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Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)

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Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

10 Articoli
Accesso libero

Characteristics And Use Of Multicopper Oxidases Enzymes

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 7 - 18

Astratto

Abstract

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a large family of blue copper proteins which contain from one to six copper atoms per molecule. Their catalytic centre consists of three domains which involve type I Cu, type II Cu and a pair of type III Cu’s. They include laccases, ferroxidases, ascorbate oxidase, bilirubin oxidase, laccase-like multicopper oxidases. MCOs are capable of one-electron oxidizing of aromatic as well as non-aromatic compounds with a concomitant four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. These properties make them a valuable tool in various industries (e.g. food, textile, pharmaceutical) medicine or environment protection.

1. Introduction. 2. Multicopper oxidases – classification, structure and properties. 3. Identification methods of MCOs. 4. Laccases vs. others MCOs. 5. Application of multicopper oxidases. 6. Summary

Key words

  • microorganisms
  • laccases
  • multicopper oxidases

Słowa kluczowe

  • drobnoustroje
  • lakazy
  • wielomiedziowe oksydazy
Accesso libero

Cathelicidins In Humans And Animals

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 19 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

Cathelicidins are Important immunological peptides – HDPs (Host Defense Peptides) with high biological activity in mammals, including human and vertebrate animals. These evolutionary ancient molecules in these organisms are natural elements of antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic immunity against which germs and parasites have not developed immunity, which makes them alternatives to antibiotics. Catelicidins in human and vertebrates affect the germs and parasites directly and indirectly by activating the immune system.

1.What are immune peptides. 2. Cathelicidins. 2.1. Catelicidins in humans. 2.2. Cathelicidins in animals. 3. Summary

Key words

  • human
  • cathelicidins
  • animals

Słowa kluczowe

  • człowiek
  • katelicydyny
  • zwierzęta
Accesso libero

New Species Of Bacteria In Human Infections

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 29 - 34

Astratto

Abstract

In the last few years, there have been works in literature describing clinical cases of infections with bacteria previously considered to be non-pathogenic. So far, these bacteria have been commonly isolated from the natural environment: water, soil, plants, and isolation from a sample of clinical material has often been considered an impurity. Therefore, the aim of the paper was to draw attention to newly emerging bacterial species, their characteristics, biochemical properties, virulence factors and predisposition to selected forms of infection in groups of patients with specific risk factors. The impact on the more frequent isolation of species of bacteria previously considered to be non-pathogenic has several aspects: reliable diagnostic methods, including correct identification of the species, enabling the differentiation of closely related bacteria, the growing group of immune-compromised patients and with infectious risk factors (such as older age, diabetes, tumours, organ transplantation), more susceptible to infection, also with less pathogenic microorganisms. Greater adaptability of bacteria to new environmental conditions, including the human body, are also worth mentioning. The pathogenic effect of these bacteria, mainly related to the production of biofilms and factors conditioning adhesion to host cells or biomaterials, facilitating colonization and subsequent infection, is also important.

The progress in medicine that has taken place in recent years has positively influenced the life expectancy of patients with certain diseases and in many situations, it contributed to an improvement in its quality. Unfortunately, it also made it possible to cause infection with bacteria that were previously considered to be low or non-pathogenic.

1. Introduction. 2. Gram-positive rods 3. Streptococci with special nutritional requirements 4. Gram-negative rods. 5. Summary

Key words

  • Arcanobacterium
  • Delftia
  • Granulicatella
  • Pantoea

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arcanobacterium
  • Delftia
  • Granulicatella
  • Pantoea
Accesso libero

Analysis Of Selected Genetic Traits, Phenotypes, And The Epidemiological Threat Of Enterococcus Bacteria Resistant To Vancomycin

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 35 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that belong to facultative anaerobic cocci. Species belonging to the Enterococcus genus generally display little infectious potential, although they can cause serious nosocomial infections. The groups at high risk include patients with proliferative diseases, chronic liver diseases, and graft recipients. Since 1980s infections with enterococci resistant to numerous antibiotics have been observed with increasing frequency. There are two independent ways of developing resistance to vancomycin, connected with the common use of vancomycin for MRSA treatment and the non-medical use of this antibiotic. Nine phenotypes of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal strains can be distinguished: VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, VanG, VanL, VanM, VanN. These phenotypes differ at the molecular level to a different extent. Current treatments of enterococcal infections usually include drugs such as linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, and chloramphenicol. Data available from Europe and other parts of the world indicate a constant increase in the number of emerging VRE isolates, as well as strains resistant to antibiotics other than vancomycin.

1. Introduction. 2. Infections with enterococci. 3. Treatment of enterococcal infections and antimicrobial resistance. 4. Development of VRE phenomenon. 5. Drugs used to control infections with VRE strains. 6. Routes of VRE spread. 7. VRE phenotypes. 8. Molecular characteristics of VRE phenotypes. 9. Epidemiological situation in the world. 10. Epidemiological situation in Poland. 11. Epidemiological situation in Europe. 12. Summary

Key words

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • vancomycin
  • VRE

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność
  • wankomycyna
  • VRE
Accesso libero

Taxonomy Of Dermatophytes – The Classification Systems May Change But The Identification Problems Remain The Same

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 49 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

Fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails are the most prevalent among all fungal infections, currently affecting over 20–25% of the world’s human and animal populations. Dermatophytes are the etiological factors of the most superficial fungal infections. Among other pathogenic filamentous fungi, what distinguishes them is their unique attribute to degrade keratin. The remarkable ability of this group of fungi to survive in different ecosystems results from their morphological and ecological diversity as well as high adaptability to changing environmental conditions. Dermatophytes, although they are one of the oldest groups of microorganisms recognised as pathogens, have not been classified in a stable taxonomic system for a long time. In terms of diagnostics, dermatophytes still pose a serious problem in the identification procedure, which is often related to therapeutic errors. The increasing number of infections (including zoonoses), the lack of taxonomic stability, and the ambiguous clinical picture of dermatomycosis cases necessitate the search for new methods for the rapid, cheap, and reproducible species identification of these fungi. In turn, the species identification is determined by the clarity of classification criteria combined with the taxonomic division generally accepted by microbiologists and referring to the views expressed by clinicians, epidemiologists, and scientists. In this paper, the authors present the evolution of taxonomic systems for dermatophytes over the history of microbiology development. The discovery of new facts about the biology and ecology of dermatophytes and the development of techniques applied in a mycological diagnosis laboratory facilitated the development of new identification strategies at various points in the history. The modern molecular classification system of these pathogens seems to be stable and widely accepted. However, will it end the long-standing classification confusion and the period of hundreds of nomenclatural changes, which are a diagnostician’s nightmare? It can be argued that the taxonomy of dermatophytes, in particular that of anthropophilic species, is sufficiently established and stable for the benefit of both clinicians and scientists.

1. Introduction. 2. First dermatophyte classification systems. 3. Phenotypic classification systems. 4. “Biological” era in the classification. 5. Ecological division of dermatophytes. 6. Molecular revolution in the taxonomy of dermatophytes. 7. Taxonomic problems in mycology. 8. Clinical aspect of the taxonomy of dermatophytes. 9. Current classification system. 10. Indistinguishable «species complexes». 11. Summary

Key words

  • dermatophytes
  • taxonomy
  • identification methods
  • classification system
  • nomenclature

Słowa kluczowe

  • dermatofity
  • taksonomia
  • metody identyfikacji
  • system klasyfikacyjny
  • nomenklatura
Accesso libero

The Rhizosphere Microbiome And Its Beneficial Effects On Plants – Current Knowledge And Perspectives

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 59 - 69

Astratto

Abstract

The root system of a plant works like a factory that produces a huge amount of chemicals to communicate effectively with the microorganisms around it. At the same time, micro-organisms can use these compounds as an energy source. The variety of microorganisms associated with plant roots is enormous, amounting to tens of thousands of species. This complex microbial community, also called the second plant genome, is essential for plant health and productivity. Over the last few years, there has been significant progress in research into the structure and dynamics of the microbial sphere of the rhizosphere. It has been proven that plants shape the composition of microorganisms by synthesizing root secretions. On the other hand, microorganisms play a key role in the functioning of plants through their positive impact on their growth and development. In general, rhizosphere microorganisms promote plant growth directly by providing plants with minerals such as nitrogen and phosphorus and by synthesizing growth regulators, as well as indirectly, by inhibiting the development of various plant pathogens.

1. Introduction. 2. Functions of rhizosphere microorganisms. 3. Microorganisms increasing the availability of minerals. 4. Microorganisms synthesizing plant growth regulators. 5. Biological plant protection. 6. Summary

Key words

  • microbiome
  • promoting plant growth
  • rhizosphere

Słowa kluczowe

  • mikrobiom
  • promowanie wzrostu roślin
  • ryzosfera
Accesso libero

Endophytic Bacteria In The Phytodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 70 - 79

Astratto

Abstract

Organic pollutants are released into the environment as a result of various human activities. Traditional physical and chemical methods for the clean-up of contaminated soil and water are often costly and invasive. A good alternative to the above methods is bacteria-assisted phytodegradation. Recently, particular attention has been focused on endophytic bacteria equipped with appropriate metabolic pathways, increasing the efficiency of organic compound degradation, and promoting plant growth. Endophytic bacteria are known to degrade various classes of organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile and monocyclic organic compounds, explosives as well as pesticides. They may also assist the bioremediation of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Additionally, endophytic bacteria can promote the growth and development of plants through a wide range of direct and indirect mechanisms, which also affect the effectiveness of phytoremediation processes.

1. Introduction. 2. Phytodegradation of organic pollutants. 3. Sources of endophytic bacteria enhancing phytodegradation. 4. Organic pollutants degraded by endophytic bacteria. 5. Genetic basis of xenobiotics degradation in endophytic bacteria. 6. Mechanisms enhancing microbe-assisted phytodegradation. 7. Summary

Key words

  • endophytic bacteria
  • phytodegradation
  • organic pollutants

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie endofityczne
  • fitodegradacja
  • zanieczyszczenia organiczne
Accesso libero

New Data On Isopenicillin N Synthase And Peroxisome Co-Location In The Hyphal Cells Of Penicillium Chrysogenum PQ-96 – Pexophagy And Exocytosis

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 80 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

The machinery of antibiotic production by Penicillium chrysogenum PQ-96 is composed of co-located cytosolic and peroxisomal enzymes of the penicillin G biosynthesis pathway. Pexophagy and exocytosis should be currently considered as an alternative for penicillin G secretion from the mycelial cells. Penicillin G overproduction is a cellular detoxification process, protecting the mycelium from the toxicity of the antibiotic precursor.

1. Introduction. 2. Peroxisomal functions and penicillin G biosynthesis. 3. Immunoelectron microscopyof isopenicillin N synthase. 4. Ultrastructural localization of peroxisomes. 5. Pexophagy and exocytosis – secretion of penicillin G. 6. Conclusions

Key words

  • penicillin G
  • biosynthesis
  • secretion
  • pexophagy
  • exocytosis
  • detoxification

Słowa kluczowe

  • penicylina G
  • biosynteza
  • sekrecja
  • peksofagia
  • egzocytoza
  • detoksykacja
Accesso libero

Cell Banks Preparation In Biopharmaceuticals Production

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 87 - 100

Astratto

Abstract

The fast development of the biopharmaceutical market is correlated with the growing number and availability of technologies for the production of so-called biodrugs. One of the main procedures for therapeutic protein production is based on bacterial expression systems. In order to maintain the constant quality and homogeneity of the initial inoculum, the cell bank must be created in full accordance with quality standards. The first step should be the establishment of a Master Cell Bank (MCB), which must be performed in a laboratory that meets high quality standards and according to well-described main procedures. The MCB should be initiated from a single well-characterised bacterial colony. A Working Cell Bank (WCB) is usually prepared as a second step from one or few vials deposited in the MCB. The WCB must be characterised for bacterial strain homology and be free of any biological cross contamination. This paper describes the main requirements and good practises for the preparation of a cell bank suitable for constant and reproducible production of biopharmaceuticals.

1. Introduction. 2. Prokaryotic expression system. 3. Cell banking system. 4. Cell banks characterization. 4.1. Conformation of identity (properties) of the bacterial strain. 4.2. Confirmation of the purity of the bacterial strain. 5. Summary

Key words

  • cell banks
  • recombinant proteins
  • biopharmaceuticals
  • MCB
  • expression system
  • WCB

Słowa kluczowe

  • banki komórek
  • białka rekombinowane
  • biofaramaceutyki
  • MCB
  • system ekspresyjny
  • WCB
Accesso libero

Antiviral Disinfection In The Medical Area

Pubblicato online: 15 Oct 2019
Pagine: 101 - 110

Astratto

Abstract

Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a serious public health problem. This problem affects hundreds of millions of people every year, leading to many serious health complications. Disinfection is an important element in the prevention and control of viral infections, which is the basis of sanitation and hygiene processes in medical facilities such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, dental offices, etc. The disinfection is a complex process, the efficacy of which is influenced by many factors. The disinfectant, apart from the fact that it requires competent and proper use, also has to meet certain criteria, including the wide range of biocidal activity confirmed by well-known and well-designed research methods.

1. Introduction. 2. Disinfection. 3. The effectiveness of the disinfection process. 4. Requirements for disinfectants. 5. Testing of virucidal activity of disinfectants. 6. Antiviral disinfection – practical aspects

Key words

  • disinfection
  • viruses
  • virucidal activity testing

Słowa kluczowe

  • dezynfekcja
  • wirusy
  • badanie aktywności wirusobójczej
10 Articoli
Accesso libero

Characteristics And Use Of Multicopper Oxidases Enzymes

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 7 - 18

Astratto

Abstract

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a large family of blue copper proteins which contain from one to six copper atoms per molecule. Their catalytic centre consists of three domains which involve type I Cu, type II Cu and a pair of type III Cu’s. They include laccases, ferroxidases, ascorbate oxidase, bilirubin oxidase, laccase-like multicopper oxidases. MCOs are capable of one-electron oxidizing of aromatic as well as non-aromatic compounds with a concomitant four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. These properties make them a valuable tool in various industries (e.g. food, textile, pharmaceutical) medicine or environment protection.

1. Introduction. 2. Multicopper oxidases – classification, structure and properties. 3. Identification methods of MCOs. 4. Laccases vs. others MCOs. 5. Application of multicopper oxidases. 6. Summary

Key words

  • microorganisms
  • laccases
  • multicopper oxidases

Słowa kluczowe

  • drobnoustroje
  • lakazy
  • wielomiedziowe oksydazy
Accesso libero

Cathelicidins In Humans And Animals

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 19 - 28

Astratto

Abstract

Cathelicidins are Important immunological peptides – HDPs (Host Defense Peptides) with high biological activity in mammals, including human and vertebrate animals. These evolutionary ancient molecules in these organisms are natural elements of antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic immunity against which germs and parasites have not developed immunity, which makes them alternatives to antibiotics. Catelicidins in human and vertebrates affect the germs and parasites directly and indirectly by activating the immune system.

1.What are immune peptides. 2. Cathelicidins. 2.1. Catelicidins in humans. 2.2. Cathelicidins in animals. 3. Summary

Key words

  • human
  • cathelicidins
  • animals

Słowa kluczowe

  • człowiek
  • katelicydyny
  • zwierzęta
Accesso libero

New Species Of Bacteria In Human Infections

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 29 - 34

Astratto

Abstract

In the last few years, there have been works in literature describing clinical cases of infections with bacteria previously considered to be non-pathogenic. So far, these bacteria have been commonly isolated from the natural environment: water, soil, plants, and isolation from a sample of clinical material has often been considered an impurity. Therefore, the aim of the paper was to draw attention to newly emerging bacterial species, their characteristics, biochemical properties, virulence factors and predisposition to selected forms of infection in groups of patients with specific risk factors. The impact on the more frequent isolation of species of bacteria previously considered to be non-pathogenic has several aspects: reliable diagnostic methods, including correct identification of the species, enabling the differentiation of closely related bacteria, the growing group of immune-compromised patients and with infectious risk factors (such as older age, diabetes, tumours, organ transplantation), more susceptible to infection, also with less pathogenic microorganisms. Greater adaptability of bacteria to new environmental conditions, including the human body, are also worth mentioning. The pathogenic effect of these bacteria, mainly related to the production of biofilms and factors conditioning adhesion to host cells or biomaterials, facilitating colonization and subsequent infection, is also important.

The progress in medicine that has taken place in recent years has positively influenced the life expectancy of patients with certain diseases and in many situations, it contributed to an improvement in its quality. Unfortunately, it also made it possible to cause infection with bacteria that were previously considered to be low or non-pathogenic.

1. Introduction. 2. Gram-positive rods 3. Streptococci with special nutritional requirements 4. Gram-negative rods. 5. Summary

Key words

  • Arcanobacterium
  • Delftia
  • Granulicatella
  • Pantoea

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arcanobacterium
  • Delftia
  • Granulicatella
  • Pantoea
Accesso libero

Analysis Of Selected Genetic Traits, Phenotypes, And The Epidemiological Threat Of Enterococcus Bacteria Resistant To Vancomycin

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 35 - 48

Astratto

Abstract

Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that belong to facultative anaerobic cocci. Species belonging to the Enterococcus genus generally display little infectious potential, although they can cause serious nosocomial infections. The groups at high risk include patients with proliferative diseases, chronic liver diseases, and graft recipients. Since 1980s infections with enterococci resistant to numerous antibiotics have been observed with increasing frequency. There are two independent ways of developing resistance to vancomycin, connected with the common use of vancomycin for MRSA treatment and the non-medical use of this antibiotic. Nine phenotypes of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal strains can be distinguished: VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, VanG, VanL, VanM, VanN. These phenotypes differ at the molecular level to a different extent. Current treatments of enterococcal infections usually include drugs such as linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, and chloramphenicol. Data available from Europe and other parts of the world indicate a constant increase in the number of emerging VRE isolates, as well as strains resistant to antibiotics other than vancomycin.

1. Introduction. 2. Infections with enterococci. 3. Treatment of enterococcal infections and antimicrobial resistance. 4. Development of VRE phenomenon. 5. Drugs used to control infections with VRE strains. 6. Routes of VRE spread. 7. VRE phenotypes. 8. Molecular characteristics of VRE phenotypes. 9. Epidemiological situation in the world. 10. Epidemiological situation in Poland. 11. Epidemiological situation in Europe. 12. Summary

Key words

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • vancomycin
  • VRE

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność
  • wankomycyna
  • VRE
Accesso libero

Taxonomy Of Dermatophytes – The Classification Systems May Change But The Identification Problems Remain The Same

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 49 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

Fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails are the most prevalent among all fungal infections, currently affecting over 20–25% of the world’s human and animal populations. Dermatophytes are the etiological factors of the most superficial fungal infections. Among other pathogenic filamentous fungi, what distinguishes them is their unique attribute to degrade keratin. The remarkable ability of this group of fungi to survive in different ecosystems results from their morphological and ecological diversity as well as high adaptability to changing environmental conditions. Dermatophytes, although they are one of the oldest groups of microorganisms recognised as pathogens, have not been classified in a stable taxonomic system for a long time. In terms of diagnostics, dermatophytes still pose a serious problem in the identification procedure, which is often related to therapeutic errors. The increasing number of infections (including zoonoses), the lack of taxonomic stability, and the ambiguous clinical picture of dermatomycosis cases necessitate the search for new methods for the rapid, cheap, and reproducible species identification of these fungi. In turn, the species identification is determined by the clarity of classification criteria combined with the taxonomic division generally accepted by microbiologists and referring to the views expressed by clinicians, epidemiologists, and scientists. In this paper, the authors present the evolution of taxonomic systems for dermatophytes over the history of microbiology development. The discovery of new facts about the biology and ecology of dermatophytes and the development of techniques applied in a mycological diagnosis laboratory facilitated the development of new identification strategies at various points in the history. The modern molecular classification system of these pathogens seems to be stable and widely accepted. However, will it end the long-standing classification confusion and the period of hundreds of nomenclatural changes, which are a diagnostician’s nightmare? It can be argued that the taxonomy of dermatophytes, in particular that of anthropophilic species, is sufficiently established and stable for the benefit of both clinicians and scientists.

1. Introduction. 2. First dermatophyte classification systems. 3. Phenotypic classification systems. 4. “Biological” era in the classification. 5. Ecological division of dermatophytes. 6. Molecular revolution in the taxonomy of dermatophytes. 7. Taxonomic problems in mycology. 8. Clinical aspect of the taxonomy of dermatophytes. 9. Current classification system. 10. Indistinguishable «species complexes». 11. Summary

Key words

  • dermatophytes
  • taxonomy
  • identification methods
  • classification system
  • nomenclature

Słowa kluczowe

  • dermatofity
  • taksonomia
  • metody identyfikacji
  • system klasyfikacyjny
  • nomenklatura
Accesso libero

The Rhizosphere Microbiome And Its Beneficial Effects On Plants – Current Knowledge And Perspectives

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 59 - 69

Astratto

Abstract

The root system of a plant works like a factory that produces a huge amount of chemicals to communicate effectively with the microorganisms around it. At the same time, micro-organisms can use these compounds as an energy source. The variety of microorganisms associated with plant roots is enormous, amounting to tens of thousands of species. This complex microbial community, also called the second plant genome, is essential for plant health and productivity. Over the last few years, there has been significant progress in research into the structure and dynamics of the microbial sphere of the rhizosphere. It has been proven that plants shape the composition of microorganisms by synthesizing root secretions. On the other hand, microorganisms play a key role in the functioning of plants through their positive impact on their growth and development. In general, rhizosphere microorganisms promote plant growth directly by providing plants with minerals such as nitrogen and phosphorus and by synthesizing growth regulators, as well as indirectly, by inhibiting the development of various plant pathogens.

1. Introduction. 2. Functions of rhizosphere microorganisms. 3. Microorganisms increasing the availability of minerals. 4. Microorganisms synthesizing plant growth regulators. 5. Biological plant protection. 6. Summary

Key words

  • microbiome
  • promoting plant growth
  • rhizosphere

Słowa kluczowe

  • mikrobiom
  • promowanie wzrostu roślin
  • ryzosfera
Accesso libero

Endophytic Bacteria In The Phytodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 70 - 79

Astratto

Abstract

Organic pollutants are released into the environment as a result of various human activities. Traditional physical and chemical methods for the clean-up of contaminated soil and water are often costly and invasive. A good alternative to the above methods is bacteria-assisted phytodegradation. Recently, particular attention has been focused on endophytic bacteria equipped with appropriate metabolic pathways, increasing the efficiency of organic compound degradation, and promoting plant growth. Endophytic bacteria are known to degrade various classes of organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile and monocyclic organic compounds, explosives as well as pesticides. They may also assist the bioremediation of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Additionally, endophytic bacteria can promote the growth and development of plants through a wide range of direct and indirect mechanisms, which also affect the effectiveness of phytoremediation processes.

1. Introduction. 2. Phytodegradation of organic pollutants. 3. Sources of endophytic bacteria enhancing phytodegradation. 4. Organic pollutants degraded by endophytic bacteria. 5. Genetic basis of xenobiotics degradation in endophytic bacteria. 6. Mechanisms enhancing microbe-assisted phytodegradation. 7. Summary

Key words

  • endophytic bacteria
  • phytodegradation
  • organic pollutants

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie endofityczne
  • fitodegradacja
  • zanieczyszczenia organiczne
Accesso libero

New Data On Isopenicillin N Synthase And Peroxisome Co-Location In The Hyphal Cells Of Penicillium Chrysogenum PQ-96 – Pexophagy And Exocytosis

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 80 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

The machinery of antibiotic production by Penicillium chrysogenum PQ-96 is composed of co-located cytosolic and peroxisomal enzymes of the penicillin G biosynthesis pathway. Pexophagy and exocytosis should be currently considered as an alternative for penicillin G secretion from the mycelial cells. Penicillin G overproduction is a cellular detoxification process, protecting the mycelium from the toxicity of the antibiotic precursor.

1. Introduction. 2. Peroxisomal functions and penicillin G biosynthesis. 3. Immunoelectron microscopyof isopenicillin N synthase. 4. Ultrastructural localization of peroxisomes. 5. Pexophagy and exocytosis – secretion of penicillin G. 6. Conclusions

Key words

  • penicillin G
  • biosynthesis
  • secretion
  • pexophagy
  • exocytosis
  • detoxification

Słowa kluczowe

  • penicylina G
  • biosynteza
  • sekrecja
  • peksofagia
  • egzocytoza
  • detoksykacja
Accesso libero

Cell Banks Preparation In Biopharmaceuticals Production

Pubblicato online: 10 Jun 2019
Pagine: 87 - 100

Astratto

Abstract

The fast development of the biopharmaceutical market is correlated with the growing number and availability of technologies for the production of so-called biodrugs. One of the main procedures for therapeutic protein production is based on bacterial expression systems. In order to maintain the constant quality and homogeneity of the initial inoculum, the cell bank must be created in full accordance with quality standards. The first step should be the establishment of a Master Cell Bank (MCB), which must be performed in a laboratory that meets high quality standards and according to well-described main procedures. The MCB should be initiated from a single well-characterised bacterial colony. A Working Cell Bank (WCB) is usually prepared as a second step from one or few vials deposited in the MCB. The WCB must be characterised for bacterial strain homology and be free of any biological cross contamination. This paper describes the main requirements and good practises for the preparation of a cell bank suitable for constant and reproducible production of biopharmaceuticals.

1. Introduction. 2. Prokaryotic expression system. 3. Cell banking system. 4. Cell banks characterization. 4.1. Conformation of identity (properties) of the bacterial strain. 4.2. Confirmation of the purity of the bacterial strain. 5. Summary

Key words

  • cell banks
  • recombinant proteins
  • biopharmaceuticals
  • MCB
  • expression system
  • WCB

Słowa kluczowe

  • banki komórek
  • białka rekombinowane
  • biofaramaceutyki
  • MCB
  • system ekspresyjny
  • WCB
Accesso libero

Antiviral Disinfection In The Medical Area

Pubblicato online: 15 Oct 2019
Pagine: 101 - 110

Astratto

Abstract

Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a serious public health problem. This problem affects hundreds of millions of people every year, leading to many serious health complications. Disinfection is an important element in the prevention and control of viral infections, which is the basis of sanitation and hygiene processes in medical facilities such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, dental offices, etc. The disinfection is a complex process, the efficacy of which is influenced by many factors. The disinfectant, apart from the fact that it requires competent and proper use, also has to meet certain criteria, including the wide range of biocidal activity confirmed by well-known and well-designed research methods.

1. Introduction. 2. Disinfection. 3. The effectiveness of the disinfection process. 4. Requirements for disinfectants. 5. Testing of virucidal activity of disinfectants. 6. Antiviral disinfection – practical aspects

Key words

  • disinfection
  • viruses
  • virucidal activity testing

Słowa kluczowe

  • dezynfekcja
  • wirusy
  • badanie aktywności wirusobójczej

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