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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 13 (2007): Issue 1 (March 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

4 Articles
Open Access

A Simple Method of Determining the Effective Attenuation Coefficient

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

A Simple Method of Determining the Effective Attenuation Coefficient

This paper presents a simple method of determining the effective attenuation coefficient from steady-state diffuse reflectance measurements.

Keywords

  • optical parameters
  • effective attenuation coefficient
  • reflectance measurements
Open Access

RC Model-based Comparison Tests of the Added Compliance Method with Computer Simulations and a Standard Method

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 13 - 21

Abstract

RC Model-based Comparison Tests of the Added Compliance Method with Computer Simulations and a Standard Method

Ventilation of the lungs involves the exchange of gases during inhalation and exhalation causing the movement of respiratory gases between alveolars and the atmosphere as a result of a pressure drop between alveolars and the atmosphere. During artificial ventilation what is most important is to keep specific mechanical parameters of the lungs such as total compliance of the respiratory system Cp (consisting of the lung and the thorax compliances) and the airway resistance Rp when the patient is ventilated. Therefore, as the main goal of this work and as the first step to use our earlier method of added lung compliance in clinical practice was: 1) to carry out computer simulations to compare the application of this method during different expiratory phases, and 2) to compare this method with the standard method for its accuracy.

The primary tests of the added-compliance method of the main lung parameters measurement have been made using the RC mechanical model of the lungs.

Keywords

  • the added compliance method
  • the end-inspiratory pause technique
  • the total compliance of respiratory system
  • the airway resistance
  • artificial ventilation
Open Access

The Use of the Monte Carlo Method to Determine Optical Parameters of Tissue

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 23 - 32

Abstract

The Use of the Monte Carlo Method to Determine Optical Parameters of Tissue

The paper presents the use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the optical parameters of tissue from steady-state diffuse reflectance measurements.

Keywords

  • optical parameters
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • effective attenuation coefficient
  • reflectance measurements
Open Access

Mathematical Modelling of the Infusion Test

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 33 - 54

Abstract

Mathematical Modelling of the Infusion Test

The objective of this paper was to improve the well established in clinical practice Marmarou model for intracranial volume-pressure compensation by adding the pulsatile components. It was demonstrated that complicated pulsation and growth in intracranial pressure during infusion test could be successfully modeled by the relatively simple analytical expression derived in this paper. The CSF dynamics were tested in 25 patients with clinical symptoms of hydrocephalus. Basing on the frequency spectrum of the patient's baseline pressure and identified parameters of CSF dynamic, for each patient an "ideal" infusion test curve free from artefacts and slow waves was simulated. The degree of correlation between simulated and real curves obtained from clinical observations gave insight into the adequacy of assumptions of Marmarou model. The proposed method of infusion tests analysis designates more exactly the value of the reference pressure, which is usually treated as a secondary and of uncertain significance. The properly identified value of the reference pressure decides on the degree of pulsation amplitude growth during IT, as well as on the value of elastance coefficient. The artificially generated tests with various pulsation components were also applied to examine the correctness of the used algorithm of identification of the original Marmarou model parameters.

Keywords

  • infusion test
  • pulsatile and respiratory waves
  • mathematical modeling
  • hydrocephalus
4 Articles
Open Access

A Simple Method of Determining the Effective Attenuation Coefficient

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

A Simple Method of Determining the Effective Attenuation Coefficient

This paper presents a simple method of determining the effective attenuation coefficient from steady-state diffuse reflectance measurements.

Keywords

  • optical parameters
  • effective attenuation coefficient
  • reflectance measurements
Open Access

RC Model-based Comparison Tests of the Added Compliance Method with Computer Simulations and a Standard Method

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 13 - 21

Abstract

RC Model-based Comparison Tests of the Added Compliance Method with Computer Simulations and a Standard Method

Ventilation of the lungs involves the exchange of gases during inhalation and exhalation causing the movement of respiratory gases between alveolars and the atmosphere as a result of a pressure drop between alveolars and the atmosphere. During artificial ventilation what is most important is to keep specific mechanical parameters of the lungs such as total compliance of the respiratory system Cp (consisting of the lung and the thorax compliances) and the airway resistance Rp when the patient is ventilated. Therefore, as the main goal of this work and as the first step to use our earlier method of added lung compliance in clinical practice was: 1) to carry out computer simulations to compare the application of this method during different expiratory phases, and 2) to compare this method with the standard method for its accuracy.

The primary tests of the added-compliance method of the main lung parameters measurement have been made using the RC mechanical model of the lungs.

Keywords

  • the added compliance method
  • the end-inspiratory pause technique
  • the total compliance of respiratory system
  • the airway resistance
  • artificial ventilation
Open Access

The Use of the Monte Carlo Method to Determine Optical Parameters of Tissue

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 23 - 32

Abstract

The Use of the Monte Carlo Method to Determine Optical Parameters of Tissue

The paper presents the use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the optical parameters of tissue from steady-state diffuse reflectance measurements.

Keywords

  • optical parameters
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • effective attenuation coefficient
  • reflectance measurements
Open Access

Mathematical Modelling of the Infusion Test

Published Online: 30 Dec 2008
Page range: 33 - 54

Abstract

Mathematical Modelling of the Infusion Test

The objective of this paper was to improve the well established in clinical practice Marmarou model for intracranial volume-pressure compensation by adding the pulsatile components. It was demonstrated that complicated pulsation and growth in intracranial pressure during infusion test could be successfully modeled by the relatively simple analytical expression derived in this paper. The CSF dynamics were tested in 25 patients with clinical symptoms of hydrocephalus. Basing on the frequency spectrum of the patient's baseline pressure and identified parameters of CSF dynamic, for each patient an "ideal" infusion test curve free from artefacts and slow waves was simulated. The degree of correlation between simulated and real curves obtained from clinical observations gave insight into the adequacy of assumptions of Marmarou model. The proposed method of infusion tests analysis designates more exactly the value of the reference pressure, which is usually treated as a secondary and of uncertain significance. The properly identified value of the reference pressure decides on the degree of pulsation amplitude growth during IT, as well as on the value of elastance coefficient. The artificially generated tests with various pulsation components were also applied to examine the correctness of the used algorithm of identification of the original Marmarou model parameters.

Keywords

  • infusion test
  • pulsatile and respiratory waves
  • mathematical modeling
  • hydrocephalus

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