Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 4 (December 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 3 (September 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 4 (December 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

Volume 57 (2018): Edizione 2 (January 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Mar 1961
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Cerca

9 Articoli
Accesso libero

Contribution of veterinary microbiology to the ‘One Health’ idea

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 95 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, there have been notable increas in the occurrence of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Most have resulted from the crossing of species barriers from animals to humans, especially from wildlife reservoirs. These threats draw attention to the changing patterns of diseases on a global scale and raise the need for a new worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. The most commonly used term for this concept is ‘One Health’. Its origin lies in pre-modern medicine and refers to the idea of One Medicine which means that there is no difference between humans and animals when it comes to the approach to health and disease. The creation of veterinary schools across Europe in the late 18th and 19th centuries is portrayed as a break with the past, in which a new enlightened approach to animal healing superseded that of ignorance and cruelty. At the end of the 19th century, discovery upon discovery was rapidly made in the domain of bacteriology and immunology. Animal diseases were first studied, and veterinary medicine and veterinary bacteriology was closely linked with these findings. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, ‘One Health’ concept broke new ground in its concern with the environmental and wildlife aspects of health. This change in thought pattern has been fueled by a number of high-profile international infectious disease events over the past decades. To continue the implementation of the ‘One Health’ idea, the next generation of infectious disease specialists needs to be acquainted not only with modern diagnostic technics, but also equipped to understand disease pathogenesis and the basic principles underlying disease control.

1. Introduction. 2. One medicine, from ancient times until the XVIII century. 3. Divergence of veterinary medicine. 4. Microbiology in veterinary medicine. 5. ‘One Health’ in XX-century medicine. 6. Concluding remarks

Parole chiave

  • One Health
  • emerging and reemerging infectious diseases
  • creation of veterinary microbiology
  • animal reservoir of pathogens

Słowa kluczowe

  • idea jednegozdrowia
  • nowe i powracające choroby
  • powstaniemikrobiologiiweterynaryjnej
  • zwierzęcy rezerwuarpatogenów
Accesso libero

Listeriosis. Modern perception of epidemiological threat

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 106 - 116

Astratto

Abstract

The presence of Listeria rods, especially Listeria monocytogenes, in the environment and food products, contributes each year to death of both humans and animals. The ability of bacteria to lead a saprophytic and parasitic existence as well as insensitivity to many physicochemical factors greatly facilitates the spread and guarantees access to a wide range of vulnerable organisms. Although the factors predisposing to infection result in a relatively low incidence of disease, infections are characterized by high mortality and often the need of hospitalization. The disease most often manifests itself in the form of bacteremia, meningitis and encephalitis as well as perinatal infections. The way Listeria spreads in the body contributes to the identification of new types of the disease. Recent studies on the acquisition of pathogenicity traits, dose and development of antibiotic resistance as well as numerous reports on incidence of these bacteria and the epidemics they caused, have led to more efficient monitoring of the pathogen . The qualification of the disease has also changed and, currently, listeriosis is considered a contemporary threat to life and health.

1. Introduction. 2. Genus Listeria. Characteristics and traits responsible for pathogenicity. 3. Listeriosis. Transmission pathways. 4. The beginning and course of the infection. 5. Clinical forms of listeriosis. 5.1. Bacteremia. 5.2. Central nervous system infections. 5.3. Perinatal infections. 5.4. Gastroenteritis. 5.5. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). 5.6. Endocarditis. 5.7. Inflammation and liver abscess. 5.8. Skin and eye infections. 5.9. Musculoskeletal infection. 6. Monitoring. 7. Normalization. 8. Summary

Parole chiave

  • listeriosis
  • sapronosis
  • food contamination
  • zoonosis

Słowa kluczowe

  • listerioza
  • sapronoza
  • zanieczyszczenie żywności
  • zoonoza
Accesso libero

Alicyclobacillus– bacteria still not understood

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 117 - 124

Astratto

Abstract

The genus Alicyclobacillus includes Gram-positive, Gram-negative or Gram-variable, acidothermophilic, endospore-forming bacteria, which have been isolated from various environments, mostly acidic and geothermal soils, hot springs, fruit surface and spoiled fruit juices. The members of the Alicyclobacillus genus are characterized by the presence of ω-alicyclic fatty acids (ω-cyclohexane or ω-cycloheptane), the iso and anteiso branched-chain fatty acids, and the hopanoids as the major membrane lipids. There are 23 known species and 2 subspecies, with Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris as the most significant. Certain species cause food spoilage in the fruit- and-vegetable juices industry. The spores of Alicyclobacillus are highly tolerant to high temperatures and low pH-values of fruit juices. What is more, they are naturally present on fruit surface and can readily enter the production environment of the fruit and vegetable processing. Due to high thermophilicity of these bacteria, the typical juice pasteurization conditions can stimulate spore germination. This is the reason why they can proliferate in juice and ipso facto cause fruit products spoilage. The family of Alicyclobacillaceae has continuously been modified and each successive year brings new species. Additionally, A. acidoterrestris is recognized as bacterium with a high evolution rate due to its rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomic identification of Alicyclobacillus and its systematic position. 3. The characteristic components of cell membranes and their functions. 4. Morphological and physiological characteristics. 5. Detection of Alicyclobacillus bacteria, 6. Summary

Parole chiave

  • acidophilic bacteria
  • thermophilic bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie acydofilne
  • bakterie termofilne
Accesso libero

Orthomyxoviruses – Influenza and other viruses

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 138 - 144

Astratto

Abstract

The Orthomyxoviruses is a family of viruses with its most common representatives being the influenza viruses (A, B, C and D types), which constitute a significant clinical problem. Influenza is a disease affecting animals and people. It is transmitted by airborne droplets and manifestes itself with such symptoms as coughing, sneezing, muscle pain or fever. Influenza often leads to complications, including pneumonia and myocarditis. In the past, influenza viruses were responsible for pandemics, including the most infamous pandemic of the Spanish influenza. It took place in the years 1918–1919 and is thought to have been responsible for the death toll of as many as 100 million people. The family also includes Isavirus, responsible for fish anaemia, Quaranjavirus and Thogotovirus, among which there also species causing diseases in humans. For example, a human infection with the Bourbon virus was diagnosed only once, in 2014. These viruses are much more rare then influenza viruse and also less known. New species are still discovered.

1. Introduction. 2. Characteristics. 3. Replication of a model Influenzavirus A. 4. History. 5. Diagnostic methods. 6. Pathogenicity. 6.1. Influenza – Influenza viruses. 6.2. Thogotovirus. 6.3. Isavirus. 6.4. Quaranjavirus. 7. Treatment. 8. Summary

Parole chiave

  • Orthomyxoviruses
  • Influenza virus

Słowa kluczowe

  • Ortomyksowirusy
  • wirus grypy
Accesso libero

Gammaherpesviral infections in patients with immunological disorders

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 145 - 155

Astratto

Abstract

Human herpes virus type 4 (HHV-4), commonly known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) are members of Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. They both develop latent infections in B lymphocytes. Infection with these viruses in immunocompetent patients is usually mild and self-limiting, but it can have more severe course in immunocompromised individuals. Failure of the immune system often leads to oncogenesis related to gammaherpetic infection. Thus, immunocompromised patients are far more likely to develop proliferative diseases caused by EBV or HHV-8. This problem also applies to HIV-positive individuals coinfected with EBV or HHV-8. Gammaherpesviruses can also be the cause of post-transplantation issues in patients on immunosuppressive drugs and EBV is known to induce severe clinical syndromes in people with specific genetic disorders. Presented article summarizes epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndromes and treatment of EBV and HHV-8 in individuals with immunological disorders.

1. Introduction. 2. Gammaherpetic infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. 2.1. Burkitt’s lymphoma. 2.2. Other lymphomas associated with EBV, 2.3. Kaposi sarcoma, 2.4. Multicentric Castleman’s disease. 2.5. Primary effusion lymphoma. 3. Gammaherpetic infections in immunosuppressed individuals. 3.1. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. 3.2. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. 3.3. Hodgkin lymphoma. 3.4. KSHV infections. 4. Gammaherpetic infections in intrinsic immune deficiency syndromes. 5. Summary

Parole chiave

  • gammaherpesviruses
  • HHV-4
  • HHV-8
  • immune deficiency
  • immunosuppression

Słowa kluczowe

  • gammaherpeswirusy
  • HHV-4
  • HHV-8
  • niedobory odporności
  • immunosupresja
Accesso libero

Farmed and companion animals as reservoirs of zoonotic rotavirus strains

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 156 - 166

Astratto

Abstract

Rotavirus (RV) infections are a major epidemiological problem in humans and farm animals. So far, a number of human and animal RV strains have been identified. Based on the antigenic properties of the VP6 capsid protein, they have been classified into eight serogroups (A-H). The most important of them are viruses from group A (RVA), which are responsible for more than 90% of cases of rotaviral diarrhoea. The segmented structure of the virus genome and the presence of animals in human neighbourhood favour genetic reassortment between RV strains originating from different hosts. This could result in an emergence of zoonotic virus strains. The increasing number of human infections caused by virus strains having genotypes which have only been identified in animals indicates the need for epidemiological surveillance of infections. Additionally, the identification of epidemic virus strains in the outbreaks of disease in humans should be conducted. The identification of RVA strains circulating in humans and animals will allow the assessment of the impact of vaccination on the selection and emergence of zoonotic RVA strains.

1. Introduction. 2. General characteristics and classification of rotaviruses. 3. Group A rotavirus infection in humans. 4. Group A rotavirus infection in animals. 5. Genetic changes and reassortment as factors leading to the formation of zoonotic rotavirus strains. 6. Impact of human immunization on changes in genotype profile of circulating rotavirus strains. 7. Conclusions

Parole chiave

  • animals
  • rotavirus group A
  • zoonotic transmission
  • zoonotic strains

Słowa kluczowe

  • rotawirus grupy A
  • szczepy zoonotyczne
  • transmisja
  • zwierzęta
Accesso libero

THE ROLE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSIN THE CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETIC PATIENTS

Pubblicato online: 20 May 2019
Pagine: 166 - 178

Astratto

Abstract

Discovering interactions between the etiology of the infection and diabetic patients’ immune system activity may be essential for the relevant clinical diagnosis. The dynamics of colonization of the nasal vestibule by Staphylococcus aureus and the development of the prevention strategies against infection are different for various populations. Moreover, the colonization of the nasal vestibule might involve both molecular and epidemiological ctorsfa. Researchers have reported that the identification of methicillin-resistant strains S. aureus(MRSA) with similar molecular characteristics allows to assess the ability of the microorganism to spread and the risk of infection in diabetic patients. Knowledge of these characteristics allows to take precautions in patients exposed to S. aureus. S. aureus is an ethiological factors of many severe diseases both in people with weakened immune system and in healthy individuals. Usually, excess weight and obesity contribute to the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). However, the colonization by S. aureus is a probable risk factor for infection. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens (SAgs) are essential for pathogenicity. The long-term effect of the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) might be glucose intolerance. This toxin also induces systemic inflammation as a result of the increased exotoxin concentration in blood, and, therefore, may be the causative factor of diabetes. Chronic exposure to staphylococcal superantigens may contribute to the development of diabetes, suggesting a need to conduct targeted therapies against S. aureus superantigens.

1. Introduction. 2. Risk factors for infection in patients with diabetes. 2.1. Immunodeficiency. 2.2. Obesity 2.3. Staphylococcal carriage. 3. Staphylococcal infections in patients with diabetes. 3.1. Staphylococcal superantigens. 3.2. Skin and soft tissue infections. 3.3.Diabetic foot syndrome. 3.4. Sepsis. 3.5. Infective endocarditis. 3.6. Acute purulent meningitis. 4. Vaccination. 5. Conclusions

Parole chiave

  • diabetic patients

Słowa kluczowe

  • pacjenci chorujący na cukrzycę
Accesso libero

Implementation of whole genome sequencing for bacteria genotyping

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 179 - 193

Astratto

Abstract

The molecular typing methods are used to identify specific genetic targets and relationships between microbial isolates. In order to understand clonal relatedness between the microbial strains, classic phenotypic methods are used in line with modern molecular biology techniques. The development of genetics, especially new techniques like molecular typing, have revolutionized microbial research. After 1970, the development techniques, especially those referring to DNA sequencing, established molecular microbiology, thus providing modern tools for the identification of sources and routes of infection. Whole genome sequencing and other high-throughput typing methods are becoming increasingly popular and, thanks to their high resolution, they are ideal tools for comparative analysis of bacteria. This study reviews the methods most commonly used in the molecular typing of bacteria, including those which are in the development stage and may be the main tool in microbial typing in the future.

1. Introduction. 1.1. Typing methods. 2. Phenotypic typing methods. 3. Genetic typing methods. 3.1. REA-PFGE. 3.2. MLVA. 3.3. MLST. 4. 1st generation sequencing technology. 4.1. Sanger sequencing. 4.2. Maxam-Gilbert sequencing. 5. Whole genome sequencing. 5.1. 2nd generation sequencing. 5.2. 3rd generation sequencing. 6. Molecular typing using whole genome sequencing. 6.1. K-mer. 6.2. SNP. 6.3. wgMLST. 7. Analysis difficulties. 7.1. Data processing. 7.2. Data storage and sharing. 7.3. Nomenclature. 8. Potential directions of development. 9. Summary

Parole chiave

  • genotyping
  • molecular techniques
  • next-generation sequencing
  • whole genome analysis

Słowa kluczowe

  • analizy pełnogenomowe
  • genotypowanie
  • sekwencjonowanie nowej generacji
  • techniki molekularne
Accesso libero

Biochemical methods for the evaluation of the functional and structural diversity of microorganisms in the soil environment

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 194 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

Soil microbiome is composed of groups of microorganisms which are structurally and functionally very different. For many years soil microbiome has been the subject of numerous studies, but still is not fully recognized. It is well known that soil microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical processes. Knowledge of their structural and functional diversity makes it possible to assess the condition of the soil environment, which is extremely important for agronomy and ecology. The agricultural and industrial activities of humans cause changes in soil activity, which should be monitored. There are many different research methods developed to analyze soil activity and microbiological soil diversity and refined by researchers from around the world in. Biochemical methods used to analyze microbial activity are based on the determination of the ability of microorganisms to synthesize, assimilate or decompose specific chemical compounds, as well as on the analysis of microbial cell components. This study presents the research methods used for the analysis of both: the functionality of microorganisms and their structural diversity.

1. Introduction. 2. Determination of enzymatic activity. 3. CLPP technique. 4. Analysis of fatty acid profiles. 5. Analysis of protein profiles. 6. Summary

Parole chiave

  • Biolog ECOplate
  • enzymatic activity
  • fatty acid analysis
  • microbiological activity
  • proteomic analysis

Słowa kluczowe

  • aktywność
  • enzymatyczna
  • aktywność
  • mikrobiologiczna
  • analiza kwasów tłuszczowych
  • analiza proteomiczna
  • Biolog ECOplate
9 Articoli
Accesso libero

Contribution of veterinary microbiology to the ‘One Health’ idea

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 95 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, there have been notable increas in the occurrence of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Most have resulted from the crossing of species barriers from animals to humans, especially from wildlife reservoirs. These threats draw attention to the changing patterns of diseases on a global scale and raise the need for a new worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. The most commonly used term for this concept is ‘One Health’. Its origin lies in pre-modern medicine and refers to the idea of One Medicine which means that there is no difference between humans and animals when it comes to the approach to health and disease. The creation of veterinary schools across Europe in the late 18th and 19th centuries is portrayed as a break with the past, in which a new enlightened approach to animal healing superseded that of ignorance and cruelty. At the end of the 19th century, discovery upon discovery was rapidly made in the domain of bacteriology and immunology. Animal diseases were first studied, and veterinary medicine and veterinary bacteriology was closely linked with these findings. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, ‘One Health’ concept broke new ground in its concern with the environmental and wildlife aspects of health. This change in thought pattern has been fueled by a number of high-profile international infectious disease events over the past decades. To continue the implementation of the ‘One Health’ idea, the next generation of infectious disease specialists needs to be acquainted not only with modern diagnostic technics, but also equipped to understand disease pathogenesis and the basic principles underlying disease control.

1. Introduction. 2. One medicine, from ancient times until the XVIII century. 3. Divergence of veterinary medicine. 4. Microbiology in veterinary medicine. 5. ‘One Health’ in XX-century medicine. 6. Concluding remarks

Parole chiave

  • One Health
  • emerging and reemerging infectious diseases
  • creation of veterinary microbiology
  • animal reservoir of pathogens

Słowa kluczowe

  • idea jednegozdrowia
  • nowe i powracające choroby
  • powstaniemikrobiologiiweterynaryjnej
  • zwierzęcy rezerwuarpatogenów
Accesso libero

Listeriosis. Modern perception of epidemiological threat

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 106 - 116

Astratto

Abstract

The presence of Listeria rods, especially Listeria monocytogenes, in the environment and food products, contributes each year to death of both humans and animals. The ability of bacteria to lead a saprophytic and parasitic existence as well as insensitivity to many physicochemical factors greatly facilitates the spread and guarantees access to a wide range of vulnerable organisms. Although the factors predisposing to infection result in a relatively low incidence of disease, infections are characterized by high mortality and often the need of hospitalization. The disease most often manifests itself in the form of bacteremia, meningitis and encephalitis as well as perinatal infections. The way Listeria spreads in the body contributes to the identification of new types of the disease. Recent studies on the acquisition of pathogenicity traits, dose and development of antibiotic resistance as well as numerous reports on incidence of these bacteria and the epidemics they caused, have led to more efficient monitoring of the pathogen . The qualification of the disease has also changed and, currently, listeriosis is considered a contemporary threat to life and health.

1. Introduction. 2. Genus Listeria. Characteristics and traits responsible for pathogenicity. 3. Listeriosis. Transmission pathways. 4. The beginning and course of the infection. 5. Clinical forms of listeriosis. 5.1. Bacteremia. 5.2. Central nervous system infections. 5.3. Perinatal infections. 5.4. Gastroenteritis. 5.5. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). 5.6. Endocarditis. 5.7. Inflammation and liver abscess. 5.8. Skin and eye infections. 5.9. Musculoskeletal infection. 6. Monitoring. 7. Normalization. 8. Summary

Parole chiave

  • listeriosis
  • sapronosis
  • food contamination
  • zoonosis

Słowa kluczowe

  • listerioza
  • sapronoza
  • zanieczyszczenie żywności
  • zoonoza
Accesso libero

Alicyclobacillus– bacteria still not understood

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 117 - 124

Astratto

Abstract

The genus Alicyclobacillus includes Gram-positive, Gram-negative or Gram-variable, acidothermophilic, endospore-forming bacteria, which have been isolated from various environments, mostly acidic and geothermal soils, hot springs, fruit surface and spoiled fruit juices. The members of the Alicyclobacillus genus are characterized by the presence of ω-alicyclic fatty acids (ω-cyclohexane or ω-cycloheptane), the iso and anteiso branched-chain fatty acids, and the hopanoids as the major membrane lipids. There are 23 known species and 2 subspecies, with Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris as the most significant. Certain species cause food spoilage in the fruit- and-vegetable juices industry. The spores of Alicyclobacillus are highly tolerant to high temperatures and low pH-values of fruit juices. What is more, they are naturally present on fruit surface and can readily enter the production environment of the fruit and vegetable processing. Due to high thermophilicity of these bacteria, the typical juice pasteurization conditions can stimulate spore germination. This is the reason why they can proliferate in juice and ipso facto cause fruit products spoilage. The family of Alicyclobacillaceae has continuously been modified and each successive year brings new species. Additionally, A. acidoterrestris is recognized as bacterium with a high evolution rate due to its rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomic identification of Alicyclobacillus and its systematic position. 3. The characteristic components of cell membranes and their functions. 4. Morphological and physiological characteristics. 5. Detection of Alicyclobacillus bacteria, 6. Summary

Parole chiave

  • acidophilic bacteria
  • thermophilic bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie acydofilne
  • bakterie termofilne
Accesso libero

Orthomyxoviruses – Influenza and other viruses

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 138 - 144

Astratto

Abstract

The Orthomyxoviruses is a family of viruses with its most common representatives being the influenza viruses (A, B, C and D types), which constitute a significant clinical problem. Influenza is a disease affecting animals and people. It is transmitted by airborne droplets and manifestes itself with such symptoms as coughing, sneezing, muscle pain or fever. Influenza often leads to complications, including pneumonia and myocarditis. In the past, influenza viruses were responsible for pandemics, including the most infamous pandemic of the Spanish influenza. It took place in the years 1918–1919 and is thought to have been responsible for the death toll of as many as 100 million people. The family also includes Isavirus, responsible for fish anaemia, Quaranjavirus and Thogotovirus, among which there also species causing diseases in humans. For example, a human infection with the Bourbon virus was diagnosed only once, in 2014. These viruses are much more rare then influenza viruse and also less known. New species are still discovered.

1. Introduction. 2. Characteristics. 3. Replication of a model Influenzavirus A. 4. History. 5. Diagnostic methods. 6. Pathogenicity. 6.1. Influenza – Influenza viruses. 6.2. Thogotovirus. 6.3. Isavirus. 6.4. Quaranjavirus. 7. Treatment. 8. Summary

Parole chiave

  • Orthomyxoviruses
  • Influenza virus

Słowa kluczowe

  • Ortomyksowirusy
  • wirus grypy
Accesso libero

Gammaherpesviral infections in patients with immunological disorders

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 145 - 155

Astratto

Abstract

Human herpes virus type 4 (HHV-4), commonly known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) are members of Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. They both develop latent infections in B lymphocytes. Infection with these viruses in immunocompetent patients is usually mild and self-limiting, but it can have more severe course in immunocompromised individuals. Failure of the immune system often leads to oncogenesis related to gammaherpetic infection. Thus, immunocompromised patients are far more likely to develop proliferative diseases caused by EBV or HHV-8. This problem also applies to HIV-positive individuals coinfected with EBV or HHV-8. Gammaherpesviruses can also be the cause of post-transplantation issues in patients on immunosuppressive drugs and EBV is known to induce severe clinical syndromes in people with specific genetic disorders. Presented article summarizes epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndromes and treatment of EBV and HHV-8 in individuals with immunological disorders.

1. Introduction. 2. Gammaherpetic infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. 2.1. Burkitt’s lymphoma. 2.2. Other lymphomas associated with EBV, 2.3. Kaposi sarcoma, 2.4. Multicentric Castleman’s disease. 2.5. Primary effusion lymphoma. 3. Gammaherpetic infections in immunosuppressed individuals. 3.1. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. 3.2. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. 3.3. Hodgkin lymphoma. 3.4. KSHV infections. 4. Gammaherpetic infections in intrinsic immune deficiency syndromes. 5. Summary

Parole chiave

  • gammaherpesviruses
  • HHV-4
  • HHV-8
  • immune deficiency
  • immunosuppression

Słowa kluczowe

  • gammaherpeswirusy
  • HHV-4
  • HHV-8
  • niedobory odporności
  • immunosupresja
Accesso libero

Farmed and companion animals as reservoirs of zoonotic rotavirus strains

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 156 - 166

Astratto

Abstract

Rotavirus (RV) infections are a major epidemiological problem in humans and farm animals. So far, a number of human and animal RV strains have been identified. Based on the antigenic properties of the VP6 capsid protein, they have been classified into eight serogroups (A-H). The most important of them are viruses from group A (RVA), which are responsible for more than 90% of cases of rotaviral diarrhoea. The segmented structure of the virus genome and the presence of animals in human neighbourhood favour genetic reassortment between RV strains originating from different hosts. This could result in an emergence of zoonotic virus strains. The increasing number of human infections caused by virus strains having genotypes which have only been identified in animals indicates the need for epidemiological surveillance of infections. Additionally, the identification of epidemic virus strains in the outbreaks of disease in humans should be conducted. The identification of RVA strains circulating in humans and animals will allow the assessment of the impact of vaccination on the selection and emergence of zoonotic RVA strains.

1. Introduction. 2. General characteristics and classification of rotaviruses. 3. Group A rotavirus infection in humans. 4. Group A rotavirus infection in animals. 5. Genetic changes and reassortment as factors leading to the formation of zoonotic rotavirus strains. 6. Impact of human immunization on changes in genotype profile of circulating rotavirus strains. 7. Conclusions

Parole chiave

  • animals
  • rotavirus group A
  • zoonotic transmission
  • zoonotic strains

Słowa kluczowe

  • rotawirus grupy A
  • szczepy zoonotyczne
  • transmisja
  • zwierzęta
Accesso libero

THE ROLE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSIN THE CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETIC PATIENTS

Pubblicato online: 20 May 2019
Pagine: 166 - 178

Astratto

Abstract

Discovering interactions between the etiology of the infection and diabetic patients’ immune system activity may be essential for the relevant clinical diagnosis. The dynamics of colonization of the nasal vestibule by Staphylococcus aureus and the development of the prevention strategies against infection are different for various populations. Moreover, the colonization of the nasal vestibule might involve both molecular and epidemiological ctorsfa. Researchers have reported that the identification of methicillin-resistant strains S. aureus(MRSA) with similar molecular characteristics allows to assess the ability of the microorganism to spread and the risk of infection in diabetic patients. Knowledge of these characteristics allows to take precautions in patients exposed to S. aureus. S. aureus is an ethiological factors of many severe diseases both in people with weakened immune system and in healthy individuals. Usually, excess weight and obesity contribute to the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). However, the colonization by S. aureus is a probable risk factor for infection. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens (SAgs) are essential for pathogenicity. The long-term effect of the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) might be glucose intolerance. This toxin also induces systemic inflammation as a result of the increased exotoxin concentration in blood, and, therefore, may be the causative factor of diabetes. Chronic exposure to staphylococcal superantigens may contribute to the development of diabetes, suggesting a need to conduct targeted therapies against S. aureus superantigens.

1. Introduction. 2. Risk factors for infection in patients with diabetes. 2.1. Immunodeficiency. 2.2. Obesity 2.3. Staphylococcal carriage. 3. Staphylococcal infections in patients with diabetes. 3.1. Staphylococcal superantigens. 3.2. Skin and soft tissue infections. 3.3.Diabetic foot syndrome. 3.4. Sepsis. 3.5. Infective endocarditis. 3.6. Acute purulent meningitis. 4. Vaccination. 5. Conclusions

Parole chiave

  • diabetic patients

Słowa kluczowe

  • pacjenci chorujący na cukrzycę
Accesso libero

Implementation of whole genome sequencing for bacteria genotyping

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 179 - 193

Astratto

Abstract

The molecular typing methods are used to identify specific genetic targets and relationships between microbial isolates. In order to understand clonal relatedness between the microbial strains, classic phenotypic methods are used in line with modern molecular biology techniques. The development of genetics, especially new techniques like molecular typing, have revolutionized microbial research. After 1970, the development techniques, especially those referring to DNA sequencing, established molecular microbiology, thus providing modern tools for the identification of sources and routes of infection. Whole genome sequencing and other high-throughput typing methods are becoming increasingly popular and, thanks to their high resolution, they are ideal tools for comparative analysis of bacteria. This study reviews the methods most commonly used in the molecular typing of bacteria, including those which are in the development stage and may be the main tool in microbial typing in the future.

1. Introduction. 1.1. Typing methods. 2. Phenotypic typing methods. 3. Genetic typing methods. 3.1. REA-PFGE. 3.2. MLVA. 3.3. MLST. 4. 1st generation sequencing technology. 4.1. Sanger sequencing. 4.2. Maxam-Gilbert sequencing. 5. Whole genome sequencing. 5.1. 2nd generation sequencing. 5.2. 3rd generation sequencing. 6. Molecular typing using whole genome sequencing. 6.1. K-mer. 6.2. SNP. 6.3. wgMLST. 7. Analysis difficulties. 7.1. Data processing. 7.2. Data storage and sharing. 7.3. Nomenclature. 8. Potential directions of development. 9. Summary

Parole chiave

  • genotyping
  • molecular techniques
  • next-generation sequencing
  • whole genome analysis

Słowa kluczowe

  • analizy pełnogenomowe
  • genotypowanie
  • sekwencjonowanie nowej generacji
  • techniki molekularne
Accesso libero

Biochemical methods for the evaluation of the functional and structural diversity of microorganisms in the soil environment

Pubblicato online: 23 May 2019
Pagine: 194 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

Soil microbiome is composed of groups of microorganisms which are structurally and functionally very different. For many years soil microbiome has been the subject of numerous studies, but still is not fully recognized. It is well known that soil microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical processes. Knowledge of their structural and functional diversity makes it possible to assess the condition of the soil environment, which is extremely important for agronomy and ecology. The agricultural and industrial activities of humans cause changes in soil activity, which should be monitored. There are many different research methods developed to analyze soil activity and microbiological soil diversity and refined by researchers from around the world in. Biochemical methods used to analyze microbial activity are based on the determination of the ability of microorganisms to synthesize, assimilate or decompose specific chemical compounds, as well as on the analysis of microbial cell components. This study presents the research methods used for the analysis of both: the functionality of microorganisms and their structural diversity.

1. Introduction. 2. Determination of enzymatic activity. 3. CLPP technique. 4. Analysis of fatty acid profiles. 5. Analysis of protein profiles. 6. Summary

Parole chiave

  • Biolog ECOplate
  • enzymatic activity
  • fatty acid analysis
  • microbiological activity
  • proteomic analysis

Słowa kluczowe

  • aktywność
  • enzymatyczna
  • aktywność
  • mikrobiologiczna
  • analiza kwasów tłuszczowych
  • analiza proteomiczna
  • Biolog ECOplate

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