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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 17 (2011): Issue 1 (March 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture

The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.

Keywords

  • Radiation Protection Culture
  • IRPA
Open Access

Measurement of Head Scatter Factor for Linear Accelerators using Indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 13 - 25

Abstract

Measurement of Head Scatter Factor for Linear Accelerators using Indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom

A columnar mini phantom is designed as recommended by ESTRO to measure the Head Scatter Factor (Sc) for 6 MV beam of two linear accelerators. The measurement of Sc at different orientations of the chamber, parallel and perpendicular at 1.5 cm depth predicts the deviation of 2.05% and 1.9% for Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators respectively. The measurement of Sc at 1.5 cm is higher compared to 10 cm depth for both the linear accelerators suggesting the electron contamination at 1.5 cm depth. The effect of wedges on Sc yields a significant contribution of 3.5% and 5% for Siemens and Elekta linear accelerators respectively. The collimator exchange effect reveals the opening of upper jaw increases the Sc irrespective of the linear accelerator. The result emphasizes the need of Sc measurement at 10 cm. The presence of wedge influences the Sc value and the SSD has no influence on Sc. The measured Sc values are in good agreement with the published data.

Keywords

  • Head Scatter Factor
  • Columnar Mini Phantom
  • Collimator exchange effect
  • ion chamber
  • linear accelerator
Open Access

A review of concepts regarding the origin of respiratory muscle fatigue

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 27 - 34

Abstract

A review of concepts regarding the origin of respiratory muscle fatigue

In this review, the classification of respiratory muscle fatigue from the perspective of its origin is presented. The fatigue is classified as central or peripheral, and the latter further subdivided into high- and low-frequency fatigue. However, muscle fatigue is a complex process and all three types of fatigue probably occur simultaneously in the overloaded respiratory muscles. The relative importance of each type depends on the duration of respiratory loading and other physiological variables. However, central and high-frequency fatigue resolve rapidly once muscle overload is removed, whereas low-frequency fatigue persists over long time.

Keywords

  • muscle activation
  • respiratory failure
  • excitation-contraction coupling
Open Access

Direct and indirect measurements relevant to the assessment of fatigue of the respiratory muscles - review

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 35 - 43

Abstract

Direct and indirect measurements relevant to the assessment of fatigue of the respiratory muscles - review

The purpose of this review is to present selected tests available with the potential to detect the development of respiratory muscle fatigue in normal subjects and patients. All reviewed techniques represent a part of a variety of measures and indices, which have been employed to assess this complex process at the present time.

Keywords

  • muscle fatigue
  • fatigue indicator
  • test of respiratory muscle fatigue
Open Access

Identification of the effects of peripheral nerves injury on the muscle control - A review

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 45 - 53

Abstract

Identification of the effects of peripheral nerves injury on the muscle control - A review

Impairment of motor function following peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem. Generally nerve injury leads to erroneous control of muscle activity that results in gait and voluntary movement abnormalities followed by muscle atrophy. This article presents a review of studies on the effects of peripheral nerve injury on the motor system performed on animal models. We focused our attention on the results that are fundamental for better understanding of the degenerative and regenerative processes induced by nerve injury as well as of the mechanisms of structural changes in neuronal networks controlling movement. Quoted results are also important for clinical applications because they allow to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that can be used after nerve injury inducing motor deficits. However, till now no efficient therapy inducing satisfactory recovery was found. There is still a need to continue an advanced basic research directed to develop effective therapies. Thus the aim of this review is to compare the results of recent studies performed on various animal models in order to propose new methods for identification of mechanisms responsible for muscle deficits and propose targets for new pharmacological therapies.

Keywords

  • peripheral nerve
  • injury
  • muscle control deficits
  • locomotion
  • EMG
5 Articles
Open Access

IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture

The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.

Keywords

  • Radiation Protection Culture
  • IRPA
Open Access

Measurement of Head Scatter Factor for Linear Accelerators using Indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 13 - 25

Abstract

Measurement of Head Scatter Factor for Linear Accelerators using Indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom

A columnar mini phantom is designed as recommended by ESTRO to measure the Head Scatter Factor (Sc) for 6 MV beam of two linear accelerators. The measurement of Sc at different orientations of the chamber, parallel and perpendicular at 1.5 cm depth predicts the deviation of 2.05% and 1.9% for Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators respectively. The measurement of Sc at 1.5 cm is higher compared to 10 cm depth for both the linear accelerators suggesting the electron contamination at 1.5 cm depth. The effect of wedges on Sc yields a significant contribution of 3.5% and 5% for Siemens and Elekta linear accelerators respectively. The collimator exchange effect reveals the opening of upper jaw increases the Sc irrespective of the linear accelerator. The result emphasizes the need of Sc measurement at 10 cm. The presence of wedge influences the Sc value and the SSD has no influence on Sc. The measured Sc values are in good agreement with the published data.

Keywords

  • Head Scatter Factor
  • Columnar Mini Phantom
  • Collimator exchange effect
  • ion chamber
  • linear accelerator
Open Access

A review of concepts regarding the origin of respiratory muscle fatigue

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 27 - 34

Abstract

A review of concepts regarding the origin of respiratory muscle fatigue

In this review, the classification of respiratory muscle fatigue from the perspective of its origin is presented. The fatigue is classified as central or peripheral, and the latter further subdivided into high- and low-frequency fatigue. However, muscle fatigue is a complex process and all three types of fatigue probably occur simultaneously in the overloaded respiratory muscles. The relative importance of each type depends on the duration of respiratory loading and other physiological variables. However, central and high-frequency fatigue resolve rapidly once muscle overload is removed, whereas low-frequency fatigue persists over long time.

Keywords

  • muscle activation
  • respiratory failure
  • excitation-contraction coupling
Open Access

Direct and indirect measurements relevant to the assessment of fatigue of the respiratory muscles - review

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 35 - 43

Abstract

Direct and indirect measurements relevant to the assessment of fatigue of the respiratory muscles - review

The purpose of this review is to present selected tests available with the potential to detect the development of respiratory muscle fatigue in normal subjects and patients. All reviewed techniques represent a part of a variety of measures and indices, which have been employed to assess this complex process at the present time.

Keywords

  • muscle fatigue
  • fatigue indicator
  • test of respiratory muscle fatigue
Open Access

Identification of the effects of peripheral nerves injury on the muscle control - A review

Published Online: 07 Feb 2012
Page range: 45 - 53

Abstract

Identification of the effects of peripheral nerves injury on the muscle control - A review

Impairment of motor function following peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem. Generally nerve injury leads to erroneous control of muscle activity that results in gait and voluntary movement abnormalities followed by muscle atrophy. This article presents a review of studies on the effects of peripheral nerve injury on the motor system performed on animal models. We focused our attention on the results that are fundamental for better understanding of the degenerative and regenerative processes induced by nerve injury as well as of the mechanisms of structural changes in neuronal networks controlling movement. Quoted results are also important for clinical applications because they allow to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that can be used after nerve injury inducing motor deficits. However, till now no efficient therapy inducing satisfactory recovery was found. There is still a need to continue an advanced basic research directed to develop effective therapies. Thus the aim of this review is to compare the results of recent studies performed on various animal models in order to propose new methods for identification of mechanisms responsible for muscle deficits and propose targets for new pharmacological therapies.

Keywords

  • peripheral nerve
  • injury
  • muscle control deficits
  • locomotion
  • EMG

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