Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 3 (January 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Small Colony Variants – The Cause Of Chronic Infections

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 183 - 194

Astratto

Abstract

Some microorganisms are characterised by the ability to create specific morphological varieties called Small Colony Variants (SCVs). This characteristic was noted, among others, in Gram-positive cocci, mainly staphylococci, but also in Gram-negative bacilli. The properties of Small Colony Variants that differentiate them from wild-type colonies (mainly their small size) facilitate their intracellular survival (e.g. in epithelial or endothelial cells) as a result of which they can escape host immune response. In this way, SCV forms avoid the effects of complement components or antibodies. They are also characterised by resistance to antibiotics, mainly aminoglycoside or combination drugs, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The above features, which are important from a clinical point of view, namely small size and antibiotic resistance, make SCV one of the main causes of chronic, latent and recurrent infections which are difficult not only to diagnose, but also to treat. According to the literature, SCV of various microorganisms can be isolated from systemic infections of various organs and therefore from different clinical materials (e.g. blood, bones, soft tissues). SCV forms of Staphylococcus aureus are often isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis or osteomyelitis. The paper presents the characteristics and clinical relevance of this unique morphological form of bacteria.

Key words

  • Small Colony Variants
  • chronic infections

Słowa kluczowe

  • Small Colony Variants
  • zakażenia przewlekłe
Accesso libero

Is There A Relationship Between The Intestinal Microbiota And Diabetes?

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 195 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

Due to the total number of microorganisms and multitude of roles they play in the human body, intestinal bacteria are increasingly called the “microbial organ”. Proper composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome is necessary to maintain human health. According to the latest studies, the imbalance in the composition of intestinal microorganisms, called dysbiosis, can result in development of numerous diseases, including metabolic disorders e.g. diabetes. The incidence of this disease is constantly increasing. The pathogenesis of diabetes is complicated and not yet fully understood. However, it is known that many factors influence its development. Intestinal microbiota is increasingly mentioned among them. Based on a literature review related to the subject, it can be concluded that dysbiosis, intestinal barrier damage and endotoxemia adversely affect metabolic parameters.

Parole chiave

  • diabetes
  • dysbiosis
  • insulin resistance
  • microbiom
  • gut microbiota

Słowa kluczowe

  • cukrzyca
  • dysbioza
  • insulinooporność
  • mikrobiom
  • mikrobiota jelitowa
Accesso libero

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 203 - 210

Astratto

Abstract

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by an increase in the number and/or presence of atypical bacteria in the small intestine. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms such as achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes and anatomical abnormalities such as small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections and motility disorders. Clinical signs of SIBO may be non-specific. Most often there is dyspepsia, diarrhoea, bloating and abdominal discomfort. SIBO can sometimes lead to malebsorption, severe malenutrition and/or other syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen breath tests are most commonly used for diagnosis of SIBO. Therapy for SIBO must be complex. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO.

Key words

  • IBS
  • microbiota
  • SIBO
  • hydrogen breath tests
  • small intestine bacterial overgrowth

Słowa kluczowe

  • IBS
  • mikrobiota
  • SIBO
  • wodorowe testy oddechowe
  • zespół przerostu bakteryjnego jelita cienkiego
Accesso libero

Usefulness Of Microbial Cytotoxins In The Diagnosis Of Selected Bacterial Infections

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 211 - 222

Astratto

Abstract

The reaction of synergistic hemolysis, which is the basis of the CAMP test, is used in the preliminary identification of selected bacterial pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, C. perfringens, S. agalactiae. The experimental part was to determine the influence blood cells of used, incubation time, distance between growth lines and the type of strains on the intensity of CAMP. Synergistic hemolysis was observed in the classic CAMP test, when 10% human blood cell is used in the medium. It has been shown that the optimal substrate for the CAMP test to identify Listeria sp. is an agar with the 5% addition of human blood cells. While sheep’s erythrocytes were the best substrate for hemolysis of C. perfringens. The optimum distance and incubation time for the tested bacterial species was 1–4 mm and 24 h. When performing preliminary identification of pathogenic microorganisms using the CAMP test, different types of erythrocytes should be used, due to strain and species-specific variabilieties.

Key words

  • microbiological diagnostics
  • synergistic hemolysis
  • CAMP test

Słowa kluczowe

  • diagnostyka mikrobiologiczna
  • hemoliza synergistyczna
  • Test CAMP
Accesso libero

Processed Food And Food Additives In The Context Of Dysbiosis And Its Health Consequences

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 223 - 230

Astratto

Abstract

The intestinal microbiota has many important functions in the human body. Many factors influence its composition, including diet. It is well known that an unhealthy diet and processed food are not indifferent to health. Processed food is the subject of much research, most often in the context of the development of obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Food additives are widely used to improve the taste, texture or attractiveness of food. Due to the proven occurrence of intestinal dysbiosis in many diseases, various types of food additives and their impact on the intestinal microbiome should be tested. Some food additives have been proven to have adverse effects on the composition and quantity of the intestinal microbiota in animals, despite the doses used being in the ADI range.

Key words

  • diet
  • microbiota
  • obesity
  • metabolic diseases

Słowa kluczowe

  • dieta
  • mikrobiota
  • otyłość
  • zaburzenia metaboliczne
Accesso libero

Enzymatic Hydrogen Bioproduction. Structure, Function And Application Of Hydrogenases

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 231 - 239

Astratto

Abstract

Hydrogenases are multimeric metalloenzymes that are able to catalyze the reversible reaction of proton reduction to molecular hydrogen. These enzymes have been already used for small-scale hydrogen bioproduction. However, scaling up this process for industrial application requires genetic engineering of hydrogenases to improve their stability, as well as to develop a streamlined strategy for their production. The following article provides information on the structure, classification and applications of hydrogenases.

Key words

  • hydrogen bioproduction
  • hydrogenases
  • metalloenzymes

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioprodukcja wodoru
  • hydrogenazy
  • metaloenzymy
6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Small Colony Variants – The Cause Of Chronic Infections

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 183 - 194

Astratto

Abstract

Some microorganisms are characterised by the ability to create specific morphological varieties called Small Colony Variants (SCVs). This characteristic was noted, among others, in Gram-positive cocci, mainly staphylococci, but also in Gram-negative bacilli. The properties of Small Colony Variants that differentiate them from wild-type colonies (mainly their small size) facilitate their intracellular survival (e.g. in epithelial or endothelial cells) as a result of which they can escape host immune response. In this way, SCV forms avoid the effects of complement components or antibodies. They are also characterised by resistance to antibiotics, mainly aminoglycoside or combination drugs, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The above features, which are important from a clinical point of view, namely small size and antibiotic resistance, make SCV one of the main causes of chronic, latent and recurrent infections which are difficult not only to diagnose, but also to treat. According to the literature, SCV of various microorganisms can be isolated from systemic infections of various organs and therefore from different clinical materials (e.g. blood, bones, soft tissues). SCV forms of Staphylococcus aureus are often isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis or osteomyelitis. The paper presents the characteristics and clinical relevance of this unique morphological form of bacteria.

Key words

  • Small Colony Variants
  • chronic infections

Słowa kluczowe

  • Small Colony Variants
  • zakażenia przewlekłe
Accesso libero

Is There A Relationship Between The Intestinal Microbiota And Diabetes?

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 195 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

Due to the total number of microorganisms and multitude of roles they play in the human body, intestinal bacteria are increasingly called the “microbial organ”. Proper composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome is necessary to maintain human health. According to the latest studies, the imbalance in the composition of intestinal microorganisms, called dysbiosis, can result in development of numerous diseases, including metabolic disorders e.g. diabetes. The incidence of this disease is constantly increasing. The pathogenesis of diabetes is complicated and not yet fully understood. However, it is known that many factors influence its development. Intestinal microbiota is increasingly mentioned among them. Based on a literature review related to the subject, it can be concluded that dysbiosis, intestinal barrier damage and endotoxemia adversely affect metabolic parameters.

Parole chiave

  • diabetes
  • dysbiosis
  • insulin resistance
  • microbiom
  • gut microbiota

Słowa kluczowe

  • cukrzyca
  • dysbioza
  • insulinooporność
  • mikrobiom
  • mikrobiota jelitowa
Accesso libero

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 203 - 210

Astratto

Abstract

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by an increase in the number and/or presence of atypical bacteria in the small intestine. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms such as achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes and anatomical abnormalities such as small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections and motility disorders. Clinical signs of SIBO may be non-specific. Most often there is dyspepsia, diarrhoea, bloating and abdominal discomfort. SIBO can sometimes lead to malebsorption, severe malenutrition and/or other syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen breath tests are most commonly used for diagnosis of SIBO. Therapy for SIBO must be complex. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO.

Key words

  • IBS
  • microbiota
  • SIBO
  • hydrogen breath tests
  • small intestine bacterial overgrowth

Słowa kluczowe

  • IBS
  • mikrobiota
  • SIBO
  • wodorowe testy oddechowe
  • zespół przerostu bakteryjnego jelita cienkiego
Accesso libero

Usefulness Of Microbial Cytotoxins In The Diagnosis Of Selected Bacterial Infections

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 211 - 222

Astratto

Abstract

The reaction of synergistic hemolysis, which is the basis of the CAMP test, is used in the preliminary identification of selected bacterial pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, C. perfringens, S. agalactiae. The experimental part was to determine the influence blood cells of used, incubation time, distance between growth lines and the type of strains on the intensity of CAMP. Synergistic hemolysis was observed in the classic CAMP test, when 10% human blood cell is used in the medium. It has been shown that the optimal substrate for the CAMP test to identify Listeria sp. is an agar with the 5% addition of human blood cells. While sheep’s erythrocytes were the best substrate for hemolysis of C. perfringens. The optimum distance and incubation time for the tested bacterial species was 1–4 mm and 24 h. When performing preliminary identification of pathogenic microorganisms using the CAMP test, different types of erythrocytes should be used, due to strain and species-specific variabilieties.

Key words

  • microbiological diagnostics
  • synergistic hemolysis
  • CAMP test

Słowa kluczowe

  • diagnostyka mikrobiologiczna
  • hemoliza synergistyczna
  • Test CAMP
Accesso libero

Processed Food And Food Additives In The Context Of Dysbiosis And Its Health Consequences

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 223 - 230

Astratto

Abstract

The intestinal microbiota has many important functions in the human body. Many factors influence its composition, including diet. It is well known that an unhealthy diet and processed food are not indifferent to health. Processed food is the subject of much research, most often in the context of the development of obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Food additives are widely used to improve the taste, texture or attractiveness of food. Due to the proven occurrence of intestinal dysbiosis in many diseases, various types of food additives and their impact on the intestinal microbiome should be tested. Some food additives have been proven to have adverse effects on the composition and quantity of the intestinal microbiota in animals, despite the doses used being in the ADI range.

Key words

  • diet
  • microbiota
  • obesity
  • metabolic diseases

Słowa kluczowe

  • dieta
  • mikrobiota
  • otyłość
  • zaburzenia metaboliczne
Accesso libero

Enzymatic Hydrogen Bioproduction. Structure, Function And Application Of Hydrogenases

Pubblicato online: 23 Sep 2021
Pagine: 231 - 239

Astratto

Abstract

Hydrogenases are multimeric metalloenzymes that are able to catalyze the reversible reaction of proton reduction to molecular hydrogen. These enzymes have been already used for small-scale hydrogen bioproduction. However, scaling up this process for industrial application requires genetic engineering of hydrogenases to improve their stability, as well as to develop a streamlined strategy for their production. The following article provides information on the structure, classification and applications of hydrogenases.

Key words

  • hydrogen bioproduction
  • hydrogenases
  • metalloenzymes

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioprodukcja wodoru
  • hydrogenazy
  • metaloenzymy

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