In this article, we formalize a matrix of ℤ-module and its properties. Specially, we formalize a matrix of a linear transformation of ℤ-module, a bilinear form and a matrix of the bilinear form (Gramian matrix). We formally prove that for a finite-rank free ℤ-module V, determinant of its Gramian matrix is constant regardless of selection of its basis. ℤ-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász) base reduction algorithm and cryptographic systems with lattices [22] and coding theory [14]. Some theorems in this article are described by translating theorems in [24], [26] and [19] into theorems of ℤ-module.

Publication timeframe:
Volume Open
Journal Subjects:
Computer Sciences, other, Mathematics, General Mathematics