# Volume 23 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-9934
First Published
09 Jun 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

0 Articles
Open Access

#### Categorical Pullbacks

Published Online: 31 Mar 2015
Page range: 1 - 14

#### Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to introduce the categorical concept of pullback in Mizar. In the first part of this article we redefine homsets, monomorphisms, epimorpshisms and isomorphisms [7] within a free-object category [1] and it is shown there that ordinal numbers can be considered as categories. Then the pullback is introduced in terms of its universal property and the Pullback Lemma is formalized [15]. In the last part of the article we formalize the pullback of functors [14] and it is also shown that it is not possible to write an equivalent definition in the context of the previous Mizar formalization of category theory [8].

#### Keywords

• category pullback
• pullback lemma

• 18A30
• 03B35

#### MML

• identifier: CAT 7
• version: 8.1.03 5.29.1227
Open Access

#### Definition and Properties of Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups1

Published Online: 31 Mar 2015
Page range: 15 - 27

#### Abstract

In this article, direct sum decomposition of group is mainly discussed. In the second section, support of element of direct product group is defined and its properties are formalized. It is formalized here that an element of direct product group belongs to its direct sum if and only if support of the element is finite. In the third section, product map and sum map are prepared. In the fourth section, internal and external direct sum are defined. In the last section, an equivalent form of internal direct sum is proved. We referred to [23], [22], [8] and [18] in the formalization.

#### Keywords

• group theory
• direct sum decomposition

• 20E34
• 03B35

#### MML

• identifier: GROUP_19
• version: 8.1.03 5.29.1227
Open Access

#### Matrix of ℤ-module1

Published Online: 31 Mar 2015
Page range: 29 - 49

#### Abstract

In this article, we formalize a matrix of ℤ-module and its properties. Specially, we formalize a matrix of a linear transformation of ℤ-module, a bilinear form and a matrix of the bilinear form (Gramian matrix). We formally prove that for a finite-rank free ℤ-module V, determinant of its Gramian matrix is constant regardless of selection of its basis. ℤ-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász) base reduction algorithm and cryptographic systems with lattices [22] and coding theory [14]. Some theorems in this article are described by translating theorems in [24], [26] and [19] into theorems of ℤ-module.

#### Keywords

• matrix of Z-module
• matrix of linear transformation
• bilinear form

• 11E39
• 13C10
• 03B35

#### MML

• identifier: ZMATRLIN
• version: 8.1.04 5.31.1231
Open Access

#### σ-ring and σ-algebra of Sets1

Published Online: 31 Mar 2015
Page range: 51 - 57

#### Abstract

In this article, semiring and semialgebra of sets are formalized so as to construct a measure of a given set in the next step. Although a semiring of sets has already been formalized in [13], that is, strictly speaking, a definition of a quasi semiring of sets suggested in the last few decades [15]. We adopt a classical definition of a semiring of sets here to avoid such a confusion. Ring of sets and algebra of sets have been formalized as non empty preboolean set [23] and field of subsets [18], respectively. In the second section, definitions of a ring and a σ-ring of sets, which are based on a semiring and a ring of sets respectively, are formalized and their related theorems are proved. In the third section, definitions of an algebra and a σ-algebra of sets, which are based on a semialgebra and an algebra of sets respectively, are formalized and their related theorems are proved. In the last section, mutual relationships between σ-ring and σ-algebra of sets are formalized and some related examples are given. The formalization is based on [15], and also referred to [9] and [16].

#### Keywords

• semiring of sets
• σ-ring of sets
• σ-algebra of sets

• 03E30
• 28A05
• 03B35

#### MML

• identifier: SRINGS 3
• version: 8.1.04 5.31.1231
Open Access

#### Separability of Real Normed Spaces and Its Basic Properties

Published Online: 31 Mar 2015
Page range: 59 - 65

#### Abstract

In this article, the separability of real normed spaces and its properties are mainly formalized. In the first section, it is proved that a real normed subspace is separable if it is generated by a countable subset. We used here the fact that the rational numbers form a dense subset of the real numbers. In the second section, the basic properties of the separable normed spaces are discussed. It is applied to isomorphic spaces via bounded linear operators and double dual spaces. In the last section, it is proved that the completeness and reflexivity are transferred to sublinear normed spaces. The formalization is based on [34], and also referred to [7], [14] and [16].

#### Keywords

• functional analysis
• normed linear space
• topological vector space

• 46B20
• 46A19
• 03B35

#### MML

• identifier: NORMSP _4
• version: 8.1.04 5.31.1231
Open Access

#### Equivalent Expressions of Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups1

Published Online: 31 Mar 2015
Page range: 67 - 73

#### Abstract

In this article, the equivalent expressions of the direct sum decomposition of groups are mainly discussed. In the first section, we formalize the fact that the internal direct sum decomposition can be defined as normal subgroups and some of their properties. In the second section, we formalize an equivalent form of internal direct sum of commutative groups. In the last section, we formalize that the external direct sum leads an internal direct sum. We referred to [19], [18] [8] and [14] in the formalization.

#### Keywords

• group theory
• direct sum decomposition

• 20E34
• 03B35

#### MML

• identifier: GROUP _20
• version: 8.1.04 5.31.1231