# Volume 26 (2018): Issue 2 (July 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-9934
ISSN
1426-2630
First Published
09 Jun 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

0 Articles
Open Access

#### Parity as a Property of Integers

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 91 - 100

#### Abstract

Even and odd numbers appear early in history of mathematics , as they serve to describe the property of objects easily noticeable by human eye . Although the use of parity allowed to discover irrational numbers , there is a common opinion that this property is “not rich enough to become the main content focus of any particular research” .

On the other hand, due to the use of decimal system, divisibility by 2 is often regarded as the property of the last digit of a number (similarly to divisibility by 5, but not to divisibility by any other primes), which probably restricts its use for any advanced purposes.

The article aims to extend the definition of parity towards its notion in binary representation of integers, thus making an alternative to the articles grouped in , , and  branches, formalized in Mizar , .

#### Keywords

• divisibility
• binary representation

#### MSC 2010

• 11A51
• 03B35
• 68T99
Open Access

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 101 - 124

#### Abstract

Drawing a finite graph is usually done by a finite sequence of the following three operations.

1. Draw a vertex of the graph.

2. Draw an edge between two vertices of the graph.

3. Draw an edge starting from a vertex of the graph and immediately draw a vertex at the other end of it.

By this procedure any finite graph can be constructed. This property of graphs is so obvious that the author of this article has yet to find a reference where it is mentioned explicitly. In introductionary books (like , , ) as well as in advanced ones (like ), after the initial definition of graphs the examples are usually given by graphical representations rather than explicit set theoretic descriptions, assuming a mutual understanding how the representation is to be translated into a description fitting the definition. However, Mizar ,  does not possess this innate ability of humans to translate pictures into graphs. Therefore, if one wants to create graphs in Mizar without directly providing a set theoretic description (i.e. using the createGraph functor), a rigorous approach to the constructing operations is required.

In this paper supergraphs are defined as an inverse mode to subgraphs as given in . The three graph construction operations are defined as modes extending Supergraph similar to how the various remove operations were introduced as submodes of Subgraph in . Many theorems are proven that describe how graph properties are transferred to special supergraphs. In particular, to prove that disconnected graphs cannot become connected by adding an edge between two vertices that lie in the same component, the theory of replacing a part of a walk with another walk is introduced in the preliminaries.

#### Keywords

• supergraph
• graph operations

#### MSC 2010

• 05C76
• 03B35
• 68T99
Open Access

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 125 - 140

#### Abstract

In the previous article  supergraphs and several specializations to formalize the process of drawing graphs were introduced. In this paper another such operation is formalized in Mizar , : drawing a vertex and then immediately drawing edges connecting this vertex with a subset of the other vertices of the graph. In case the new vertex is joined with all vertices of a given graph G, this is known as the join of G and the trivial loopless graph K1. While the join of two graphs is known and found in standard literature (like , ,  and ), the operation discribed in this article is not.

Alongside the new operation a mode to reverse the directions of a subset of the edges of a graph is introduced. When all edge directions of a graph are reversed, this is commonly known as the converse of a (directed) graph.

#### Keywords

• supergraph
• graph operations

• 05C76
• 03B35
• 68T99
Open Access

#### On Algebras of Algorithms and Specifications over Uninterpreted Data

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 141 - 147

#### Abstract

This paper continues formalization in Mizar [2, 1] of basic notions of the composition-nominative approach to program semantics  which was started in [8, 11].

The composition-nominative approach studies mathematical models of computer programs and data on various levels of abstraction and generality and provides tools for reasoning about their properties. Besides formalization of semantics of programs, certain elements of the composition-nominative approach were applied to abstract systems in a mathematical systems theory [4, 6, 7, 5, 3].

In the paper we introduce a definition of the notion of a binominative function over a set D understood as a partial function which maps elements of D to D. The sets of binominative functions and nominative predicates  over given sets form the carrier of the generalized Glushkov algorithmic algebra . This algebra can be used to formalize algorithms which operate on various data structures (such as multidimensional arrays, lists, etc.) and reason about their properties.

We formalize the operations of this algebra (also called compositions) which are valid over uninterpretated data and which include among others the sequential composition, the prediction composition, the branching composition, the monotone Floyd-Hoare composition, and the cycle composition. The details on formalization of nominative data and the operations of the algorithmic algebra over them are described in [10, 12, 9].

#### Keywords

• Glushkov algorithmic algebra
• uninterpreted data

• 68Q60
• 68T37
• 03B70
• 03B35
Open Access

#### On an Algorithmic Algebra over Simple-Named Complex-Valued Nominative Data

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 149 - 158

#### Abstract

This paper continues formalization in the Mizar system [2, 1] of basic notions of the composition-nominative approach to program semantics  which was started in [8, 12, 10].

The composition-nominative approach studies mathematical models of computer programs and data on various levels of abstraction and generality and provides tools for reasoning about their properties. In particular, data in computer systems are modeled as nominative data . Besides formalization of semantics of programs, certain elements of the composition-nominative approach were applied to abstract systems in a mathematical systems theory [4, 6, 7, 5, 3].

In the paper we give a formal definition of the notions of a binominative function over given sets of names and values (i.e. a partial function which maps simple-named complex-valued nominative data to such data) and a nominative predicate (a partial predicate on simple-named complex-valued nominative data). The sets of such binominative functions and nominative predicates form the carrier of the generalized Glushkov algorithmic algebra for simple-named complex-valued nominative data . This algebra can be used to formalize algorithms which operate on various data structures (such as multidimensional arrays, lists, etc.) and reason about their properties.

In particular, we formalize the operations of this algebra which require a specification of a data domain and which include the existential quantifier, the assignment composition, the composition of superposition into a predicate, the composition of superposition into a binominative function, the name checking predicate. The details on formalization of nominative data and the operations of the algorithmic algebra over them are described in [11, 13, 9].

#### Keywords

• Glushkov algorithmic algebra
• nominative data

• 68Q60
• 68T37
• 03B70
• 03B35
Open Access

#### An Inference System of an Extension of Floyd-Hoare Logic for Partial Predicates

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 159 - 164

#### Abstract

In the paper we give a formalization in the Mizar system [2, 1] of the rules of an inference system for an extended Floyd-Hoare logic with partial pre- and post-conditions which was proposed in [7, 9]. The rules are formalized on the semantic level. The details of the approach used to implement this formalization are described in .

We formalize the notion of a semantic Floyd-Hoare triple (for an extended Floyd-Hoare logic with partial pre- and post-conditions)  which is a triple of a pre-condition represented by a partial predicate, a program, represented by a partial function which maps data to data, and a post-condition, represented by a partial predicate, which informally means that if the pre-condition on a program’s input data is defined and true, and the program’s output after a run on this data is defined (a program terminates successfully), and the post-condition is defined on the program’s output, then the post-condition is true.

We formalize and prove the soundness of the rules of the inference system [9, 7] for such semantic Floyd-Hoare triples. For reasoning about sequential composition of programs and while loops we use the rules proposed in .

The formalized rules can be used for reasoning about sequential programs, and in particular, for sequential programs on nominative data . Application of these rules often requires reasoning about partial predicates representing preand post-conditions which can be done using the formalized results on the Kleene algebra of partial predicates given in .

#### Keywords

• Floyd-Hoare logic
• Floyd-Hoare triple
• inference rule
• program verification

• 68Q60
• 68T37
• 03B70
• 03B35
Open Access

#### Partial Correctness of GCD Algorithm

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 165 - 173

#### Abstract

In this paper we present a formalization in the Mizar system [2, 1] of the correctness of the subtraction-based version of Euclid’s algorithm computing the greatest common divisor of natural numbers. The algorithm is written in terms of simple-named complex-valued nominative data [11, 4].

The validity of the algorithm is presented in terms of semantic Floyd-Hoare triples over such data . Proofs of the correctness are based on an inference system for an extended Floyd-Hoare logic with partial pre- and post-conditions [8, 10, 5, 3].

#### Keywords

• greatest common divisor
• nominative data
• program verification

• 68Q60
• 68T37
• 03B70
• 03B35
Open Access

#### Basic Diophantine Relations

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 175 - 181

#### Abstract

The main purpose of formalization is to prove that two equations ya(z)= y, y = xz are Diophantine. These equations are explored in the proof of Matiyasevich’s negative solution of Hilbert’s tenth problem.

In our previous work , we showed that from the diophantine standpoint these equations can be obtained from lists of several basic Diophantine relations as linear equations, finite products, congruences and inequalities. In this formalization, we express these relations in terms of Diophantine set introduced in . We prove that these relations are Diophantine and then we prove several second-order theorems that provide the ability to combine Diophantine relation using conjunctions and alternatives as well as to substitute the right-hand side of a given Diophantine equality as an argument in a given Diophantine relation. Finally, we investigate the possibilities of our approach to prove that the two equations, being the main purpose of this formalization, are Diophantine.

The formalization by means of Mizar system ,  follows Z. Adamowicz, P. Zbierski  as well as M. Davis .

#### Keywords

• Hilbert’s 10th problem
• Diophantine relations

• 11D45
• 03B35
• 68T99
Open Access

#### Formalizing Two Generalized Approximation Operators

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 183 - 191

#### Abstract

Rough sets, developed by Pawlak , are important tool to describe situation of incomplete or partially unknown information. In this article we give the formal characterization of two closely related rough approximations, along the lines proposed in a paper by Gomolińska . We continue the formalization of rough sets in Mizar  started in .

#### Keywords

• rough approximation
• rough set
• generalized approximation operator

• 03E99
• 03B35
• 68T99
Open Access

#### On Two Alternative Axiomatizations of Lattices by McKenzie and Sholander

Published Online: 24 Dec 2018
Page range: 193 - 198

#### Abstract

The main result of the article is to prove formally that two sets of axioms, proposed by McKenzie and Sholander, axiomatize lattices and distributive lattices, respectively. In our Mizar article we used proof objects generated by Prover9. We continue the work started in , , and  of developing lattice theory as initialized in  as a formal counterpart of . Complete formal proofs can be found in the Mizar source code of this article available in the Mizar Mathematical Library (MML).

#### Keywords

• lattice
• distributive lattice
• lattice axioms

• 03B35
• 68T99
• 06B05
• 06D05