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Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

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Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

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Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Cresols and the microorganisms of the soil environment

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 7 - 17

Astratto

Abstract

Phenolic compounds, including cresols, in the soil environment are a result of natural processes such as: biodegradation of lignins and tannins, and anthropogenic activity. Cresols are present in disinfectants as well as in the wastewater from chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, paper and textile industry. They are also used in the production of insecticides, herbicides, medicines and antioxidants and have been classified as hazardous substances. Exposure of microorganisms to cresols can bring about changes in the structure of their cell membranes, resulting in their growth inhibition and cell lysis. However, there is still an untapped bioremediation potential in microorganisms, which are able to participate in the catabolism of cresols, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The typical strategies of the aerobic degradation of cresols include the use of monooxygenase and dioxygenase enzymes. Thanks to these enzymes, atoms of molecular oxygen initiate fission of the aromatic ring structure. Under anaerobic conditions, the mechanisms of cresol decomposition currently focus on the addition of fumarate, hydroxylation or carboxylation. The effectiveness of microorganisms in the degradation of cresols is not only due to their occurrence in consortia. They are also effective as single strains. The only controversial aspect involves using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or their genes in the bioaugmentation process. This is because they are strictly selected and target only specific substrates. Due to this, they do not compete with autochthonous microorganisms undergoing natural selection.

1. Introduction. 2. Natural and anthropogenic sources of cresols in the environment. 3. Toxicity of cresols. 4. The microorganisms participating in the distribution of cresols. 5. Aerobic catabolism of cresols. 6. Anaerobic catabolism of cresols. 7. Microbial degradation of cresols in the soil environment. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Naturalne i antropogeniczne źródła krezoli w środowisku. 3. Toksyczność krezoli. 4. Drobnoustroje uczestniczące w rozkładzie krezoli. 5. Tlenowy katabolizm krezoli. 6. Beztlenowy katabolizm krezoli. 7. Mikrobiologiczna degradacja krezoli w środowisku glebowym. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • biodegradation
  • soil
  • catabolism
  • cresols
  • microorganisms

Słowa kluczowe

  • biodegradacja
  • gleba
  • katabolizm
  • krezole
  • mikroorganizmy
Accesso libero

PROBIOTYKI I ICH POTENCJALNE WŁAŚCIWOŚCI ANTYOKSYDACYJNE

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 18 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Human population in the XXI century is struggling with the increasing incidence of such diseases as obesity, diabetes, cancers, food allergies and many others. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species and free radicals, may underlie the occurrence of many diseases. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effects on health and are established as dietary adjuncts. Researchers are trying to find potential probiotic strains which can exhibit antioxidant properties along other health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. Also, many studies have shown that consumption of probiotics as dietary supplements, may reduce oxidative damage and modify activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize the methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for their antioxidant potential. This paper presents the latest news related to probiotics and their antioxidative potential.

1. Introduction. 2. Antioxidants from food. 3. Probiotics. 4. Methods for antioxidative activity testing. 5. Probiotics antioxidative potential. 5.1. Food products containing probiotics. 6. In vivo studies – animal models. 7. Clinical trials. 8. Probiotics as antioxidants. 9. Conclusions

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Antyoksydanty pochodzące z żywności. 3. Probiotyki. 4. Metody analizy właściwości antyoksydacyjnych. 5. Potencjał antyoksydacyjny probiotyków. 5.1. Produkty spożywcze zawierające probiotyki. 6. Doświadczenia in vivo – modele zwierzęce. 7. Badania kliniczne. 8. Mechanizm działania probiotyków jako antyoksydantów. 9. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • probiotics
  • ROS

Słowa kluczowe

  • antyoksydanty
  • probiotyki
  • ROS
  • stres oksydacyjny
Accesso libero

Species diversity of bacteria associated with fungi of the genus Tuber (truffles)

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 28 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete hypogeous fungi, which form ectomycorrhizae with roots of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. Their fruiting bodies are valued for their distinctive aroma. The aroma might be partially due to complex bacterial community which colonizes their fruiting bodies. Some bacterial species are also believed to promote the truffle’ fruitification due to the fixation of nitrogen inside the developing truffles. Although truffles, especially of the species Tuber aestivum, are getting more popular and are widely cultivated, little is still known about their biology, composition and the role of their associative microbes. The aim of this study was to present the current knowledge about the bacterial communities associated with black truffles and their potential influence on the truffle life cycle and maturation.

1. Characteristics of truffles. 2. Diversity of bacterial species. 3. Conclusion

1. Charakterystyka trufli. 2. Różnorodność gatunkowa bakterii. 3. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • fructification bodies
  • bacterial community
  • truffles

Słowa kluczowe

  • owocnikowanie
  • społeczność
  • bakteryjna
  • trufle
Accesso libero

The human microbiome

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 33 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The human microbiome is represented by bacteria, archea, viruses, including bacteriophages, and fungi. These microorganisms colonize the human body and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis, including human immune status. Even though human microbiome is vital for the functioning of the human organism, it is still poorly understood, especially when it comes to archea, but also viruses and fungi. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowlegde about the microorganisms inhabiting essential biotypes of the human body, i.e. the skin, the mouth and the digestive tract, as well as the respiratory and urogenital tract.

1. Introduction. 2. The skin microbiome. 3. The oral microbiome. 4. The digestive tract microbiome. 5. The respiratory tract microbiome. 6. The urinary tract microbiome. 7. Summary

1. Wprowadzenie 2. Mikrobiom skóry 3. Mikrobiom jamy ustnej 4. Mikrobiom przewodu pokarmowego 5. Mikrobiom dróg oddechowych 6. Mikrobiom układu moczowo-płciowego 7. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • archea
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • microbiome
  • viruses

Słowa kluczowe

  • archea
  • bakterie
  • grzyby
  • mikrobiom
  • wirusy
Accesso libero

Application of the bacterial outer membrane vesicles in vaccine design

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 43 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular structures produced by most gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens of humans and animals. OMVs play an important role in the physiology of microorganisms and are an integral part of many biological processes. Following the discovery that they are able to transport many biomolecules, also these which have the ability to interact with the immune system, their potential use as non-replicating vaccines has become an important aspect of immunotherapeutic researches. These nano-sized elements exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune response, thanks to the ability to deliver naturally or artificially incorporated antigens within their structure. First vaccine based on outer membrane vesicles was developed almost 30 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This review presents some basic information on biogenesis and functions of OMVs. It also provides examples of pathogens, whose OMVs (in natural or modified form) have been used in the development of immunogenic vaccines against the organisms from which the vesicles had been obtained. OMVs are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and may become important part of biotechnology research, not limited to medical applications.

1. Introduction. 2. Outer membrane vesicles biogenesis. 3. Biological functions of outer membrane vesicles. 3.1. Role in response to stressors. 3.2. Role in the extracellular transport. 3.3. Role in biofilm formation. 4. OMVs in vaccine construction. 4.1. Neisseria meningitidis. 4.2. Vibrio cholerae. 4.3. Bordetella pertussis. 4.4. Chlamydia trachomatis. 4.5. Burkholderia pseudomallei. 4.6. Acinetobacter baumannii. 4.7. Francisella noatunensis. 4.8. Shigella spp. 4.9. Campylobacter jejuni. 5. Conclusions

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Biogeneza pęcherzyków zewnątrzbłonowych. 3. Funkcje pęcherzyków zewnątrzkomórkowych. 3.1. Udział w odpowiedzi na czynniki stresogenne. 3.2. Udział w transporcie pozakomórkowym. 3.3. Udział w tworzeniu biofilmu. 4. Pęcherzyki zewnątrzbłonowe w konstrukcji szczepionek. 4.1. Neisseria meningitidis. 4.2. Vibrio cholerae. 4.3. Bordetella pertussis. 4.4. Chlamydia trachomatis. 4.5. Burkholderia pseudomallei. 4.6. Acineto bacter baumannii. 4.7. Francisella noatunensis. 4.8. Shigella spp. 4.9. Campylobacter jejuni. 5. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • immunomodulation
  • new generation vaccines
  • outer membrane vesicles
  • recombinant antigens

Słowa kluczowe

  • antygeny rekombinowane
  • immunomodulacja
  • pęcherzyki zewnątrzbłonowe (OMVs
  • )
  • szczepionki nowej generacji
Accesso libero

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) – a new group of heterofermentative microorganisms from the plant environment

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 56 - 66

Astratto

Abstract

Recently, a unique kind of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e. fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), has been described. This specific group prefers D-fructose over D-glucose as a carbon source to growth. They can be found in fructose rich environments such as flowers, fruits and food products made of fermented fruits, for example tempoyak. In recent years, it has been revealed that insects which feed on food high in fructose are an abundant source of fructophilic bacteria. Bacterial communities inhabiting intestinal tracts of honeybees, bumblebees, Camponotus ants and tropical fruit flies were examined. At present FLAB includes six species: Fructobacillus fructosus, Fructobacillus durionis, Fructobacillus ficulneus, Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Fructobacillus tropaeoli and Lactobacillus kunkeei classified by Endo as obligatorily fructophilic, and only one species, namely Lactobacillus florum, as facultatively fructophilic. Latest publications describe new species of potential fructophilic characteristics, which suggests that there is still much to discover in that group.

1. Introduction. 2. Occurrence / Habitat. 3. Morphological characteristics of FLAB. 4. Physiological characteristics of FLAB. 5. Biochemical properties of FLAB. 6. Philogenetics. 7. Characterization of selected species of the genus Fructobacillus. 7.1. Fructobacillus fructosus. 7.2. Fructobacillus ficulneus. 7.3. Fructobacillus durionis. 7.4. Fructobacillus psedoficulneus. 7.5. Fructobacillus tropaeoli. 7.6. Lactobacillus kunkeei. 7.7. Lactobacillus florum. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Występowanie. 3. Cechy morfologiczne FLAB. 4. Cechy fizjologiczne FLAB. 5. Właściwości biochemiczne FLAB. 6. Filogenetyka. 7. Krótka charakterystyka wybranych gatunków z rodzaju Fructobacillus. 7.1. Fructobacillus fructosus. 7.2. Fructobacillus ficulneus. 7.3. Fructobacillus durionis. 7.4. Fructobacillus psedoficulneus. 7.5. Fructobacillus tropaeoli. 7.6. Lactobacillus kunkeei. 7.7. Lactobacillus florum. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • FLAB
  • fructophilic lactic acid bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • FLAB
  • fruktofilne bakterie kwasu mlekowego
Accesso libero

Bacteroides spp. – clinical significance, antibiotic resistance and identification methods

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 67 - 76

Astratto

Abstract

Anaerobic Bacteroides species are dominant microbiota of the digestive tract of mammals. Along with other symbiotic bacteria located in the gastrointestinal tract, they contribute to the proper functioning of the organism. Some Bacteroides species are highly pathogenic. Virulence of these bacteria is related to their polysaccharide capsule, lipopolysaccharide and a variety of enzymes and enterotoxin. In recent years, an increase of antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides spp. has been noted, therefore the changes to the antibiotic resistance patterns in these bacteria should be monitored. This study summarizes the current knowledge about the bacteria of Bacteroides species.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy of Bacteroides species. 3. Clinical significance of Bacteroides spp. 4. Antibiotic resistance. 4.1. Bacteroides species as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. 4.2. Antimicrobial resistance. 5. Methods of drug resistance determination. 6. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Systematyka bakterii z rodzaju Bacteroides. 3. Znaczenie kliniczne Bacteroides spp. 4. Oporność na leki u Bacteroides spp. 4.1. Bakterie z rodzaju Bacteroides jako rezerwuar determinantów oporności. 4.2. Oporność na środki przeciwdrobnoustrojowe. 5. Metody określania lekowrażliwości. 6. Podsumowanie

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność
  • chorobotwórczość

Key words

  • antibiotic resistance
  • pathogenicity
Accesso libero

Amyloids, common proteins among microorganisms

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 77 - 87

Astratto

Abstract

Historically, the term amyloid was used strictly with reference to human neurodegenerative diseases. Nowadays, it is known that many proteins have the potential to conformational changes into β-sheet structures with tendency to form insoluble amyloid fibrils. Moreover, amyloid proteins are widespread among microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi produce functional amyloids which exhibit all characteristics of amyloid proteins, but in contrast to a numerous group of human toxic amyloids, they play important physiological functions in microorganisms. There is growing evidence that functional amyloids are important in bacterial adhesion and invasion. Furthermore, amyloids make biofilms thicker, rougher, and more resistant to drying out. The increasing interest in better understanding of the nature of these unusual microbial proteins and their role in pathogenesis are likely to contribute to the effective treatment or prevention of infectious diseases in humans.

1. Introduction. 2. Bacterial amyloids. 2.1. Curli fibers. 2.1.1. Curli biogenesis. 2.1.2. Regulation of csg operon. 2.1.3. Participation of curli in bacterial virulence. 2.1.4. Role of curli in pathogenesis. 2.2. Other bacterial amyloids. 2.3. Fungal amyloids. 3. Recapitulation

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Amyloidy bakteryjne. 2.1. Fimbrie spiralne. 2.1.1. Synteza fimbrii spiralnych. 2.1.2. Regulacja ekspresji operonu csg. 2.1.3. Udział fimbrii spiralnych w wirulencji bakterii. 2.1.4. Rola fimbrii spiralnych w patogenezie zakażeń człowieka. 2.2. Inne amyloidy bakteryjne. 2.3. Amyloidy grzybicze. 3. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • functional amyloids
  • biofilm
  • curli fibers

Słowa kluczowe

  • amyloidy funkcjonalne
  • biofilm
  • fimbrie spiralne
Accesso libero

Mechanisms of arsenic toxicity and transport in microorganisms

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 88 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

Arsenic is an ubiquitous element present in the environment either through geological or anthropogenic activities. Millions of people all over the world are exposed to arsenic mainly via air, drinking water and food sources, which results in higher incidence of cancer. Several mechanisms by which arsenic compounds induce tumorigenesis have been proposed. Arsenic mediates its toxicity by generating oxidative stress, inducing protein misfolding, promoting genotoxicity, hampering DNA repair and disrupting signal transduction. Thus, all organisms have developed multiple pathways for arsenic detoxification. In this article, we review recent advances in the understanding of arsenic toxicity and its transport routes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in the uptake and efflux, active transport out of the cell via secondary ion pumps and sequestration of metalloid-thiol conjugates into vacuoles by primary ABC transporters. We believe that such studies are of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio-and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid-polluted areas.

1. Introduction. 2. The chemical properties and the presence of arsenic in the environment. 3. Pathways for arsenic uptake. 4. Mechanism of trivalent arsenic toxicity. 4.1. Oxidative stress. 4.2. Arsenic binding to proteins. 4.3. Protein aggregation. 5. Pentavalent arsenic toxicity. 6. Cellular detoxification mechanisms of arsenic compounds. 6.1. ars operons. 6.2. ACR genes. 6.3. Removal of arsenic conjugates by the ABC transporters. 6.4. Bi-directional transport of arsenic. 7. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Właściwości chemiczne i występowanie arsenu w środowisku. 3. Sposoby wnikania arsenu do komórek. 4. Mechanizmy toksycznego działania arsenu trójwartościowego. 4.1. Stres oksydacyjny. 4.2. Wiązanie z białkami. 4.3. Agregacja białek. 5. Toksyczność pięciowartościowego arsenu. 6. Mechanizmy detoksykacji komórek ze związków arsenu. 6.1. Operony ars. 6.2. Geny ACR. 6.3. Usuwanie koniugatów arsenu przez pierwotne transportery ABC. 6.4. Dwukierunkowy transport arsenu. 7. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • arsenic
  • toxicity
  • transport
  • uptake

Słowa kluczowe

  • arsen
  • toksyczność
  • transport
  • wnikanie
Accesso libero

Factors responsible for the development of Lyme carditis

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 100 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes are unique in many aspects. They are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis, meta-zoonotic, tick-borne disease of mammals, including humans. Ixodes spp. ticks are the vector. With the exception of erythema chronicum migrant (EM), manifestations of the disease may vary depending on the genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. One of the symptoms is Lyme carditis. To date, the causative factors and the mechanisms of pathogenesis have not been well-described.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes are considered as one of the most invasive mammalian pathogen. They are able to move through the skin, as well as break into and out of blood vessels, easily crossing the blood-brain barrier. Genes encoding various motility forms are bound with chemotaxis signaling system which leads and coordinates motion functions. The attachment of bacteria to host cells or extracellular matrix may promote colonization and disease development. Lyme disease spirochetes encode several surface proteins including decorin binding adhesion (DbpA), which varies among strains contributing to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. The strains demonstrating the greatest decorin-binding activity promote the greatest colonization of heart and cause the most severe carditis. Moreover, the manifestation of Lyme carditis in certain hosts may be a result of an autoimmunological reaction due to molecular mimicry between B. burgdorferi and host self-components. In mammals, infection with B. burgdorferi induces the development of antibodies which may cross-react with myosin and neural tissue.

1. Introduction. 2. Lyme carditis – symptoms, recognition and treatment. 3. Patho-mechanism of Lyme carditis. 3.1. Spirochetes motility. 3.2. Chemotaxis and adhesion. 3.3. Autoimmunological reactions. 4. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Lyme carditis – objawy, rozpoznanie i leczenie. 3. Patomechanizm zapalenia serca. 3.1. Ruch krętków. 3.2. Chemotaksja i adhezja. 3.3. Reakcje autoimmunologiczne. 4. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • patho-mechanism

Słowa kluczowe

  • patomechanizm
Accesso libero

Pathogenic free-living amoeba

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 106 - 112

Astratto

Abstract

Invasions caused by free-living and parasitic limax amoeba can pose a major threat to human health and life. The amoeba from the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria as well as the following species: Sappina diploidea, S. pedata, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and probably Hartmannella vermiformis, are the major cause of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK). Furthermore, free-living amoeba can be vectors of bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marces cens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a need for more research on free-living amoeba invasions in humans, particularly on the methods of diagnosis and appropriate forms of pharmacological therapy. Despite the undeniable role of free-living amoeba in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria, there is still insufficient amount of research and optimal diagnostic methods to identify the mechanisms of penetration, proliferation and exocytosis of many pathogenic microorganisms.

1. Introduction. 2. Morphology and growth of parasites. 3. Presence of free-living amoeba in the environment. 4. Pathogenicity of limax amoeba 4.1. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). 4.2. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). 4.3. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). 5. Basic diagnosis of infections caused by free-living amoeba. 5.1. Direct testing. 5.2. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis. 5.3. Smear test or biopsy of abnormal tissue. 5.4. Proliferation methods. 5.5. Molecular diagnostics. 6. Treatment. 7. Amoeba as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Budowa morfologiczna i rozwój pasożytów. 3. Występowanie pełzaków wolno żyjących w środowisku. 4. Chorobotwórczość pełzaków z "grupy limax”. 4.1. Przewlekłe ziarniniakowe zapalenie mózgu (GAE). 4.2. Pełzakowe zapalenie rogówki oka (AK). 4.3. Pierwotne zapalenie mózgu i opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych (PAM). 5. Podstawy diagnostyki zarażeń wywołanych przez pełzaki wolno żyjące. 5.1. Badania bezpośrednie. 5.2. Badanie płynu mózgowo-rdzeniowego. 5.3. Badania wymazu lub bioptatu pobranego ze zmian w narządach. 5.4. Metody hodowlane. 5.5. Diagnostyka molekularna. 6. Leczenie. 7. Pełzaki jako wektory chorobotwórczych drobnoustrojów. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • sp.
  • vectors of bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp.
  • wektory bakterii
Accesso libero

Assessing biocidal activity of agents used in chemical-thermal decontamination of hospital textiles in the light of new European Standard PN-EN 16616: 2015-10. Chemical-thermal decontamination of textiles

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 113 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

Appropriate decontamination of hospital textiles depends heavily on specifically defined proceedings for handling decontaminated hospital textiles (collection, segregation, packing, transportation) and appropriate disinfection in the laundry process. It is becoming increasingly common to disinfect hospital textiles in a chemical-thermal process. Disinfectants used in this process should be applied according to functional parameters defined in validated and repeatable test methods. Changes in assessing the activity of agents used in chemical-thermal disinfection of hospital textiles refer primarily to the standardization of testing methods for these agents. PN-EN 16616 Standard which regards chemical-thermal disinfection of textiles clearly regulates the rules of assessing the effectiveness of agents used in the disinfection of hospital textiles and defines a possible scope of their biocidal activity (bactericidal, tuberculocidal and fungicidal activity). It is assumed that further assessment of the activity of sporicidal agents will be developed in the future.

1. Introduction. 2. Categorisation of hospital textiles and required scope of decontamination. 3. Chemical-thermal disinfection in the laundry process. 4. Chemical-thermal disinfection of hospital textiles in the laundry process – agents. 5. European Standard PN-EN 16616: 2015-10. Chemical Disinfectants And Antiseptics – Chemical-Thermal Textile Disinfection – Test Method And Requirements (phase 2, step 2). 6. Assessing sporicidal activity of disinfectants in the process of chemical-thermal disinfection – perspectives. 7. Assessing virucidal activity of disinfectants in the process of chemical-thermal disinfection – perspectives. 8. Conclusions

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Kategoriebieliznyszpitalnej i wymaganyzakresdekontaminacji. 3. Proceschemiczno-termicznejdezynfekcji w procesieprania. 4. Dezynfekcjachemiczno-termicznabielizny w procesieprania–preparaty. 5. Norma Europejska PN-EN 16616: 2015-10. Chemiczneśrodki dezynfekcyjne i antyseptyczne. Dezynfekcjachemiczno-termicznatekstyliów. Metodabadania i wymagania (faza 2, etap 2). 6. Metodyocenyaktywności sporobójczej preparatów dezynfekcyjnych w procesiedezynfekcjichemiczno-termicznej–perspektywy. 7. Metodyocenyaktywności wirusobójczej preparatów dezynfekcyjnych w procesiedezynfekcjichemiczno-termicznej–perspektywy. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • hospital textiles
  • chemical-thermal disinfection
  • EN 16616

Słowa kluczowe

  • bieliznaszpitalna
  • chemiczno-termicznadezynfekcja
  • PN-EN 16616
12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Cresols and the microorganisms of the soil environment

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 7 - 17

Astratto

Abstract

Phenolic compounds, including cresols, in the soil environment are a result of natural processes such as: biodegradation of lignins and tannins, and anthropogenic activity. Cresols are present in disinfectants as well as in the wastewater from chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, paper and textile industry. They are also used in the production of insecticides, herbicides, medicines and antioxidants and have been classified as hazardous substances. Exposure of microorganisms to cresols can bring about changes in the structure of their cell membranes, resulting in their growth inhibition and cell lysis. However, there is still an untapped bioremediation potential in microorganisms, which are able to participate in the catabolism of cresols, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The typical strategies of the aerobic degradation of cresols include the use of monooxygenase and dioxygenase enzymes. Thanks to these enzymes, atoms of molecular oxygen initiate fission of the aromatic ring structure. Under anaerobic conditions, the mechanisms of cresol decomposition currently focus on the addition of fumarate, hydroxylation or carboxylation. The effectiveness of microorganisms in the degradation of cresols is not only due to their occurrence in consortia. They are also effective as single strains. The only controversial aspect involves using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or their genes in the bioaugmentation process. This is because they are strictly selected and target only specific substrates. Due to this, they do not compete with autochthonous microorganisms undergoing natural selection.

1. Introduction. 2. Natural and anthropogenic sources of cresols in the environment. 3. Toxicity of cresols. 4. The microorganisms participating in the distribution of cresols. 5. Aerobic catabolism of cresols. 6. Anaerobic catabolism of cresols. 7. Microbial degradation of cresols in the soil environment. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Naturalne i antropogeniczne źródła krezoli w środowisku. 3. Toksyczność krezoli. 4. Drobnoustroje uczestniczące w rozkładzie krezoli. 5. Tlenowy katabolizm krezoli. 6. Beztlenowy katabolizm krezoli. 7. Mikrobiologiczna degradacja krezoli w środowisku glebowym. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • biodegradation
  • soil
  • catabolism
  • cresols
  • microorganisms

Słowa kluczowe

  • biodegradacja
  • gleba
  • katabolizm
  • krezole
  • mikroorganizmy
Accesso libero

PROBIOTYKI I ICH POTENCJALNE WŁAŚCIWOŚCI ANTYOKSYDACYJNE

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 18 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Human population in the XXI century is struggling with the increasing incidence of such diseases as obesity, diabetes, cancers, food allergies and many others. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species and free radicals, may underlie the occurrence of many diseases. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effects on health and are established as dietary adjuncts. Researchers are trying to find potential probiotic strains which can exhibit antioxidant properties along other health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. Also, many studies have shown that consumption of probiotics as dietary supplements, may reduce oxidative damage and modify activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize the methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for their antioxidant potential. This paper presents the latest news related to probiotics and their antioxidative potential.

1. Introduction. 2. Antioxidants from food. 3. Probiotics. 4. Methods for antioxidative activity testing. 5. Probiotics antioxidative potential. 5.1. Food products containing probiotics. 6. In vivo studies – animal models. 7. Clinical trials. 8. Probiotics as antioxidants. 9. Conclusions

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Antyoksydanty pochodzące z żywności. 3. Probiotyki. 4. Metody analizy właściwości antyoksydacyjnych. 5. Potencjał antyoksydacyjny probiotyków. 5.1. Produkty spożywcze zawierające probiotyki. 6. Doświadczenia in vivo – modele zwierzęce. 7. Badania kliniczne. 8. Mechanizm działania probiotyków jako antyoksydantów. 9. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • probiotics
  • ROS

Słowa kluczowe

  • antyoksydanty
  • probiotyki
  • ROS
  • stres oksydacyjny
Accesso libero

Species diversity of bacteria associated with fungi of the genus Tuber (truffles)

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 28 - 32

Astratto

Abstract

Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete hypogeous fungi, which form ectomycorrhizae with roots of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. Their fruiting bodies are valued for their distinctive aroma. The aroma might be partially due to complex bacterial community which colonizes their fruiting bodies. Some bacterial species are also believed to promote the truffle’ fruitification due to the fixation of nitrogen inside the developing truffles. Although truffles, especially of the species Tuber aestivum, are getting more popular and are widely cultivated, little is still known about their biology, composition and the role of their associative microbes. The aim of this study was to present the current knowledge about the bacterial communities associated with black truffles and their potential influence on the truffle life cycle and maturation.

1. Characteristics of truffles. 2. Diversity of bacterial species. 3. Conclusion

1. Charakterystyka trufli. 2. Różnorodność gatunkowa bakterii. 3. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • fructification bodies
  • bacterial community
  • truffles

Słowa kluczowe

  • owocnikowanie
  • społeczność
  • bakteryjna
  • trufle
Accesso libero

The human microbiome

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 33 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The human microbiome is represented by bacteria, archea, viruses, including bacteriophages, and fungi. These microorganisms colonize the human body and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis, including human immune status. Even though human microbiome is vital for the functioning of the human organism, it is still poorly understood, especially when it comes to archea, but also viruses and fungi. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowlegde about the microorganisms inhabiting essential biotypes of the human body, i.e. the skin, the mouth and the digestive tract, as well as the respiratory and urogenital tract.

1. Introduction. 2. The skin microbiome. 3. The oral microbiome. 4. The digestive tract microbiome. 5. The respiratory tract microbiome. 6. The urinary tract microbiome. 7. Summary

1. Wprowadzenie 2. Mikrobiom skóry 3. Mikrobiom jamy ustnej 4. Mikrobiom przewodu pokarmowego 5. Mikrobiom dróg oddechowych 6. Mikrobiom układu moczowo-płciowego 7. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • archea
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • microbiome
  • viruses

Słowa kluczowe

  • archea
  • bakterie
  • grzyby
  • mikrobiom
  • wirusy
Accesso libero

Application of the bacterial outer membrane vesicles in vaccine design

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 43 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular structures produced by most gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens of humans and animals. OMVs play an important role in the physiology of microorganisms and are an integral part of many biological processes. Following the discovery that they are able to transport many biomolecules, also these which have the ability to interact with the immune system, their potential use as non-replicating vaccines has become an important aspect of immunotherapeutic researches. These nano-sized elements exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune response, thanks to the ability to deliver naturally or artificially incorporated antigens within their structure. First vaccine based on outer membrane vesicles was developed almost 30 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This review presents some basic information on biogenesis and functions of OMVs. It also provides examples of pathogens, whose OMVs (in natural or modified form) have been used in the development of immunogenic vaccines against the organisms from which the vesicles had been obtained. OMVs are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and may become important part of biotechnology research, not limited to medical applications.

1. Introduction. 2. Outer membrane vesicles biogenesis. 3. Biological functions of outer membrane vesicles. 3.1. Role in response to stressors. 3.2. Role in the extracellular transport. 3.3. Role in biofilm formation. 4. OMVs in vaccine construction. 4.1. Neisseria meningitidis. 4.2. Vibrio cholerae. 4.3. Bordetella pertussis. 4.4. Chlamydia trachomatis. 4.5. Burkholderia pseudomallei. 4.6. Acinetobacter baumannii. 4.7. Francisella noatunensis. 4.8. Shigella spp. 4.9. Campylobacter jejuni. 5. Conclusions

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Biogeneza pęcherzyków zewnątrzbłonowych. 3. Funkcje pęcherzyków zewnątrzkomórkowych. 3.1. Udział w odpowiedzi na czynniki stresogenne. 3.2. Udział w transporcie pozakomórkowym. 3.3. Udział w tworzeniu biofilmu. 4. Pęcherzyki zewnątrzbłonowe w konstrukcji szczepionek. 4.1. Neisseria meningitidis. 4.2. Vibrio cholerae. 4.3. Bordetella pertussis. 4.4. Chlamydia trachomatis. 4.5. Burkholderia pseudomallei. 4.6. Acineto bacter baumannii. 4.7. Francisella noatunensis. 4.8. Shigella spp. 4.9. Campylobacter jejuni. 5. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • immunomodulation
  • new generation vaccines
  • outer membrane vesicles
  • recombinant antigens

Słowa kluczowe

  • antygeny rekombinowane
  • immunomodulacja
  • pęcherzyki zewnątrzbłonowe (OMVs
  • )
  • szczepionki nowej generacji
Accesso libero

Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) – a new group of heterofermentative microorganisms from the plant environment

Pubblicato online: 01 Apr 2017
Pagine: 56 - 66

Astratto

Abstract

Recently, a unique kind of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e. fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), has been described. This specific group prefers D-fructose over D-glucose as a carbon source to growth. They can be found in fructose rich environments such as flowers, fruits and food products made of fermented fruits, for example tempoyak. In recent years, it has been revealed that insects which feed on food high in fructose are an abundant source of fructophilic bacteria. Bacterial communities inhabiting intestinal tracts of honeybees, bumblebees, Camponotus ants and tropical fruit flies were examined. At present FLAB includes six species: Fructobacillus fructosus, Fructobacillus durionis, Fructobacillus ficulneus, Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Fructobacillus tropaeoli and Lactobacillus kunkeei classified by Endo as obligatorily fructophilic, and only one species, namely Lactobacillus florum, as facultatively fructophilic. Latest publications describe new species of potential fructophilic characteristics, which suggests that there is still much to discover in that group.

1. Introduction. 2. Occurrence / Habitat. 3. Morphological characteristics of FLAB. 4. Physiological characteristics of FLAB. 5. Biochemical properties of FLAB. 6. Philogenetics. 7. Characterization of selected species of the genus Fructobacillus. 7.1. Fructobacillus fructosus. 7.2. Fructobacillus ficulneus. 7.3. Fructobacillus durionis. 7.4. Fructobacillus psedoficulneus. 7.5. Fructobacillus tropaeoli. 7.6. Lactobacillus kunkeei. 7.7. Lactobacillus florum. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Występowanie. 3. Cechy morfologiczne FLAB. 4. Cechy fizjologiczne FLAB. 5. Właściwości biochemiczne FLAB. 6. Filogenetyka. 7. Krótka charakterystyka wybranych gatunków z rodzaju Fructobacillus. 7.1. Fructobacillus fructosus. 7.2. Fructobacillus ficulneus. 7.3. Fructobacillus durionis. 7.4. Fructobacillus psedoficulneus. 7.5. Fructobacillus tropaeoli. 7.6. Lactobacillus kunkeei. 7.7. Lactobacillus florum. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • FLAB
  • fructophilic lactic acid bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • FLAB
  • fruktofilne bakterie kwasu mlekowego
Accesso libero

Bacteroides spp. – clinical significance, antibiotic resistance and identification methods

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 67 - 76

Astratto

Abstract

Anaerobic Bacteroides species are dominant microbiota of the digestive tract of mammals. Along with other symbiotic bacteria located in the gastrointestinal tract, they contribute to the proper functioning of the organism. Some Bacteroides species are highly pathogenic. Virulence of these bacteria is related to their polysaccharide capsule, lipopolysaccharide and a variety of enzymes and enterotoxin. In recent years, an increase of antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides spp. has been noted, therefore the changes to the antibiotic resistance patterns in these bacteria should be monitored. This study summarizes the current knowledge about the bacteria of Bacteroides species.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy of Bacteroides species. 3. Clinical significance of Bacteroides spp. 4. Antibiotic resistance. 4.1. Bacteroides species as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. 4.2. Antimicrobial resistance. 5. Methods of drug resistance determination. 6. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Systematyka bakterii z rodzaju Bacteroides. 3. Znaczenie kliniczne Bacteroides spp. 4. Oporność na leki u Bacteroides spp. 4.1. Bakterie z rodzaju Bacteroides jako rezerwuar determinantów oporności. 4.2. Oporność na środki przeciwdrobnoustrojowe. 5. Metody określania lekowrażliwości. 6. Podsumowanie

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność
  • chorobotwórczość

Key words

  • antibiotic resistance
  • pathogenicity
Accesso libero

Amyloids, common proteins among microorganisms

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 77 - 87

Astratto

Abstract

Historically, the term amyloid was used strictly with reference to human neurodegenerative diseases. Nowadays, it is known that many proteins have the potential to conformational changes into β-sheet structures with tendency to form insoluble amyloid fibrils. Moreover, amyloid proteins are widespread among microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi produce functional amyloids which exhibit all characteristics of amyloid proteins, but in contrast to a numerous group of human toxic amyloids, they play important physiological functions in microorganisms. There is growing evidence that functional amyloids are important in bacterial adhesion and invasion. Furthermore, amyloids make biofilms thicker, rougher, and more resistant to drying out. The increasing interest in better understanding of the nature of these unusual microbial proteins and their role in pathogenesis are likely to contribute to the effective treatment or prevention of infectious diseases in humans.

1. Introduction. 2. Bacterial amyloids. 2.1. Curli fibers. 2.1.1. Curli biogenesis. 2.1.2. Regulation of csg operon. 2.1.3. Participation of curli in bacterial virulence. 2.1.4. Role of curli in pathogenesis. 2.2. Other bacterial amyloids. 2.3. Fungal amyloids. 3. Recapitulation

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Amyloidy bakteryjne. 2.1. Fimbrie spiralne. 2.1.1. Synteza fimbrii spiralnych. 2.1.2. Regulacja ekspresji operonu csg. 2.1.3. Udział fimbrii spiralnych w wirulencji bakterii. 2.1.4. Rola fimbrii spiralnych w patogenezie zakażeń człowieka. 2.2. Inne amyloidy bakteryjne. 2.3. Amyloidy grzybicze. 3. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • functional amyloids
  • biofilm
  • curli fibers

Słowa kluczowe

  • amyloidy funkcjonalne
  • biofilm
  • fimbrie spiralne
Accesso libero

Mechanisms of arsenic toxicity and transport in microorganisms

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 88 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

Arsenic is an ubiquitous element present in the environment either through geological or anthropogenic activities. Millions of people all over the world are exposed to arsenic mainly via air, drinking water and food sources, which results in higher incidence of cancer. Several mechanisms by which arsenic compounds induce tumorigenesis have been proposed. Arsenic mediates its toxicity by generating oxidative stress, inducing protein misfolding, promoting genotoxicity, hampering DNA repair and disrupting signal transduction. Thus, all organisms have developed multiple pathways for arsenic detoxification. In this article, we review recent advances in the understanding of arsenic toxicity and its transport routes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in the uptake and efflux, active transport out of the cell via secondary ion pumps and sequestration of metalloid-thiol conjugates into vacuoles by primary ABC transporters. We believe that such studies are of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio-and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid-polluted areas.

1. Introduction. 2. The chemical properties and the presence of arsenic in the environment. 3. Pathways for arsenic uptake. 4. Mechanism of trivalent arsenic toxicity. 4.1. Oxidative stress. 4.2. Arsenic binding to proteins. 4.3. Protein aggregation. 5. Pentavalent arsenic toxicity. 6. Cellular detoxification mechanisms of arsenic compounds. 6.1. ars operons. 6.2. ACR genes. 6.3. Removal of arsenic conjugates by the ABC transporters. 6.4. Bi-directional transport of arsenic. 7. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Właściwości chemiczne i występowanie arsenu w środowisku. 3. Sposoby wnikania arsenu do komórek. 4. Mechanizmy toksycznego działania arsenu trójwartościowego. 4.1. Stres oksydacyjny. 4.2. Wiązanie z białkami. 4.3. Agregacja białek. 5. Toksyczność pięciowartościowego arsenu. 6. Mechanizmy detoksykacji komórek ze związków arsenu. 6.1. Operony ars. 6.2. Geny ACR. 6.3. Usuwanie koniugatów arsenu przez pierwotne transportery ABC. 6.4. Dwukierunkowy transport arsenu. 7. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • arsenic
  • toxicity
  • transport
  • uptake

Słowa kluczowe

  • arsen
  • toksyczność
  • transport
  • wnikanie
Accesso libero

Factors responsible for the development of Lyme carditis

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 100 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes are unique in many aspects. They are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis, meta-zoonotic, tick-borne disease of mammals, including humans. Ixodes spp. ticks are the vector. With the exception of erythema chronicum migrant (EM), manifestations of the disease may vary depending on the genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. One of the symptoms is Lyme carditis. To date, the causative factors and the mechanisms of pathogenesis have not been well-described.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes are considered as one of the most invasive mammalian pathogen. They are able to move through the skin, as well as break into and out of blood vessels, easily crossing the blood-brain barrier. Genes encoding various motility forms are bound with chemotaxis signaling system which leads and coordinates motion functions. The attachment of bacteria to host cells or extracellular matrix may promote colonization and disease development. Lyme disease spirochetes encode several surface proteins including decorin binding adhesion (DbpA), which varies among strains contributing to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. The strains demonstrating the greatest decorin-binding activity promote the greatest colonization of heart and cause the most severe carditis. Moreover, the manifestation of Lyme carditis in certain hosts may be a result of an autoimmunological reaction due to molecular mimicry between B. burgdorferi and host self-components. In mammals, infection with B. burgdorferi induces the development of antibodies which may cross-react with myosin and neural tissue.

1. Introduction. 2. Lyme carditis – symptoms, recognition and treatment. 3. Patho-mechanism of Lyme carditis. 3.1. Spirochetes motility. 3.2. Chemotaxis and adhesion. 3.3. Autoimmunological reactions. 4. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Lyme carditis – objawy, rozpoznanie i leczenie. 3. Patomechanizm zapalenia serca. 3.1. Ruch krętków. 3.2. Chemotaksja i adhezja. 3.3. Reakcje autoimmunologiczne. 4. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • patho-mechanism

Słowa kluczowe

  • patomechanizm
Accesso libero

Pathogenic free-living amoeba

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 106 - 112

Astratto

Abstract

Invasions caused by free-living and parasitic limax amoeba can pose a major threat to human health and life. The amoeba from the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria as well as the following species: Sappina diploidea, S. pedata, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and probably Hartmannella vermiformis, are the major cause of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK). Furthermore, free-living amoeba can be vectors of bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marces cens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a need for more research on free-living amoeba invasions in humans, particularly on the methods of diagnosis and appropriate forms of pharmacological therapy. Despite the undeniable role of free-living amoeba in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria, there is still insufficient amount of research and optimal diagnostic methods to identify the mechanisms of penetration, proliferation and exocytosis of many pathogenic microorganisms.

1. Introduction. 2. Morphology and growth of parasites. 3. Presence of free-living amoeba in the environment. 4. Pathogenicity of limax amoeba 4.1. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). 4.2. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). 4.3. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). 5. Basic diagnosis of infections caused by free-living amoeba. 5.1. Direct testing. 5.2. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis. 5.3. Smear test or biopsy of abnormal tissue. 5.4. Proliferation methods. 5.5. Molecular diagnostics. 6. Treatment. 7. Amoeba as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Budowa morfologiczna i rozwój pasożytów. 3. Występowanie pełzaków wolno żyjących w środowisku. 4. Chorobotwórczość pełzaków z "grupy limax”. 4.1. Przewlekłe ziarniniakowe zapalenie mózgu (GAE). 4.2. Pełzakowe zapalenie rogówki oka (AK). 4.3. Pierwotne zapalenie mózgu i opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych (PAM). 5. Podstawy diagnostyki zarażeń wywołanych przez pełzaki wolno żyjące. 5.1. Badania bezpośrednie. 5.2. Badanie płynu mózgowo-rdzeniowego. 5.3. Badania wymazu lub bioptatu pobranego ze zmian w narządach. 5.4. Metody hodowlane. 5.5. Diagnostyka molekularna. 6. Leczenie. 7. Pełzaki jako wektory chorobotwórczych drobnoustrojów. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • sp.
  • vectors of bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp.
  • wektory bakterii
Accesso libero

Assessing biocidal activity of agents used in chemical-thermal decontamination of hospital textiles in the light of new European Standard PN-EN 16616: 2015-10. Chemical-thermal decontamination of textiles

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Pagine: 113 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

Appropriate decontamination of hospital textiles depends heavily on specifically defined proceedings for handling decontaminated hospital textiles (collection, segregation, packing, transportation) and appropriate disinfection in the laundry process. It is becoming increasingly common to disinfect hospital textiles in a chemical-thermal process. Disinfectants used in this process should be applied according to functional parameters defined in validated and repeatable test methods. Changes in assessing the activity of agents used in chemical-thermal disinfection of hospital textiles refer primarily to the standardization of testing methods for these agents. PN-EN 16616 Standard which regards chemical-thermal disinfection of textiles clearly regulates the rules of assessing the effectiveness of agents used in the disinfection of hospital textiles and defines a possible scope of their biocidal activity (bactericidal, tuberculocidal and fungicidal activity). It is assumed that further assessment of the activity of sporicidal agents will be developed in the future.

1. Introduction. 2. Categorisation of hospital textiles and required scope of decontamination. 3. Chemical-thermal disinfection in the laundry process. 4. Chemical-thermal disinfection of hospital textiles in the laundry process – agents. 5. European Standard PN-EN 16616: 2015-10. Chemical Disinfectants And Antiseptics – Chemical-Thermal Textile Disinfection – Test Method And Requirements (phase 2, step 2). 6. Assessing sporicidal activity of disinfectants in the process of chemical-thermal disinfection – perspectives. 7. Assessing virucidal activity of disinfectants in the process of chemical-thermal disinfection – perspectives. 8. Conclusions

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Kategoriebieliznyszpitalnej i wymaganyzakresdekontaminacji. 3. Proceschemiczno-termicznejdezynfekcji w procesieprania. 4. Dezynfekcjachemiczno-termicznabielizny w procesieprania–preparaty. 5. Norma Europejska PN-EN 16616: 2015-10. Chemiczneśrodki dezynfekcyjne i antyseptyczne. Dezynfekcjachemiczno-termicznatekstyliów. Metodabadania i wymagania (faza 2, etap 2). 6. Metodyocenyaktywności sporobójczej preparatów dezynfekcyjnych w procesiedezynfekcjichemiczno-termicznej–perspektywy. 7. Metodyocenyaktywności wirusobójczej preparatów dezynfekcyjnych w procesiedezynfekcjichemiczno-termicznej–perspektywy. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • hospital textiles
  • chemical-thermal disinfection
  • EN 16616

Słowa kluczowe

  • bieliznaszpitalna
  • chemiczno-termicznadezynfekcja
  • PN-EN 16616

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