness allowing to qualify them as ecotouristic sites. The analysis of both external and internal success factors in ecotourism leads to the conclusion that, in the discussed regions, ecotourism development is a positive phenomenon. It should, however, be accompanied by continuous supervision of environmental conditions and ecological education of the local population.

Parole chiave

  • West Africa
  • ecotourism
access type Accesso libero

Methods of Assessment of The Natural Environment in Examining the Relationship Between its Diversity, Values and Tourism in Western Australia’s National Parks

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 261 - 268

Astratto

Abstract

In 2004, the author studied the impact of the diversity of the environment and natural values in national parks of Western Australia on the number of tourists visiting them. The research indicates that the highest correlation is between natural values and number of tourists, a smaller one is between the diversity of the environment and natural values and the lowest correlation is between the diversity of the environment and the number of tourists. Such studies require proper methods for evaluation of the natural environment. This paper discusses differences between the two main methods. The first, which describes diversity of the environment in national parks, is based on the evaluation made for the whole continent, where six main features of the environment were measured in the grid of squares. The natural values were studied with a greater accuracy on the basis of the descriptions and maps concerning the parks’ territory. Attractiveness in respect to natural values is presented by the sum of points. Each park received from 0 to 2 points for each of the 18 natural values.

Parole chiave

  • diversity of the natural environment
  • natural values
  • tourism
  • national parks
  • Western Australia
access type Accesso libero

Economic Significance of Tourism in The Lesser Antilles

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 269 - 275

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the article is an attempt to assess the economic significance of tourism in chosen islands of the Lesser Antilles. Diversification of the significance of tourism in economy between particular islands of the Lesser Antilles is very extensive. The economy of islands such as the British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda is highly dependent on tourism. On the other hand, islands such as Martinique and Curaçao derive small profits from tourism. The tourism satellite account method was used to show to what a degree each of the Lesser Antilles islands is dependent on tourism and what profits are derived from it. The account considers both direct and indirect outlays on tourism. The selected countries are divided into groups according to the intensity of tourism, the size of the GDP generated per one inhabitant as well as the share of employment in tourism per total employment. A group of countries and dependent territories deriving greater and lesser economic benefits from tourism than might appear from the intensity of tourism is identified.

Parole chiave

  • tourism
  • the Lesser Antilles
  • tourism satellite account
access type Accesso libero

The Role of Didactic Trails in Geographical Education in Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 277 - 286

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the goals of creation of various kinds of didactic trails in Poland. Various methods of presenting information and of conducting geographical field trips on such trails are described. Thanks to that, it is possible not only to broaden the students’ knowledge about the given area but also to develop numerous skills and attitudes leading to the awareness of the geographical environment and its value in human life. The paper contains also a procedure for creating one’s own didactic trail in the nearest area.

Parole chiave

  • didactic trail
  • geographical education
  • educational goals
  • activating methods
access type Accesso libero

Evolution of Sozological Maps in Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 287 - 296

Astratto

Abstract

The beginnings of sozological cartography in Poland go back to the second half of 1960s. Since those times many maps showing both relatively small areas and entire voivodships as well as the whole country have been published. A large range of territories corresponds to an equally large variation of the scale: from 1:10 000 and 1:25 000 scales to small scales in school atlases. The content of the individual maps exhibits a large differentiation — from the monothematic approaches to the richest in content, comprehensive 1:50 000 scale Sozological Map of Poland, published since the early 1990s. The state of the natural environment of Poland, presented on many detailed maps, still awaits a synthesis in form of general regional maps, thus of medium-scale maps.

Parole chiave

  • sozological map
  • sozological cartography
  • environmental protection
  • environment degradation
  • map graphics
access type Accesso libero

Modern Methods of Use of Geographic Maps in Field Research for Localisation of Objects

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 297 - 304

Astratto

Abstract

In the paper the author described briefly modern technical possibilities of supporting the use of maps in field research and presented methods of map use in localisation of objects. In his description of the methods the author presented the differences in the approach to the problem depending on the features of the maps, both paper and digital ones. He also stressed the issue of adjustment of the features related to the cartometricity of the maps in use to the coordinate system in which the data required for the field projects are obtained and processed.

Parole chiave

  • field work
  • elements of mathematical basis
  • GPS
  • calibration
  • paper map
  • digital map
  • vector map
  • satellite receiver
  • geographic coordinates
access type Accesso libero

The Application of Decision Binary Trees to Assess the Usefulness of The Digital Terrain Model in Studying the Relationships Between Relief and Vegetation in The Polish High Tatra

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 305 - 313

Astratto

Abstract

The relationships between individual components of the natural environment have long been an object of research (Kostrowicki, Wójcik, 1972; Rączkowska, Kozłowska, 1994; Kozłowska, Rączkowska, 1996).

This paper is an attempt to analyse the relationships between two geocomponents of the natural environment: relief and vegetation, from a perspective contrary to the one currently prevailing in the literature of the subject. This approach assumes that relief, with its dominant role as a component strongly affecting the formation of the remaining factors, can be indicative in character and as such can represent basic factors that help determine and anticipate the occurrences of certain plant communities as well as locations with no vegetation.

Using geoinformation data along with the tools to process them, an attempt was made to assess the usefulness of the DTM (Digital Terrain Model) to identify selected plant communities, rock and water.

The development of a model of the relationships between the relief and the vegetation is an attempt to capture the correspondence between the parameters characterising the relief, calculated using the DTM model and classes of objects, with the use of information obtained from an Ikonos XS image. This model was subsequently used to draw a map of the land cover for a part of the Gąsienicowa Valley in the High Tatra (Dolina Gąsienicowa). For the purpose of this exercise, a technique of data classification called DBT (Decision Binary Trees) was used.

Parole chiave

  • relief – vegetation relationship
  • Decision Binary Trees (DBT)
  • Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
  • Ikonos XS
  • image classification
  • geoinformation
access type Accesso libero

Differentiation Between Forms of Urban Development Using The Object-Oriented Classification Method with Central Warsaw as The Example

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 315 - 327

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present automated methods of discrimination of urban development forms using object-oriented classification in high-resolution images taken by the Ikonos satellite. The object-oriented classification makes possible to describe individual classes using not only the spectral reflection values but also the shapes, textures and topology of objects. The classification process as such is based on the theory of fuzzy sets.

The research covered an area of 25 km, situated in central Warsaw. As a result of object-oriented classification, five classes of development typical of large cities were distinguished and described.

Parole chiave

  • object-oriented classification
  • land cover
  • land use
  • urbanized areas
  • Warsaw
  • eCognition
  • segmentation
  • classification
access type Accesso libero

Simulation of Changes of The Warsaw Urban Area 1969-2023 (Application of Cellular Automata)

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 329 - 335

Astratto

Abstract

It is possible to make analyses within the field of GIS applying cellular automata. One of the purposes of socio-economic geography is indirect understanding of the phenomenon by analyzing spatial patterns and inferring spatio-temporal processes looking rather for local hotspots. The cellular automata are the tool both for spatio-temporal inferring based on local conditions and data visualization. The evidence is the case study of spatial simulation of Warsaw Urban Area (Poland).

The author verifies the hypothesis that the present layout and extent of the Warsaw agglomeration determines further directions of the city’s spatial development. To this end, he employs a method based on cellular automata theory.

Parole chiave

  • cellular automata
  • GIS
  • spatio-temporal processes
  • urbanization
access type Accesso libero

Geographical Dimension of Internet Domains

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 337 - 341

Astratto

Abstract

One of the two highest levels of Internet domains has its geographical dimension. It consists of the so-called country-code domains (ccTLDs) assigned to the individual countries of the world according to the standard ISO 3166. Some of these domains took over the role of worldwide functional domains and large income from their sale caused economic and social changes in the countries with attractive country-code domains.

Parole chiave

  • Internet
  • country-code domains
  • functional domains
38 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Models of Landscape Units – Utopia or Necessity?

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 5 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

This paper is devoted to typology as the basic method of landscape research. The first part shows the cognitive, educational and practical roles of landscape typology models. Second part presents a new method of creating a universal model, independent of the charting scale. The results of the paper confirm the feasibility of creating a reference base of Earth’s landscapes and indicate the necessity to an international discussion on this topic.

Parole chiave

  • Landscape typology
  • methodology of geography
  • landscape reference base
access type Accesso libero

Ladakh and Zanskar

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 13 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

The Himalayan mountain chain is orographically fragmented, both in the east-west and in the north-south directions. The latter area is characterised by a greater landscape diversity, owing to its zonality and the vertical zonation of both climate and vegetation.

In terms of tectonics and orography, and taking into account the prevalent influence of the monsoon and continental climates, the Himalayan mountain system can be divided into two parts – the external arc (southern), that is the Higher (or Great) Himalayas and the internal arc (northern), that is the so-called Trans-Himalayas.

Similarly to the external arc of the Himalayas, the post-glacial relief in the Trans-Himalayas is marginal only. It is an area with a prevalence of denudation (nival, frost, gravitation and eolian) processes. Slopes of tectonic valleys or basins, covered with colourful surface deposits rising as high as even two thirds of their altitude, dominate the landscape.

The Zanskar ridges and the Ladakh range represent a transitional zone between the Trans-himalayas and Eastern Karakoram.

Parole chiave

  • geography
  • Himalayas
  • Zanskar
  • Ladakh
access type Accesso libero

Soil-Geochemical Aspects of Land Use in Abandoned Land in Central Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 25 - 30

Astratto

Abstract

It is observed increasing of abandoned land in Poland in last decade of 20th century.The part of abandoned land is usually covered by birch tree community. The entrance of birches, especially on pure sandy area, changes properties of soil. The samples of soil horizons, litter in different stages of decomposition and leaves from birch trees, were taken into analysis. The role of birch was analysed also in comparison to arable land, abandoned land without trees and different ages birch trees communities. After the entrance birch trees soil profiles were enriched in nitrogen and elements such as aluminium, iron, cadmium, lead, cobalt, zinc, which were moved from soil or come from atmospheric load and were accumulated in litter or humus horizon. Compared to arable land, some elements (for example calcium) had lower concentration under birch trees. After several years without fertilization the relationship between elements were changed. In early stages (until 10 years) in litter horizons potassium prevails calcium, later – calcium prevails potassium. Birch trees made soil environment more natural compared to arable land.

Parole chiave

  • abandoned land
  • birch
  • pine
  • plant and soil relationship
access type Accesso libero

Warming and Cooling of The Earth’s Climate and Their Causes

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 31 - 41

Astratto

Abstract

The progressing warming of the Earth’s climate is mainly caused by natural factors, that is, the increasing solar activity and the decreasing volcanic activity on the Earth. The aspects which testify to the predominance of natural factors include: synchronous changes in the average air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere in the years 1856-2002, the average consecutive 11-year Wolf numbers and the location of the mass centres of the four largest planets.

Natural causes of the climate warming are corroborated by the synchronicity of changes in the carbon dioxide concentration and paleotemperature in the last 450,000 years, revealed on the basis of an analysis of the ice core in Antarctica. Periods of climate warming occur every 100,000 years and are caused by an increased solar radiation in high latitudes, resulting from changes in the Earth’s orbit and the inclination of the Earth axis (according to the popular Milankovič theory).

Parole chiave

  • solar radiation
  • temperature
  • greenhouse effect
  • spectrum
  • solar activity
  • mass moments of planets
access type Accesso libero

Cyclic Temperature and Precipitation Fluctuations in Poland in the 19th-21st Centuries

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 43 - 53

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the work is to determine the periodicity and trends of change in air temperature and precipitation in Poland in the time period of the 18th-20th centuries, together with the forecast for the 21st century. There are interesting diagrams of the temporal changes of solar activity and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicator, with the forecast reaching the year 2100. The forecasts were obtained on the basis of interpretations of the Wolf number and NAO indicator cycles, determined with the method of “regression sinusoids”. The fluctuations of the air temperature and precipitations during winter in Warsaw and in Cracow are closely correlated.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • precipitations
  • NAO
  • spectra
  • periods
  • tendency
  • solar activity
  • forecast
access type Accesso libero

Pressure Field Over Europe and North Atlantic Favourable for The Occurrence of Clear and Cloudy Days in Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 55 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper, results of research concerning circulation conditions favouring the occurrence of clear and cloudy days in Poland are presented. An analysis of the mean pressure field over North Atlantic and Europe on such days was performed, differences between the mean pressure on such days and the mean pressure from all the days of the period 1966-2000 were determined. The pressure field was characterised by mean daily values taken from grid nodes from the area with φ 30°–70°N and λ 40°W–60°E (NCEP/NCAR database). The relation between the amount of cloudiness over Poland and pressure was estimated by means of linear correlation coefficient.

Parole chiave

  • clear and cloudy days
  • Poland
  • pressure field
  • Europe and North Atlantic
access type Accesso libero

Dangerous Weather Phenomena in Europe in The Year 2000 and their Dependence on Circulation

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 67 - 73

Astratto

Abstract

In the paper the influence of atmospheric circulation on selected dangerous weather phenomena in Europe in the year 2000 has been presented. Dangerous weather phenomena include: 30 days with thunderstorms in Poland and 26 examples of such phenomena in Europe (tornados, strong winds, thunderstorms, torrential rains, floods, etc.).

The NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation) served to determine the character of the circulation that influenced the occurrence of catastrophic phenomena in Western, Central and Southern Europe. The J. Lityński classification of circulation types was used to thunderstorms occurring in Poland only. Most catastrophic phenomena during the positive NAO phase (predominance of zonal circulation) happened in Western and Central Europe. During the negative NAO phase (predominance of meridional circulation) the regions of the Mediterranean Basin were more frequently affected. In the case of thunderstorms in Poland in the year under investigation (2000) their occurrence was related to the inflow of air masses from the northern sector.

Parole chiave

  • dangerous weather phenomena
  • thunderstorms
  • Europe
  • Poland
  • North Atlantic Oscillation NAO
  • Lityński types of atmospheric circulation
access type Accesso libero

The Influence of The North Atlantic Oscillations (NAO) on The Climate of Warsaw and Lviv

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 75 - 80

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the work is to determine the periodicity and trends of change in air temperature in Warsaw and in Lviv during the 18th-20th centuries, together with the forecast for the years 2000-2100. There are interesting diagrams of temporal changes of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicator and air temperature, with the forecast reaching the year 2100. The forecasts were obtained on the basis of interpretations of the Sun activity and the NAO indicator cycles, determined with the method of “regression sinusoids”. The fluctuations of air temperature and North Atlantic Oscillation during winter in Warsaw and in Lviv are closely correlated.

Parole chiave

  • air temperature
  • NAO
  • spectrum
  • periods
  • tendencies
  • Wolf number
  • forecast
access type Accesso libero

Dependence of Air Quality Conditions in Cities in North-Western Poland on the Direction of Air Inflow

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 81 - 86

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the dependence of air pollution with sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on wind direction in Szczecin, Łeba, Elbląg and Zielona Góra in the period 1993-1999. It has been shown that the most disadvantageous air quality conditions in the cities listed above are on the days with air inflow from south-east, and the most advantageous on the days with advection from north-west. This dependence is particularly evident in the case of pollution with sulphur dioxide, especially in the cold half-year.

Parole chiave

  • North-western Poland
  • air pollution
  • sulphur dioxide
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • wind direction
access type Accesso libero

Changes of The Thermic Seasons in Warsaw in The Period 1933–2004

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 87 - 94

Astratto

Abstract

The beginning dates and the lengths of thermic seasons in Warsaw (1951-2004) were analysed. These characteristics of seasons are very variable, especially in winter. The changes of winter length influence strongly the dates and length of adjacent seasons, that is, of early winter and early spring. The current warming is best visible exactly during these seasons: winter becomes shorter, while early winter and – to an even longer degree – early spring become longer. The period of spring, summer and autumn is characterised by grater stability. These seasons showed a very weak tendency to change on even its lack, both as regards the length and the beginning date.

Parole chiave

  • thermic seasons
  • winter
  • early spring
  • spring
  • summer
  • autumn
  • early winters
  • current warming
access type Accesso libero

The Sedimentation Processes in Włocławek Reservoir

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 95 - 101

Astratto

Abstract

The study discusses accumulation and erosion processes which occurred in the bowl of Włocławek Reservoir in the period 1971-1992, and were analysed using digital batimetric maps. It also provides the results of the work of other authors concerning the assessment of the river sediments accumulated in the reservoir.

Analysis of digital batimetric maps has shown that the material deposited in Włocławek Reservoir in the years 1971-1992 totalled about 18.3 million m3, which corresponds to approximately 0.87 million m3 of sediments per annum, and means a 4.5% loss of the reservoir’s storage capacity. The volume of accumulation and erosion, assessed in this manner, approximates the earlier calculations performed using different research methods; it corroborates the fact that accumulation prevails in the balance of the sediments.

Parole chiave

  • GIS techniques
  • sedimentation
  • dam reservoir
  • the Vistula River
  • Włocławek Reservoir
access type Accesso libero

The Role of Morphogenetic and Anthropogenic Processes in The Development of Gullies and Methods of Their Prevention (On The Example of The Vicinity of Kazimierz Dolny)

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 103 - 110

Astratto

Abstract

The vicinity of Kazimierz Dolny is characterised by the occurrence of large denivelations and thick loess covers. Due to that, as well as to the characteristic properties of loess and frequent occurrences of torrential rains, the region is marked by numerous dissections by valleys. Not without importance is agriculture, whose intensification brought about the creation of new relief forms. Gully erosion is a serious threat for the inhabitants of the region; on the other hand, it is impossible to eliminate it. For that reason it is necessary to use modern anti-erosion measures.

Parole chiave

  • denivelations
  • thick loess covers
  • valley
  • downflow
  • suffosion
  • torrential rains
  • silting
  • anti-erosion measures
access type Accesso libero

Variability of Textural Characteristics of Sandur Deposits of Fláajökull and Falljökull (SE Iceland)

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 111 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

Studies conducted on the sandurs of Fláajökull and Falljökull aimed at the reconstruction of the dynamics of braided rivers based on the grain size parameters of deposits. The goal of the project was to estimate the degree of deposit transformation and of changes of grain size characteristics as related to the length of transport in contemporary sandur rivers.

Parole chiave

  • sandur
  • coarse clastic sediments
  • grain size parameters
  • Iceland
access type Accesso libero

Methods of Examining The Nature-Man Relationship in Warsaw Regional Geography

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 119 - 123

Astratto

Abstract

Several methods applied in the Department of Regional Geography of Warsaw University in research on the relationship between the natural environment and man were presented: chi-squared test, class diversification method, correlation methods, regression analysis. Their merits and limitations were described. The usefulness for research of different aspects of the nature-man relationship was discussed. New possibilities of applying thus obtained results (e.g. for delimitation of regions of the nature-man relationship) were identified.

Parole chiave

  • relationship research methods
  • man–nature relationships
  • regions of the nature- man relationships
access type Accesso libero

Possibilities of Balancing of Anthropogenic Changes of Relief and Water Conditions in The Tatra Mountains

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 125 - 130

Astratto

Abstract

During its entire utilisation history – lasting several hundred years – the area of the Tatra Mountains underwent multidirectional anthropopressure. As the result, all components of their natural environment have been transformed, including relief and water conditions.The analysis of the literature on this topic conducted by the author, as well as his observations performed in the area, confirmed the assumption that transformations caused by human actions developed with varying intensity and admitted various forms depending on the area of action and the magnitude of means applied.

The transformation scale presented here estimates the influence of anthropopressure on the stability of the catchment area systems of larger Tatra streams, partial catchment areas of their confluents and selected slope surfaces.

In systems, where the limits of persistence were not exceeded, stability was ensured by natural processes compensating for the consequences of anthropopressure. In systems where stability was disturbed, planned preventive measures are necessary.

Parole chiave

  • anthropopressure
  • relief
  • water conditions
  • Tatra Mountains
  • natural system
  • catchment area
  • system stability
access type Accesso libero

City Parks in Europe

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 131 - 140

Astratto

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to present European parks form the point of view of their natural environment and ecological functions which they fulfill in the city. Parks situated in valley landscapes have been used as the object of study, since these types of parks predominate in Europe. These are: Hyde Park in London, Clara Zetkin Park in Leipzig, Tiergarten in Berlin and Łazienki in Warsaw.

Parole chiave

  • city park
  • ecological functions
  • Łazienki Park
  • Hyde Park
  • Clara Zetkin Park
  • Tiergarten
  • valley
access type Accesso libero

The Natural Environment and Changes in Population Distribution

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 141 - 146

Astratto

Abstract

A search for interrelations between natural conditions and changes in population distribution may be a significant subject of regional geography research. It is especially promising to explore this issue as exemplified by France, where we have specific statistical data from censuses carried out in administrative units which have remained unchanged for years. The paper discusses methods of searching for such interrelations on the basis of chosen examples.

Parole chiave

  • population distribution
  • area denivelation
  • France
access type Accesso libero

Desertification: On Significance of The Term and Research of The Phenomenon

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 147 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

First elaborations on desertification come from the Renaissance, but the term was used for the first time by Aubréville in 1949. In later years, many significantly varying in meaning definitions were elaborated.

In later periods, researchers’ attention concentrated on different areas. At the turn of the XIXth century, interest was mainly focused on Asia, later on the peripheries of the Sahara, in recent years on desertification in post-soviet Central Asia, China and Mongolia.

Parole chiave

  • desertification
  • definitions
  • regional analysis
access type Accesso libero

Natural and Cultural Landscapes of Equatorial Africa

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 155 - 163

Astratto

Abstract

This paper attempts to characterise various cultural landscapes in the area of Equatorial Africa. To achieve this, the contents of various thematic maps and satellite photos representing: areas covered with forests (mostly secondary forests), nature reserves, areas of extensive and intensive agriculture and urban-industrial areas were overlaid with the contents of map of potential vegetation (which represent, to use a simplification, the natural, primeval landscape). The method applied allowed for distinguishing five types of cultural landscape that correspond to five levels of transformation of the primeval landscape.

The resulting map shows a mosaic-like structure of landscapes. This structure changes constantly. The surface area of regions with a certain landscape type increases or decreases, or else the regions change their locations. A detailed analysis of socio-economic processes (and the related changes in the natural environment) can constitute a basis for a prediction of cultural landscape transformation. It is the author’s opinion that such prediction could be applied in various planning projects.

Parole chiave

  • natural landscape
  • cultural landscape
  • transformation
  • prediction
access type Accesso libero

Social and Occupational Changes in Small Towns in The Swiętokrzyskie Voivodship During the Transformation of the Political System

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 165 - 173

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present social and occupational changes in small towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship in regard to their accessibility to communication with larger towns in the examined area. Because of the availability of statistic data for the analysis, the time period from 1995 to 2004 was selected.

Answers to the following question were looked for in the paper:

– is there an interdependence between the directions of the occurring social and occupational changes (a change in the number of inhabitants, changes in internal migrations, changes in the employment structure) in small towns of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship and their accessibility to communication with larger towns (exceeding five thousand inhabitants) in the examined area.

A network of towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, in the form in which it functions since 1999 is examined.

Parole chiave

  • small towns
  • social and occupational transformation
  • accessibility of transport to large and medium size towns
access type Accesso libero

Development and Distribution of Private Microfirms in Mid-Size Polish Towns During the Transformation Period

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 175 - 184

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.

Parole chiave

  • microfirms
  • mid-size towns
  • economic transformation
  • ownership and size structure of economic entities
access type Accesso libero

Depopulation of the Russian far East. Magadan Oblast: A Case Study

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 185 - 196

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents spatial differentiation and causes of depopulation processes that began in Magadan Oblast in the Russian Far East after the fall of the Soviet Union. In the region under investigation, depopulation is very intensive. The analysis of changes in population in the lower-lever administrative units allows for showing the differences in spatial distribution of depopulation in individual regions [“rayons”]. During the research surveys, allowing for a fuller understanding of the conditions and the process of depopulation, were conducted.

Parole chiave

  • depopulation
  • population
  • migrations
  • Russia
  • Far East
access type Accesso libero

Types of Demographic Evolution in The Microstates

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 197 - 203

Astratto

Abstract

In the twentieth century, changes in the population number of microstates were very diversified. It is possible, however, to observe similarities in population changes. On the basis of the following two criteria a typology of population changes was developed, i.e. the population growth rate and the variability coefficient of the population growth rate. Five types of population changes were singled out: from countries with a very small population growth and a small variability coefficient to those characterised by very large values of both of the discussed criteria.

Parole chiave

  • demography
  • microstate
  • population
access type Accesso libero

Western European Retail Chains in The Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia – Similarities and Differences

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 205 - 214

Astratto

Abstract

The paper deals with an analysis the growing presence of international retail enterprises in the Central European countries of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. Results of the research show that there are differences between the Polish market and the remaining two. The differences are in the scale of investments, the investors’ geographic origin, the number of stores within the network of the so called modern distribution channels (hyper- and supermarkets and discount stores). The diversity of location strategies used by Western European retail enterprises in the Central European markets is also shown, beginning with the methods of entering new markets (organic growth, acquisition of existing chains, franchising) and ending on the degree of concentration of retail stores in the largest cities of the three countries.

Parole chiave

  • retail chains
  • Central Europe
  • internationalization
  • foreign direct investments (FDI)
access type Accesso libero

Warsaw Metropolitan Area in an International Relations Network

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 215 - 223

Astratto

Abstract

International relations of the Warsaw Metropolitan Area are presented in the paper. International relations, their extent (number and range), character and intensity reflect on the degree to which the metropolitan area (the central city and the remaining component units) has been included into an economic and socio-political relations network. Research was carried out, taking advantage of a broad base of available information sources, general economic, cultural, scientific, transport, tourist relations as well as cooperation of international self-government units1.

Parole chiave

  • metropolitan area
  • Warsaw
  • international relations
  • economy
  • culture
  • self-government
access type Accesso libero

Trends of Economic Development of Warsaw and their Spatial Implications

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 225 - 231

Astratto

Abstract

The article presents trends of change in Warsaw’s economic structure and their influence upon the formation of the city’s functional and spatial structure. Using the latest data on the employment structure and kinds of economic entities and their distribution, an attempt has also been made to determine the degree of absorption of the city economy by pro-development activities. On the basis of experiences of other European cities activity types indicating the existence of development trends in the city economy (pro-development activities) were chosen. Next, changes in the number of economic entities in these areas in 1988-2004 were analyzed. Research on the distribution of economic entities in Warsaw is based upon data from the REGON register.

Parole chiave

  • Warsaw
  • economic development
  • economic structure
  • distribution of economic entities
access type Accesso libero

Transformation of Rural Communities in Las Huastecas Region in Mexico. Preliminary Field Research Report.

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 233 - 242

Astratto

Abstract

The article contains preliminary report of field study conducted in February 2006 in Las Huastecas Region in Mexico by members of the Department of Regional Studies on Latin America at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies of Warsaw University. The aim of the research was to determine changes in socio-economic patterns of Las Huastecas rural areas, as well as to grasp the way local inhabitants perceived them. Open and semi-structured interviews were held with local authorities and inhabitants, in many cases with the same persons that were interviewed during the previous research trip in 2001. Conclusions deal with such aspects of Las Huastecas reality, as further improvement in social and technical infrastructure, intensification of diversification of revenues including short and medium temporal migration to big cities in northern parts of Mexico as well as seasonal migration of rural labor to agribusiness sector. Some limited new initiatives related to small scale tourism, preservation of cultural heritage and aquaculture were also observed. The local inhabitants perceived their actual situation as more difficult than 5 years ago, but we have impression that many of social actors have been more active during this period.

Parole chiave

  • local development
  • economic behavior of rural inhabitants
  • perception of changes
  • Las Huastecas
  • Mexico rural areas
access type Accesso libero

On The Evolution of Tropical Islands Economies in Modern Times

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 243 - 250

Astratto

Abstract

Over several centuries the characteristic features of the economies of tropical islands were similar and unchanged. On almost all islands, independently of their genetic type, farming and fishing predominated, sprinkled with inter-island trade. With the European expansion, economies of the islands underwent transformations. The development of transportation and communication contributed to the increased accessibility of islands and to their inclusion into world economy. This phenomenon progressed particularly fast in the second half of the 20th century, when already independent island states often searched for capital necessary for their sovereign existence. Numerous unconventional solutions were proposed, but it was tourism that achieved the greatest triumphs, gradually beginning to dominate in the economy of islands of almost all types.

Parole chiave

  • Tropical islands
  • economy
  • tourism
  • economic transformation
  • Oceania
access type Accesso libero

Perspectives of Development of Ecotourism in West Africa – Examples from Niger, Mali and The Ivory Coast

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 251 - 259

Astratto

Abstract

Ecotourism, understood as a form of leisure conforming with the principles of environmental protection and promoting its natural and cultural values, is dynamically developing in almost all parts of the world. Properly carried out, ecotourism projects may be an essential instrument of regional development. Problems of ecotourism development in four areas of West Africa, i.e. the Comoé National Park (Ivory Coast), the Dogon Country (Mali), the northern Dallol Boss Region and Kouré (Niger), and the Äir and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Niger) are discussed in the article.

A common characteristic of the chosen areas are their significant natural and cultural values and the occurrence of tourist activeness allowing to qualify them as ecotouristic sites. The analysis of both external and internal success factors in ecotourism leads to the conclusion that, in the discussed regions, ecotourism development is a positive phenomenon. It should, however, be accompanied by continuous supervision of environmental conditions and ecological education of the local population.

Parole chiave

  • West Africa
  • ecotourism
access type Accesso libero

Methods of Assessment of The Natural Environment in Examining the Relationship Between its Diversity, Values and Tourism in Western Australia’s National Parks

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 261 - 268

Astratto

Abstract

In 2004, the author studied the impact of the diversity of the environment and natural values in national parks of Western Australia on the number of tourists visiting them. The research indicates that the highest correlation is between natural values and number of tourists, a smaller one is between the diversity of the environment and natural values and the lowest correlation is between the diversity of the environment and the number of tourists. Such studies require proper methods for evaluation of the natural environment. This paper discusses differences between the two main methods. The first, which describes diversity of the environment in national parks, is based on the evaluation made for the whole continent, where six main features of the environment were measured in the grid of squares. The natural values were studied with a greater accuracy on the basis of the descriptions and maps concerning the parks’ territory. Attractiveness in respect to natural values is presented by the sum of points. Each park received from 0 to 2 points for each of the 18 natural values.

Parole chiave

  • diversity of the natural environment
  • natural values
  • tourism
  • national parks
  • Western Australia
access type Accesso libero

Economic Significance of Tourism in The Lesser Antilles

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 269 - 275

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of the article is an attempt to assess the economic significance of tourism in chosen islands of the Lesser Antilles. Diversification of the significance of tourism in economy between particular islands of the Lesser Antilles is very extensive. The economy of islands such as the British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda is highly dependent on tourism. On the other hand, islands such as Martinique and Curaçao derive small profits from tourism. The tourism satellite account method was used to show to what a degree each of the Lesser Antilles islands is dependent on tourism and what profits are derived from it. The account considers both direct and indirect outlays on tourism. The selected countries are divided into groups according to the intensity of tourism, the size of the GDP generated per one inhabitant as well as the share of employment in tourism per total employment. A group of countries and dependent territories deriving greater and lesser economic benefits from tourism than might appear from the intensity of tourism is identified.

Parole chiave

  • tourism
  • the Lesser Antilles
  • tourism satellite account
access type Accesso libero

The Role of Didactic Trails in Geographical Education in Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 277 - 286

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents the goals of creation of various kinds of didactic trails in Poland. Various methods of presenting information and of conducting geographical field trips on such trails are described. Thanks to that, it is possible not only to broaden the students’ knowledge about the given area but also to develop numerous skills and attitudes leading to the awareness of the geographical environment and its value in human life. The paper contains also a procedure for creating one’s own didactic trail in the nearest area.

Parole chiave

  • didactic trail
  • geographical education
  • educational goals
  • activating methods
access type Accesso libero

Evolution of Sozological Maps in Poland

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 287 - 296

Astratto

Abstract

The beginnings of sozological cartography in Poland go back to the second half of 1960s. Since those times many maps showing both relatively small areas and entire voivodships as well as the whole country have been published. A large range of territories corresponds to an equally large variation of the scale: from 1:10 000 and 1:25 000 scales to small scales in school atlases. The content of the individual maps exhibits a large differentiation — from the monothematic approaches to the richest in content, comprehensive 1:50 000 scale Sozological Map of Poland, published since the early 1990s. The state of the natural environment of Poland, presented on many detailed maps, still awaits a synthesis in form of general regional maps, thus of medium-scale maps.

Parole chiave

  • sozological map
  • sozological cartography
  • environmental protection
  • environment degradation
  • map graphics
access type Accesso libero

Modern Methods of Use of Geographic Maps in Field Research for Localisation of Objects

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 297 - 304

Astratto

Abstract

In the paper the author described briefly modern technical possibilities of supporting the use of maps in field research and presented methods of map use in localisation of objects. In his description of the methods the author presented the differences in the approach to the problem depending on the features of the maps, both paper and digital ones. He also stressed the issue of adjustment of the features related to the cartometricity of the maps in use to the coordinate system in which the data required for the field projects are obtained and processed.

Parole chiave

  • field work
  • elements of mathematical basis
  • GPS
  • calibration
  • paper map
  • digital map
  • vector map
  • satellite receiver
  • geographic coordinates
access type Accesso libero

The Application of Decision Binary Trees to Assess the Usefulness of The Digital Terrain Model in Studying the Relationships Between Relief and Vegetation in The Polish High Tatra

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 305 - 313

Astratto

Abstract

The relationships between individual components of the natural environment have long been an object of research (Kostrowicki, Wójcik, 1972; Rączkowska, Kozłowska, 1994; Kozłowska, Rączkowska, 1996).

This paper is an attempt to analyse the relationships between two geocomponents of the natural environment: relief and vegetation, from a perspective contrary to the one currently prevailing in the literature of the subject. This approach assumes that relief, with its dominant role as a component strongly affecting the formation of the remaining factors, can be indicative in character and as such can represent basic factors that help determine and anticipate the occurrences of certain plant communities as well as locations with no vegetation.

Using geoinformation data along with the tools to process them, an attempt was made to assess the usefulness of the DTM (Digital Terrain Model) to identify selected plant communities, rock and water.

The development of a model of the relationships between the relief and the vegetation is an attempt to capture the correspondence between the parameters characterising the relief, calculated using the DTM model and classes of objects, with the use of information obtained from an Ikonos XS image. This model was subsequently used to draw a map of the land cover for a part of the Gąsienicowa Valley in the High Tatra (Dolina Gąsienicowa). For the purpose of this exercise, a technique of data classification called DBT (Decision Binary Trees) was used.

Parole chiave

  • relief – vegetation relationship
  • Decision Binary Trees (DBT)
  • Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
  • Ikonos XS
  • image classification
  • geoinformation
access type Accesso libero

Differentiation Between Forms of Urban Development Using The Object-Oriented Classification Method with Central Warsaw as The Example

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 315 - 327

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present automated methods of discrimination of urban development forms using object-oriented classification in high-resolution images taken by the Ikonos satellite. The object-oriented classification makes possible to describe individual classes using not only the spectral reflection values but also the shapes, textures and topology of objects. The classification process as such is based on the theory of fuzzy sets.

The research covered an area of 25 km, situated in central Warsaw. As a result of object-oriented classification, five classes of development typical of large cities were distinguished and described.

Parole chiave

  • object-oriented classification
  • land cover
  • land use
  • urbanized areas
  • Warsaw
  • eCognition
  • segmentation
  • classification
access type Accesso libero

Simulation of Changes of The Warsaw Urban Area 1969-2023 (Application of Cellular Automata)

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 329 - 335

Astratto

Abstract

It is possible to make analyses within the field of GIS applying cellular automata. One of the purposes of socio-economic geography is indirect understanding of the phenomenon by analyzing spatial patterns and inferring spatio-temporal processes looking rather for local hotspots. The cellular automata are the tool both for spatio-temporal inferring based on local conditions and data visualization. The evidence is the case study of spatial simulation of Warsaw Urban Area (Poland).

The author verifies the hypothesis that the present layout and extent of the Warsaw agglomeration determines further directions of the city’s spatial development. To this end, he employs a method based on cellular automata theory.

Parole chiave

  • cellular automata
  • GIS
  • spatio-temporal processes
  • urbanization
access type Accesso libero

Geographical Dimension of Internet Domains

Pubblicato online: 07 Dec 2018
Pagine: 337 - 341

Astratto

Abstract

One of the two highest levels of Internet domains has its geographical dimension. It consists of the so-called country-code domains (ccTLDs) assigned to the individual countries of the world according to the standard ISO 3166. Some of these domains took over the role of worldwide functional domains and large income from their sale caused economic and social changes in the countries with attractive country-code domains.

Parole chiave

  • Internet
  • country-code domains
  • functional domains

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