Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 4 (January 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

9 Articoli
Accesso libero

NON-ANTIBIOTIC USE OF ANTIBIOTICS

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 301 - 312

Astratto

Abstract

Antibiotics are widely used medicines in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, some of them show also non-antibiotic properties, which are increasingly used in the treatment of non-infectious diseases. The authors of this publication believe that this is one of the reasons behind antibiotic dissemination in the environment and, ipso facto, behind the increasing risk of bacterial resistance. It is worth remembering that, along with the progress in science and better knowledge of the new properties of antibiotics, every extension of indications for antimicrobial agents may restrict their primary indications. Progress in science does not always mean progress in therapy. In fact, it may sometimes have an opposite effect and we should be able to assess the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to present other than antibacterial properties of antibiotics which currently are or may be used in the future in the treatment of non-infectious diseases, as well as to assess the long-term effects of extending the indications for medicines commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such attempt has not been made so far, therefore authors decided to review the most important, useful or promising reports on non-antibiotic use of antibiotics. The article summarizes the latest data on prokinetic action of erythromycin, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action of azithromycine, potential use of doxycycline as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent, and also anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties of minocycline. Futhermore, the basics of demeclocycline application in the treatment of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypesecretion syndrome and rifaximin use as an anti-inflammatory and eubiotic agent are presented. Neuroprotective action of ceftriaxone and anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory action of fusafungine were also described.

1. Introduction – antibiotics as potentially effective agents in the therapy of non-infectious diseases. 2. Erythromycine – prokinetic action. 3. Azithromycine – anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action. 4. Doxycycline – anticancer and anti-inflammatory action. 5. Minocycline – anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antiapoptotic action. 6. Demeclocycline – inhibition of the antiantidiuretic hormone action. 7. Rifaximin – anti-inflammatory action / eubiotic. 8. Ceftriaxone – neuroprotective action. 9. Fusafungine – anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory action. 10. Summary

Key words

  • antibiotics
  • non-infectious diseases
  • atypical indications

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotyki
  • choroby niezakaźne
  • nietypowe wskazania
Accesso libero

VACCINES AGAINST ROTAVIRUS INFECTION

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 313 - 327

Astratto

Abstract

Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Before introduction of vaccination for rotavirus 100–150 million cases of the infections were recorded globally with 500 000 of deaths. The first rotavirus vaccines were designed in 1980s. In 2007 two oral rotavirus vaccines containing live attenuated strains were registered in Europe: the monovalent vaccine Rotarix (RV1) and the pentavalent vaccine Rotateq (RV5). The vaccines are available all over the world.

After introduction of rotavirus vaccination the number of infections decreased significantly and the number of deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children decreased over 50% globally. However, despite of confirmed safety and effectiveness of the RV1 and RV5 vaccines fear of vaccination against rotavirus infection still exists. It can be related to a bad reputation of the previous rotavirus vaccines that were withdrawn from the market or were never introduced to the market due to unsatisfied clinical tests.

1. Molecular characteristic of rotaviruses. 2. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection. 3. Studies on rotavirus vaccines. 4. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection. 5. Herd immunity. 6. Fear of vaccination against rotavirus infection 7. Summary

Key words

  • rotavirus
  • vaccines
  • gastroenteritis

Słowa kluczowe

  • rotawirusy
  • szczepionki
  • zapalenie żołądka i jelit
Accesso libero

DANGER THEORY AND DAMAGE-ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERN

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 328 - 337

Astratto

Abstract

The immune system (IS) of mammals has developed many mechanisms to effectively ravage foreign factors, including pathogens. In 1994, Polly Matzinger published a theory of danger, a new view in immunology, describing the response of the immune system to danger, caused by trauma and/or presence of pathogens. This theory brings a different view on the current theory, that the IS distinguishes between own (self) and foreign (non-self) structures and reacts only to non-self factors. According to the danger theory, the IS has the ability to verify “safe” and “dangerous” factors, thus explaining immune reactions caused by tissue damage, referred to as “sterile inflammation”, but also occurring during the infection. It is believed that the fundamental elements in danger theory are dangerous molecules-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), which are released from damaged or dead tissue and cells, but they are also present in physiological conditions and give analogous immune response to this induced by self/ non-self factors.

1. Introduction. 2. The danger theory. 3. Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). 3.1. Characteristics of selected damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). 4. Summary

Key words

  • danger theory
  • danger factors
  • DAMP

Słowa kluczowe

  • teoria zagrożenia
  • cząsteczki zagrożenia
  • DAMP
Accesso libero

FROM A COMMENSAL TO A PATHOGEN – TWO FACES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 338 - 347

Astratto

Abstract

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal organism and the most abundant constituent of the healthy human skin and mucous membranes micrbiota. It is well adapted to colonize and evade human antimicrobial barriers. Staphylococcus epidermidis not only competes with potentially harmful pathogens, but also produces a plethora of proteins supporting host natural defenses. At the same time, S. epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen recognised as one of the leading causes of healthcare-associated infections. S. epidermidis is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Hospital strains of S. epidermidis form protective biofilm and are characterised with antibiotic resistance.

1. Introduction. 2. Staphylococcus epidermidis as a commensal organism. 2.1. Origin of S. epidermidis. 2.2. Human skin as S. epidermidisenvironment. 2.3. Adaptation mechanisms of S. epidermidis. 2.4. Mechanisms of supporting skin’s antimicrobial defences. 2.5. Influence on activity of host cells. 3. S. epidermidis as a pathogen. 3.1. Biofilm and virulence factors. 4. Summary

Key words

  • commensal bacteria
  • biofilm

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie komensalne
  • biofilm
Accesso libero

STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 348 - 359

Astratto

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance are two of the most important threats in contemporary medicine and represent a serious burden for the public health system. Whereas previously only regarded as an innocuous commensal microorganism of human skin, S. epidermidis is nowadays seen as an important opportunistic pathogen and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. S. epidermidis is the most genotypically diverse species within the genus Staphylococcus. Strains belonging to ST2, the most frequently found sequence type of hospital-associated invasive S. epidermidis are characterised by bacterial biofilm formation and resistance to methicillin amongst other antibiotics. S. epidermidis is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Treating infections characterized with biofilm formation is problematic, additional challenge, is differentiation between actual S. epidermidis bloodstream infections versus blood samples contamination.

1. Introduction. 2. S. epidermidis characteristics. 2.1. Genome structure. 2.2. Genotypic diversity 3. Bacterial biofilm and strategies combating. 4. Antibiotic resistance. 5. Epidemiology and environmental transmission. 5.1. Genotyping methods. 6. S. epidermidis as infectious agent. 6.1. Bloodstream infections. 6.2. Neonatal sepsis. 6.3. Infective endocarditis. 6.4. Orthopedic infections. 6.5. Ophthalmic infections. 6.6. Urinary tract infections. 7. Genetic markers for virulent hospital strains detection. 8. Summary

Key words

  • healthcare-associated infections

Słowa kluczowe

  • zakażenia szpitalne
Accesso libero

TYPE VB AND VI SECRETION SYSTEMS AS COMPETITION AGENTS OF GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 360 - 373

Astratto

Abstract

Bacterial competition, defined as a local neighbour interactions, can lead to competitors coexistence, bacterial community self-organization or as travelling waves of species dominance in ecological niches. Bacteria have developed many mechanisms to communicate and compete. Kin discrimination mechanisms in bacterial populations allow species to distinguish a friend from a foe in bacterial environment. Type Vb and VI secretion systems (TVIbSS and TVISS) play crucial role in this phenomenon. A contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI), primarily found in Escherichia coli strains, utilities CdiB/CdiA protein of type Vb secretion system, described also as two-partner secretion (TPS) system, to inhibit growth of non-kin strains, where cell contact is required. Presence of an intracellular small immunity protein (CdiI) protects E. coli cells from autoinhibition. Other bacterial competition system, primarily found in nodulation process of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii strain, engages type VI secretion system. The structure of TVISS is more complicated and comprises the series of proteins with structural homology to bacteriophage tail proteins and membrane proteins which builds the core of the system (Tss proteins). Meanwhile, other proteins of the TVISS was described as associated proteins (Tag proteins). Important proteins for TVISS are haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) which has hexameric, tubular structure and VgrG protein (valine-glycine repeat G) which play a dual role in the process: as a chaperone protein in secretion of effector toxin or/and as a secreted toxin itself. Despite the structural differences of both secretion systems they show functional homology in competition phenomenon and govern the social life of bacterial community.

1. Introduction. 2. Contact-dependent growth inhibition. 2.1. Structure o CDI machinery. 2.2. Effectors of CDI system. 3. Type VI secretion system. 3.1. Structure of type VI secretion system. 3.2. Effectors of type VI secretion system. 4. Membership to polymorphic toxins system. 5. Role of the systems in bacterial biology. 6. Conclusions

Key words

  • contact-dependent growth inhibition
  • bacterial competition
  • type Vb secretion system
  • type VI secretion system

Słowa kluczowe

  • inhibicja wzrostu zależna od kontaktu
  • konkurencja bakteryjna
  • system sekrecji typy Vb
  • system sekrecji typu
Accesso libero

CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF HYDROPHOBINS AND THEIR USE IN MANIFOLD INDUSTRIES

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 374 - 384

Astratto

Abstract

Hydrophobins are surface active proteins produced by filamentous fungi. They have a role in fungal growth and their life cycle. Although proteins with similar properties are being found in prokaryotic organisms as well. Hydrophobins are characterized by a specific arrangement of cysteine residues, which form four disulfide bridges in the amino acid sequence. This construction gives hydrophobins hydrophobic properties. These proteins are able to assemble spontaneously into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces. The unique properties of hydrophobins make them more and more popular with regard to their potential application in industry. New ways of use hydrophobins in various branches of the economy are being developed. Hydrophobins are already widely used in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, but also in molecular biology.

1. Introduction. 2. Classification of hydrophobins. 3. Structure of hydrophobin genes and proteins. 4. Formation of hydrophobin film. 5. Production, secretion and formation of hydrophobins in the natural environment. 6. Properties of hydrophobins. 7. The use of hydrophobins in various fields. 8. Manufacturing of hydrophobins. 9. Summary

Key words

  • fungi
  • hydrophobins
  • stress
  • hydrophobin film

Słowa kluczowe

  • grzyby
  • hydrofobiny
  • stres
  • film hydrofobinowy
Accesso libero

THE RISK OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY INSECT VECTORS IN ANIMALS IN EUROPE

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 385 - 397

Astratto

Abstract

Currently, the emergence of exotic diseases in areas where they have not previously occurred is reported more frequently. For these reasons, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and individual countries are introducing regulations aimed at preventing and combating these diseases. Globalization and intensification of trade of animals and food products of animal origin contributes to the transmission of infectious animal diseases throughout the world. Global warming and human interference in nature affect the occurrence of diseases. The increase in temperature creates the right conditions for the growth and spread of vectors such as mosquitoes. Climate change may become a serious threat to the spread of infectious diseases in the future.

1. Introduction. 2. Diseases transmitted by insect vectors in Europe. 2.1. Vectors. 2.2. Participation of insects in mechanical transmission. 2.3. Primary and secondary vectors. 2.4. Transmission factor. 2.5. Emerging infectious diseases 3. Viral diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 3.1. Flaviviruses. 3.2. Buniaviruses. 3.3. Reoviruses. 3.4. Poxviruses. 3.5. Asfarviruses. 4. Bacterial diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 5. Protozoan diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 6. Nematode diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 7. Endosymbiotes. 8. Summary

Parole chiave

  • Arthropod-borne diseases
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • insects
  • vectors

Słowa kluczowe

  • Choroby przenoszone przez stawonogi
  • nowe zagrażające choroby
  • owady
  • wektory
Accesso libero

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF WILD AND GENETICALLY-MODIFIED STRAINS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 398 - 402

Astratto

Abstract

Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) have been known for many years, since humans first used them to produce vinegar. AAB serve as biocatalysts in industrial production of, inter alia, acetic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid, bacterial cellulose or levan. Apart from the traditional industrial applications of wild strains of AAB, scientists strive to develop novel methods for the production of selected compounds using genetically-modified AAB. The application of such mutants in the industry entails both positive and negative aspects. Modifications of the bacterial genome have a significant effect upon the functioning of the entire cell. This review presents industrial applications of metabolites produced by both wild and genetically-modified strains of AAB.

1. Application of wild strains of AAB in the industry. 2. Application of genetically-modified strains of AAB in the industry. 3. Opinion on GMOs used in industry. 4. Summary

Key words

  • AAB
  • acetic acid
  • genetic modifications
  • mutant

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie octowe
  • kwas octowy
  • modyfikacje genetyczne
  • mutant
9 Articoli
Accesso libero

NON-ANTIBIOTIC USE OF ANTIBIOTICS

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 301 - 312

Astratto

Abstract

Antibiotics are widely used medicines in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, some of them show also non-antibiotic properties, which are increasingly used in the treatment of non-infectious diseases. The authors of this publication believe that this is one of the reasons behind antibiotic dissemination in the environment and, ipso facto, behind the increasing risk of bacterial resistance. It is worth remembering that, along with the progress in science and better knowledge of the new properties of antibiotics, every extension of indications for antimicrobial agents may restrict their primary indications. Progress in science does not always mean progress in therapy. In fact, it may sometimes have an opposite effect and we should be able to assess the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to present other than antibacterial properties of antibiotics which currently are or may be used in the future in the treatment of non-infectious diseases, as well as to assess the long-term effects of extending the indications for medicines commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such attempt has not been made so far, therefore authors decided to review the most important, useful or promising reports on non-antibiotic use of antibiotics. The article summarizes the latest data on prokinetic action of erythromycin, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action of azithromycine, potential use of doxycycline as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent, and also anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties of minocycline. Futhermore, the basics of demeclocycline application in the treatment of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypesecretion syndrome and rifaximin use as an anti-inflammatory and eubiotic agent are presented. Neuroprotective action of ceftriaxone and anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory action of fusafungine were also described.

1. Introduction – antibiotics as potentially effective agents in the therapy of non-infectious diseases. 2. Erythromycine – prokinetic action. 3. Azithromycine – anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action. 4. Doxycycline – anticancer and anti-inflammatory action. 5. Minocycline – anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antiapoptotic action. 6. Demeclocycline – inhibition of the antiantidiuretic hormone action. 7. Rifaximin – anti-inflammatory action / eubiotic. 8. Ceftriaxone – neuroprotective action. 9. Fusafungine – anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory action. 10. Summary

Key words

  • antibiotics
  • non-infectious diseases
  • atypical indications

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotyki
  • choroby niezakaźne
  • nietypowe wskazania
Accesso libero

VACCINES AGAINST ROTAVIRUS INFECTION

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 313 - 327

Astratto

Abstract

Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Before introduction of vaccination for rotavirus 100–150 million cases of the infections were recorded globally with 500 000 of deaths. The first rotavirus vaccines were designed in 1980s. In 2007 two oral rotavirus vaccines containing live attenuated strains were registered in Europe: the monovalent vaccine Rotarix (RV1) and the pentavalent vaccine Rotateq (RV5). The vaccines are available all over the world.

After introduction of rotavirus vaccination the number of infections decreased significantly and the number of deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children decreased over 50% globally. However, despite of confirmed safety and effectiveness of the RV1 and RV5 vaccines fear of vaccination against rotavirus infection still exists. It can be related to a bad reputation of the previous rotavirus vaccines that were withdrawn from the market or were never introduced to the market due to unsatisfied clinical tests.

1. Molecular characteristic of rotaviruses. 2. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection. 3. Studies on rotavirus vaccines. 4. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection. 5. Herd immunity. 6. Fear of vaccination against rotavirus infection 7. Summary

Key words

  • rotavirus
  • vaccines
  • gastroenteritis

Słowa kluczowe

  • rotawirusy
  • szczepionki
  • zapalenie żołądka i jelit
Accesso libero

DANGER THEORY AND DAMAGE-ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERN

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 328 - 337

Astratto

Abstract

The immune system (IS) of mammals has developed many mechanisms to effectively ravage foreign factors, including pathogens. In 1994, Polly Matzinger published a theory of danger, a new view in immunology, describing the response of the immune system to danger, caused by trauma and/or presence of pathogens. This theory brings a different view on the current theory, that the IS distinguishes between own (self) and foreign (non-self) structures and reacts only to non-self factors. According to the danger theory, the IS has the ability to verify “safe” and “dangerous” factors, thus explaining immune reactions caused by tissue damage, referred to as “sterile inflammation”, but also occurring during the infection. It is believed that the fundamental elements in danger theory are dangerous molecules-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), which are released from damaged or dead tissue and cells, but they are also present in physiological conditions and give analogous immune response to this induced by self/ non-self factors.

1. Introduction. 2. The danger theory. 3. Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). 3.1. Characteristics of selected damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). 4. Summary

Key words

  • danger theory
  • danger factors
  • DAMP

Słowa kluczowe

  • teoria zagrożenia
  • cząsteczki zagrożenia
  • DAMP
Accesso libero

FROM A COMMENSAL TO A PATHOGEN – TWO FACES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 338 - 347

Astratto

Abstract

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal organism and the most abundant constituent of the healthy human skin and mucous membranes micrbiota. It is well adapted to colonize and evade human antimicrobial barriers. Staphylococcus epidermidis not only competes with potentially harmful pathogens, but also produces a plethora of proteins supporting host natural defenses. At the same time, S. epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen recognised as one of the leading causes of healthcare-associated infections. S. epidermidis is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Hospital strains of S. epidermidis form protective biofilm and are characterised with antibiotic resistance.

1. Introduction. 2. Staphylococcus epidermidis as a commensal organism. 2.1. Origin of S. epidermidis. 2.2. Human skin as S. epidermidisenvironment. 2.3. Adaptation mechanisms of S. epidermidis. 2.4. Mechanisms of supporting skin’s antimicrobial defences. 2.5. Influence on activity of host cells. 3. S. epidermidis as a pathogen. 3.1. Biofilm and virulence factors. 4. Summary

Key words

  • commensal bacteria
  • biofilm

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie komensalne
  • biofilm
Accesso libero

STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 348 - 359

Astratto

Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance are two of the most important threats in contemporary medicine and represent a serious burden for the public health system. Whereas previously only regarded as an innocuous commensal microorganism of human skin, S. epidermidis is nowadays seen as an important opportunistic pathogen and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. S. epidermidis is the most genotypically diverse species within the genus Staphylococcus. Strains belonging to ST2, the most frequently found sequence type of hospital-associated invasive S. epidermidis are characterised by bacterial biofilm formation and resistance to methicillin amongst other antibiotics. S. epidermidis is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Treating infections characterized with biofilm formation is problematic, additional challenge, is differentiation between actual S. epidermidis bloodstream infections versus blood samples contamination.

1. Introduction. 2. S. epidermidis characteristics. 2.1. Genome structure. 2.2. Genotypic diversity 3. Bacterial biofilm and strategies combating. 4. Antibiotic resistance. 5. Epidemiology and environmental transmission. 5.1. Genotyping methods. 6. S. epidermidis as infectious agent. 6.1. Bloodstream infections. 6.2. Neonatal sepsis. 6.3. Infective endocarditis. 6.4. Orthopedic infections. 6.5. Ophthalmic infections. 6.6. Urinary tract infections. 7. Genetic markers for virulent hospital strains detection. 8. Summary

Key words

  • healthcare-associated infections

Słowa kluczowe

  • zakażenia szpitalne
Accesso libero

TYPE VB AND VI SECRETION SYSTEMS AS COMPETITION AGENTS OF GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 360 - 373

Astratto

Abstract

Bacterial competition, defined as a local neighbour interactions, can lead to competitors coexistence, bacterial community self-organization or as travelling waves of species dominance in ecological niches. Bacteria have developed many mechanisms to communicate and compete. Kin discrimination mechanisms in bacterial populations allow species to distinguish a friend from a foe in bacterial environment. Type Vb and VI secretion systems (TVIbSS and TVISS) play crucial role in this phenomenon. A contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI), primarily found in Escherichia coli strains, utilities CdiB/CdiA protein of type Vb secretion system, described also as two-partner secretion (TPS) system, to inhibit growth of non-kin strains, where cell contact is required. Presence of an intracellular small immunity protein (CdiI) protects E. coli cells from autoinhibition. Other bacterial competition system, primarily found in nodulation process of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii strain, engages type VI secretion system. The structure of TVISS is more complicated and comprises the series of proteins with structural homology to bacteriophage tail proteins and membrane proteins which builds the core of the system (Tss proteins). Meanwhile, other proteins of the TVISS was described as associated proteins (Tag proteins). Important proteins for TVISS are haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) which has hexameric, tubular structure and VgrG protein (valine-glycine repeat G) which play a dual role in the process: as a chaperone protein in secretion of effector toxin or/and as a secreted toxin itself. Despite the structural differences of both secretion systems they show functional homology in competition phenomenon and govern the social life of bacterial community.

1. Introduction. 2. Contact-dependent growth inhibition. 2.1. Structure o CDI machinery. 2.2. Effectors of CDI system. 3. Type VI secretion system. 3.1. Structure of type VI secretion system. 3.2. Effectors of type VI secretion system. 4. Membership to polymorphic toxins system. 5. Role of the systems in bacterial biology. 6. Conclusions

Key words

  • contact-dependent growth inhibition
  • bacterial competition
  • type Vb secretion system
  • type VI secretion system

Słowa kluczowe

  • inhibicja wzrostu zależna od kontaktu
  • konkurencja bakteryjna
  • system sekrecji typy Vb
  • system sekrecji typu
Accesso libero

CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF HYDROPHOBINS AND THEIR USE IN MANIFOLD INDUSTRIES

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 374 - 384

Astratto

Abstract

Hydrophobins are surface active proteins produced by filamentous fungi. They have a role in fungal growth and their life cycle. Although proteins with similar properties are being found in prokaryotic organisms as well. Hydrophobins are characterized by a specific arrangement of cysteine residues, which form four disulfide bridges in the amino acid sequence. This construction gives hydrophobins hydrophobic properties. These proteins are able to assemble spontaneously into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces. The unique properties of hydrophobins make them more and more popular with regard to their potential application in industry. New ways of use hydrophobins in various branches of the economy are being developed. Hydrophobins are already widely used in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, but also in molecular biology.

1. Introduction. 2. Classification of hydrophobins. 3. Structure of hydrophobin genes and proteins. 4. Formation of hydrophobin film. 5. Production, secretion and formation of hydrophobins in the natural environment. 6. Properties of hydrophobins. 7. The use of hydrophobins in various fields. 8. Manufacturing of hydrophobins. 9. Summary

Key words

  • fungi
  • hydrophobins
  • stress
  • hydrophobin film

Słowa kluczowe

  • grzyby
  • hydrofobiny
  • stres
  • film hydrofobinowy
Accesso libero

THE RISK OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY INSECT VECTORS IN ANIMALS IN EUROPE

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 385 - 397

Astratto

Abstract

Currently, the emergence of exotic diseases in areas where they have not previously occurred is reported more frequently. For these reasons, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and individual countries are introducing regulations aimed at preventing and combating these diseases. Globalization and intensification of trade of animals and food products of animal origin contributes to the transmission of infectious animal diseases throughout the world. Global warming and human interference in nature affect the occurrence of diseases. The increase in temperature creates the right conditions for the growth and spread of vectors such as mosquitoes. Climate change may become a serious threat to the spread of infectious diseases in the future.

1. Introduction. 2. Diseases transmitted by insect vectors in Europe. 2.1. Vectors. 2.2. Participation of insects in mechanical transmission. 2.3. Primary and secondary vectors. 2.4. Transmission factor. 2.5. Emerging infectious diseases 3. Viral diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 3.1. Flaviviruses. 3.2. Buniaviruses. 3.3. Reoviruses. 3.4. Poxviruses. 3.5. Asfarviruses. 4. Bacterial diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 5. Protozoan diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 6. Nematode diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 7. Endosymbiotes. 8. Summary

Parole chiave

  • Arthropod-borne diseases
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • insects
  • vectors

Słowa kluczowe

  • Choroby przenoszone przez stawonogi
  • nowe zagrażające choroby
  • owady
  • wektory
Accesso libero

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF WILD AND GENETICALLY-MODIFIED STRAINS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA

Pubblicato online: 26 Feb 2022
Pagine: 398 - 402

Astratto

Abstract

Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) have been known for many years, since humans first used them to produce vinegar. AAB serve as biocatalysts in industrial production of, inter alia, acetic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid, bacterial cellulose or levan. Apart from the traditional industrial applications of wild strains of AAB, scientists strive to develop novel methods for the production of selected compounds using genetically-modified AAB. The application of such mutants in the industry entails both positive and negative aspects. Modifications of the bacterial genome have a significant effect upon the functioning of the entire cell. This review presents industrial applications of metabolites produced by both wild and genetically-modified strains of AAB.

1. Application of wild strains of AAB in the industry. 2. Application of genetically-modified strains of AAB in the industry. 3. Opinion on GMOs used in industry. 4. Summary

Key words

  • AAB
  • acetic acid
  • genetic modifications
  • mutant

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie octowe
  • kwas octowy
  • modyfikacje genetyczne
  • mutant

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