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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles

Scientific Paper

Open Access

Coherence and phase synchrony analyses of EEG signals in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A study of functional brain connectivity

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an EEG study for coherence and phase synchrony in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. MCI is characterized by cognitive decline, which is an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms such as memory loss and cognitive impairment. EEG coherence is a statistical measure of correlation between signals from electrodes spatially separated on the scalp. The magnitude of phase synchrony is expressed in the phase locking value (PLV), a statistical measure of neuronal connectivity in the human brain. Brain signals were recorded using an Emotiv Epoc 14-channel wireless EEG at a sampling frequency of 128 Hz. In this study, we used 22 elderly subjects consisted of 10 MCI subjects and 12 healthy subjects as control group. The coherence between each electrode pair was measured for all frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta). In the MCI subjects, the value of coherence and phase synchrony was generally lower than in the healthy subjects especially in the beta frequency. A decline of intrahemisphere coherence in the MCI subjects occurred in the left temporo-parietal-occipital region. The pattern of decline in MCI coherence is associated with decreased cholinergic connectivity along the path that connects the temporal, occipital, and parietal areas of the brain to the frontal area of the brain. EEG coherence and phase synchrony are able to distinguish persons who suffer AD in the early stages from healthy elderly subjects.

Keywords

  • EEG
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • coherence
  • phase synchrony
  • Alzheimer’s disease
Open Access

Determining optimum wavelength of ultraviolet rays to pre-exposure of non-uniformity error correction in Gafchromic EBT2 films

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 11 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Gafchromic films have been used to measure X-ray doses in diagnostic radiology such as computed tomography. The double-exposure technique is used to correct non-uniformity error of Gafchromic EBT2 films. Because of the heel effect of diagnostic x-rays, ultraviolet A (UV-A) is intended to be used as a substitute for x-rays. When using a UV-A light-emitting diode (LED), it is necessary to determine the effective optimal UV wavelength for the active layer of Gafchromic EBT2 films. This study evaluated the relation between the increase in color density of Gafchromic EBT2 films and the UV wavelengths. First, to correct non-uniformity, a Gafchromic EBT2 film was pre-irradiated using uniform UV-A radiation for 60 min from a 72-cm distance. Second, the film was irradiated using a UV-LED with a wavelength of 353-410 nm for 60 min from a 5.3-cm distance. The maximum, minimum, and mean ± standard deviation (SD) of pixel values of the subtraction images were evaluated using 0.5 inches of a circular region of interest (ROI). The highest mean ± SD (8915.25 ± 608.86) of the pixel value was obtained at a wavelength of 375 nm. The results indicated that 375 nm is the most effective and sensitive wavelength of UV-A for Gafchromic EBT2 films and that UV-A can be used as a substitute for x-rays in the double-exposure technique.

Keywords

  • ultraviolet ray wavelength
  • gafchromic films
  • computed tomography
  • diagnostic radiology
  • double-exposure technique
Open Access

Dosimetric comparison of deep inspiration breath hold and free breathing technique in stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized lung tumor using Flattening Filter Free beam

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 15 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Aim: To compare the dosimetric advantage of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized lung tumor between deep inspiration breath hold technique and free breathing technique.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively included ten previously treated lung tumor patients in this dosimetric study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation using 4D-CT free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) techniques. Plans were created using three coplanar full modulated arc using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) bream with a dose rate of 1400 MU/min. Same dose constraints for the target and the critical structures for a particular patient were used during the plan optimization process in DIBH and FB datasets. We intend to deliver 50 Gy in 5 fractions for all the patients. For standardization, all the plans were normalized at target mean of the planning target volume (PTV). Doses to the critical structures and targets were recorded from the dose volume histogram for evaluation.

Results: The mean right and left lung volumes were inflated by 1.55 and 1.60 times in DIBH scans compared to the FB scans. The mean internal target volume (ITV) increased in the FB datasets by 1.45 times compared to the DIBH data sets. The mean dose followed by standard deviation (x̄ ± σx̄) of ipsilateral lung for DIBH-SBRT and FB-SBRT plans were 7.48 ± 3.57 (Gy) and 10.23 ± 4.58 (Gy) respectively, with a mean reduction of 36.84% in DIBH-SBRT plans. Ipsilateral lung were reduced to 36.84% in DIBH plans compared to FB plans.

Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in ipsilateral lung due to the lung inflation and target motion restriction in DIBH-SBRT plans were observed compare to FB-SBRT. DIBH-SBRT plans demonstrate superior dose reduction to the normal tissues and other critical structures.

Keywords

  • DIBH
  • free breathing
  • SBRT
  • lung radiotherapy
  • gated SBRT
Open Access

Comparison of three and four-field radiotherapy technique and the effect of laryngeal shield on vocal and spinal cord radiation dose in radiotherapy of non-laryngeal head and neck tumors

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 25 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Due to the effect of radiation on both the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues, the side effects of radiation in normal tissues are expected. One of the important complications in the head and neck radiotherapy is the doses reached to the larynx and spinal cord of patients with non-laryngeal head and neck tumors.

Materials and Methods: In this study, CT scan images of 25 patients with non-laryngeal tumors including; lymph nodes, tongue, oropharynx and nasopharynx were used. A three-field and a four-field treatment planning with and without laryngeal shield in 3D CRT technique were planned for each patient. Subsequently, the values of Dmin, Dmean, Dmax and Dose Volume Histogram from the treatment planning system and NTCP values of spinal cord and larynx were calculated with BIOPLAN and MATLAB software for all patients.

Results: Statistical results showed that mean values of doses of larynx in both three and four-field methods were significantly different between with and without shield groups. Comparison of absorbed dose didn’t show any difference between the three and four field methods (P>0.05). Using Shield, just the mean and minimum doses of spinal cord decreased in both three and four fields. The NTCP of the spinal cord and larynx by three and four-field methods with shield in the LKB and EUD models significantly are less than that of the three and four fields without shields, and in the four-field method NTCP of larynx is less than three radiation field.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference in doses reached to larynx and spinal cord between the treatments techniques, but laryngeal shield reduce dose and NTCP values in larynx considerably.

Keywords

  • 3D CRT
  • larynx
  • spinal cord
  • DVH
  • NTCP

Technical Note

Open Access

The rate of repeating X-rays in the medical centers of Jenin District/Palestine and how to reduce patient exposure to radiation

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 33 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Reduction of the patient’s received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

Keywords

  • patient dose
  • radiography
  • exposure
  • repeat rate
Open Access

Comparison of incident air kerma (ki) of common digital and analog radiology procedures in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 37 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Although in many developed countries, Analog radiography (AR) is replaced with digital radiography (DR) but AR is still widely used in many countries included Iran. Therefore, dosimetrically assessment of delivered dose is very important to avoid unnecessary patient dose.

Materials and Methods: In this study, all imaging centers in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad were selected. The initial information included the mean kVp and mAs used by the personnel to perform each radiological procedure were gathered through a questionnaire. Barracuda dosimeter was then used to measure Incident air kerma (ki). Data obtained from digital radiography (DR) and analogue radiography (AR) were then analyzed and compared to each other.

Results: The mean incident air kerma (ki) for five radiological procedures (chest AP&Lat, Skull AP&Lat, Lumbar spine AP&Lat, Thoracic spine AP&Lat and Pelvis) in digital devices were 0.38&1.34, 2.1&1.94, 4.99&7.83, 4.18& 6.41 and 4.33 mGy and those for analogue devices were 0.7&1.28, 3.05&3.02, 7.25&9.9, 7.125&8.36 and 5.36 mGy, respectively.

Discussion and Conclusion: The use of low kVp or high mAs is one of the reasons to increase the incident air kerma (ki) in analogue methods comparing to digital methods in all procedures except the chest (in Lateral view). Also the results, surprisingly, showed that in some of the analogue methods incident air kerma (ki) was less than digital methods which is most probably because of the auto-exposure conditions.

Review Article

Open Access

Emergence of Convolutional Neural Network in Future Medicine: Why and How. A Review on Brain Tumor Segmentation

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 43 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

Manual analysis of brain tumors magnetic resonance images is usually accompanied by some problem. Several techniques have been proposed for the brain tumor segmentation. This study will be focused on searching popular databases for related studies, theoretical and practical aspects of Convolutional Neural Network surveyed in brain tumor segmentation. Based on our findings, details about related studies including the datasets used, evaluation parameters, preferred architectures and complementary steps analyzed. Deep learning as a revolutionary idea in image processing, achieved brilliant results in brain tumor segmentation too. This can be continuing until the next revolutionary idea emerging.

Keywords

  • convolution neural network
  • brain tumor
  • segmentation
  • deep learning
7 Articles

Scientific Paper

Open Access

Coherence and phase synchrony analyses of EEG signals in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A study of functional brain connectivity

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an EEG study for coherence and phase synchrony in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. MCI is characterized by cognitive decline, which is an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms such as memory loss and cognitive impairment. EEG coherence is a statistical measure of correlation between signals from electrodes spatially separated on the scalp. The magnitude of phase synchrony is expressed in the phase locking value (PLV), a statistical measure of neuronal connectivity in the human brain. Brain signals were recorded using an Emotiv Epoc 14-channel wireless EEG at a sampling frequency of 128 Hz. In this study, we used 22 elderly subjects consisted of 10 MCI subjects and 12 healthy subjects as control group. The coherence between each electrode pair was measured for all frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta). In the MCI subjects, the value of coherence and phase synchrony was generally lower than in the healthy subjects especially in the beta frequency. A decline of intrahemisphere coherence in the MCI subjects occurred in the left temporo-parietal-occipital region. The pattern of decline in MCI coherence is associated with decreased cholinergic connectivity along the path that connects the temporal, occipital, and parietal areas of the brain to the frontal area of the brain. EEG coherence and phase synchrony are able to distinguish persons who suffer AD in the early stages from healthy elderly subjects.

Keywords

  • EEG
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • coherence
  • phase synchrony
  • Alzheimer’s disease
Open Access

Determining optimum wavelength of ultraviolet rays to pre-exposure of non-uniformity error correction in Gafchromic EBT2 films

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 11 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Gafchromic films have been used to measure X-ray doses in diagnostic radiology such as computed tomography. The double-exposure technique is used to correct non-uniformity error of Gafchromic EBT2 films. Because of the heel effect of diagnostic x-rays, ultraviolet A (UV-A) is intended to be used as a substitute for x-rays. When using a UV-A light-emitting diode (LED), it is necessary to determine the effective optimal UV wavelength for the active layer of Gafchromic EBT2 films. This study evaluated the relation between the increase in color density of Gafchromic EBT2 films and the UV wavelengths. First, to correct non-uniformity, a Gafchromic EBT2 film was pre-irradiated using uniform UV-A radiation for 60 min from a 72-cm distance. Second, the film was irradiated using a UV-LED with a wavelength of 353-410 nm for 60 min from a 5.3-cm distance. The maximum, minimum, and mean ± standard deviation (SD) of pixel values of the subtraction images were evaluated using 0.5 inches of a circular region of interest (ROI). The highest mean ± SD (8915.25 ± 608.86) of the pixel value was obtained at a wavelength of 375 nm. The results indicated that 375 nm is the most effective and sensitive wavelength of UV-A for Gafchromic EBT2 films and that UV-A can be used as a substitute for x-rays in the double-exposure technique.

Keywords

  • ultraviolet ray wavelength
  • gafchromic films
  • computed tomography
  • diagnostic radiology
  • double-exposure technique
Open Access

Dosimetric comparison of deep inspiration breath hold and free breathing technique in stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized lung tumor using Flattening Filter Free beam

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 15 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Aim: To compare the dosimetric advantage of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized lung tumor between deep inspiration breath hold technique and free breathing technique.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively included ten previously treated lung tumor patients in this dosimetric study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation using 4D-CT free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) techniques. Plans were created using three coplanar full modulated arc using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) bream with a dose rate of 1400 MU/min. Same dose constraints for the target and the critical structures for a particular patient were used during the plan optimization process in DIBH and FB datasets. We intend to deliver 50 Gy in 5 fractions for all the patients. For standardization, all the plans were normalized at target mean of the planning target volume (PTV). Doses to the critical structures and targets were recorded from the dose volume histogram for evaluation.

Results: The mean right and left lung volumes were inflated by 1.55 and 1.60 times in DIBH scans compared to the FB scans. The mean internal target volume (ITV) increased in the FB datasets by 1.45 times compared to the DIBH data sets. The mean dose followed by standard deviation (x̄ ± σx̄) of ipsilateral lung for DIBH-SBRT and FB-SBRT plans were 7.48 ± 3.57 (Gy) and 10.23 ± 4.58 (Gy) respectively, with a mean reduction of 36.84% in DIBH-SBRT plans. Ipsilateral lung were reduced to 36.84% in DIBH plans compared to FB plans.

Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in ipsilateral lung due to the lung inflation and target motion restriction in DIBH-SBRT plans were observed compare to FB-SBRT. DIBH-SBRT plans demonstrate superior dose reduction to the normal tissues and other critical structures.

Keywords

  • DIBH
  • free breathing
  • SBRT
  • lung radiotherapy
  • gated SBRT
Open Access

Comparison of three and four-field radiotherapy technique and the effect of laryngeal shield on vocal and spinal cord radiation dose in radiotherapy of non-laryngeal head and neck tumors

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 25 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Due to the effect of radiation on both the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues, the side effects of radiation in normal tissues are expected. One of the important complications in the head and neck radiotherapy is the doses reached to the larynx and spinal cord of patients with non-laryngeal head and neck tumors.

Materials and Methods: In this study, CT scan images of 25 patients with non-laryngeal tumors including; lymph nodes, tongue, oropharynx and nasopharynx were used. A three-field and a four-field treatment planning with and without laryngeal shield in 3D CRT technique were planned for each patient. Subsequently, the values of Dmin, Dmean, Dmax and Dose Volume Histogram from the treatment planning system and NTCP values of spinal cord and larynx were calculated with BIOPLAN and MATLAB software for all patients.

Results: Statistical results showed that mean values of doses of larynx in both three and four-field methods were significantly different between with and without shield groups. Comparison of absorbed dose didn’t show any difference between the three and four field methods (P>0.05). Using Shield, just the mean and minimum doses of spinal cord decreased in both three and four fields. The NTCP of the spinal cord and larynx by three and four-field methods with shield in the LKB and EUD models significantly are less than that of the three and four fields without shields, and in the four-field method NTCP of larynx is less than three radiation field.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference in doses reached to larynx and spinal cord between the treatments techniques, but laryngeal shield reduce dose and NTCP values in larynx considerably.

Keywords

  • 3D CRT
  • larynx
  • spinal cord
  • DVH
  • NTCP

Technical Note

Open Access

The rate of repeating X-rays in the medical centers of Jenin District/Palestine and how to reduce patient exposure to radiation

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 33 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Reduction of the patient’s received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

Keywords

  • patient dose
  • radiography
  • exposure
  • repeat rate
Open Access

Comparison of incident air kerma (ki) of common digital and analog radiology procedures in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 37 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Although in many developed countries, Analog radiography (AR) is replaced with digital radiography (DR) but AR is still widely used in many countries included Iran. Therefore, dosimetrically assessment of delivered dose is very important to avoid unnecessary patient dose.

Materials and Methods: In this study, all imaging centers in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad were selected. The initial information included the mean kVp and mAs used by the personnel to perform each radiological procedure were gathered through a questionnaire. Barracuda dosimeter was then used to measure Incident air kerma (ki). Data obtained from digital radiography (DR) and analogue radiography (AR) were then analyzed and compared to each other.

Results: The mean incident air kerma (ki) for five radiological procedures (chest AP&Lat, Skull AP&Lat, Lumbar spine AP&Lat, Thoracic spine AP&Lat and Pelvis) in digital devices were 0.38&1.34, 2.1&1.94, 4.99&7.83, 4.18& 6.41 and 4.33 mGy and those for analogue devices were 0.7&1.28, 3.05&3.02, 7.25&9.9, 7.125&8.36 and 5.36 mGy, respectively.

Discussion and Conclusion: The use of low kVp or high mAs is one of the reasons to increase the incident air kerma (ki) in analogue methods comparing to digital methods in all procedures except the chest (in Lateral view). Also the results, surprisingly, showed that in some of the analogue methods incident air kerma (ki) was less than digital methods which is most probably because of the auto-exposure conditions.

Review Article

Open Access

Emergence of Convolutional Neural Network in Future Medicine: Why and How. A Review on Brain Tumor Segmentation

Published Online: 04 Apr 2018
Page range: 43 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

Manual analysis of brain tumors magnetic resonance images is usually accompanied by some problem. Several techniques have been proposed for the brain tumor segmentation. This study will be focused on searching popular databases for related studies, theoretical and practical aspects of Convolutional Neural Network surveyed in brain tumor segmentation. Based on our findings, details about related studies including the datasets used, evaluation parameters, preferred architectures and complementary steps analyzed. Deep learning as a revolutionary idea in image processing, achieved brilliant results in brain tumor segmentation too. This can be continuing until the next revolutionary idea emerging.

Keywords

  • convolution neural network
  • brain tumor
  • segmentation
  • deep learning

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