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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1898-0309
First Published
30 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles

Scientific Papers

Open Access

Hybrid ANN optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm based classifier for classification of suspicious lesions in breast DCE-MRI

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 81 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

Automatic mass or lesion classification systems are developed to aid in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions present in the breast DCE-MR images, the systems need to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MR image interpretation in order to be successful for clinical use. A new classifier (a set of features together with a classification method) based on artificial neural networks trained using artificial fish swarm optimization (AFSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The basic idea behind the proposed classifier is to use AFSO algorithm for searching the best combination of synaptic weights for the neural network. An optimal set of features based on the statistical textural features is presented. The investigational outcomes of the proposed suspicious lesion classifier algorithm therefore confirm that the resulting classifier performs better than other such classifiers reported in the literature. Therefore this classifier demonstrates that the improvement in both the sensitivity and specificity are possible through automated image analysis.

Keywords

  • Breast DCE-MR Images
  • lesion classification
  • classifier
  • Artificial Neural Networks
  • Artificial fishes swarm algorithm
Open Access

Direct monitoring of erythrocytes aggregation under the effect of the low-intensity magnetic field by measuring light transmission at wavelength 800 nm

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 89 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

Interacting electromagnetic field with the living organisms and cells became of the great interest in the last decade. Erythrocytes are the most common types of the blood cells and have unique rheological, electrical, and magnetic properties. Aggregation is one of the important characteristics of the erythrocytes which has a great impact in some clinical cases. The present study introduces a simple method to monitor the effect of static magnetic field on erythrocytes aggregation using light transmission. Features were extracted from the time course curve of the light transmission through the whole blood under different intensities of the magnetic field. The findings of this research showed that static magnetic field could influence the size and the rate of erythrocytes aggregation. The strong correlations confirmed these results between the static magnetic field intensity and both the time of aggregation and sedimentation of erythrocytes. From this study, it can be concluded that static magnetic field can be used to modify the mechanisms of erythrocytes aggregation.

Keywords

  • erythrocytes
  • aggregation
  • magnetic field
  • light
  • transmission
Open Access

Interpretation of Gamma Index for Quality Assurance of Simultaneously Integrated Boost (SIB) IMRT Plans for Head and Neck Carcinoma

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 93 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans.

Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%.

Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

Keywords

  • simultaneous integrated boost SIB
  • distance to agreement DTA
  • dose difference DD
  • portal dosimetry
  • quality assurance QA
  • head and neck
Open Access

Study of impacts of different evaluation criteria on gamma pass rates in VMAT QA using MatriXX and EPID

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 99 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Aim: This study evaluates the impacts of using different evaluation criteria on gamma pass rates in two commercially available QA methods employed for the verification of VMAT plans using different hypothetical planning target volumes (PTVs) and anatomical regions.

Introduction: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a widely accepted technique to deliver highly conformal treatment in a very efficient manner. As their level of complexity is high in comparison to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the implementation of stringent quality assurance (QA) before treatment delivery is of paramount importance.

Material and Methods: Two sets of VMAT plans were generated using Eclipse planning systems, one with five different complex hypothetical three-dimensional PTVs and one including three anatomical regions. The verification of these plans was performed using a MatriXX ionization chamber array embedded inside a MultiCube phantom and a Varian EPID dosimetric system attached to a Clinac iX. The plans were evaluated based on the 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm global gamma criteria and with three low-dose threshold values (0%, 10%, and 20%).

Results: The gamma pass rates were above 95% in all VMAT plans, when the 3%/3mm gamma criterion was used and no threshold was applied. In both systems, the pass rates decreased as the criteria become stricter. Higher pass rates were observed when no threshold was applied and they tended to decrease for 10% and 20% thresholds.

Conclusion: The results confirm the suitability of the equipments used and the validity of the plans. The study also confirmed that the threshold settings greatly affect the gamma pass rates, especially for lower gamma criteria.

Keywords

  • VMAT
  • quality assurance
  • MatriXX
  • EPID
  • gamma-index method
Open Access

Comparison of cardiac and lung doses for breast cancer patients with free breathing and deep inspiration breath hold technique in 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy - a dosimetric study

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 109 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the cardio-pulmonary doses between Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) and Free Breathing (FB) technique in left sided breast irradiation.

Materials & Methods: DIBH CT and FB CT were acquired for 10 left sided breast patients who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without nodal irradiation. Three fields single isocenter technique were used for patients with node positive patients along with two tangential conformal fields whereas only two tangential fields were used in node negative patients. All the critical structures like lungs, heart, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated in both DIBH and FB scan. Both DIBH and FB scans were fused with the Dicom origin as they were acquired with the same Dicom coordinates. Plans were created in the DIBH scan for a dose range between 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Critical structures doses were recorded from the Dose Volume Histogram for both the DIBH and FB data set for evaluation.

Results: The average mean heart dose in DIBH vs FB was 13.18 Gy vs 6.97 Gy, (p = 0.0063) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB technique. The relative reduction in average mean heart dose was 47.12%. The relative V5 reduced by 14.70% (i.e. 34.42% vs 19.72%, p = 0.0080), V10 reduced by 13.83% (i.e. 27.79 % vs 13.96%, p = 0.0073). V20 reduced by 13.19% (i.e. 24.54 % vs 11.35%, p = 0.0069), V30 reduced by 12.38% (i.e. 22.27 % vs 9.89 %, p = 0.0073) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB. The average mean left lung dose reduced marginally by 1.43 Gy (13.73 Gy vs 12.30 Gy, p = 0.4599) but insignificantly with DIBH as compared to FB. Other left lung parameters (V5, V10, V20 and V30) shows marginal decreases in DIBH plans compare to FB plans.

Conclusion: DIBH shows a substantial reduction of cardiac doses but slight and insignificant reduction of pulmonary doses as compared with FB technique. Using the simple DIBH technique, we can effectively reduce the cardiac morbidity and at the same time radiation induced lung pneumonitis is unlikely to increase.

Keywords

  • cardiac toxicity
  • lung toxicity
  • deep inspiration breath hold
  • free breathing
  • breast radiotherapy

Technical Notes

Open Access

Photon beam commissioning of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 115 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present the results of commissioning of Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (linac). The acceptance test and commissioning were performed for three photon beams energies 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV and for the multileaf collimator (MLC). The percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane beam profiles, head scatter factors (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor and MLC transmission factors were measured. The size of gantry, collimator, and couch isocenter were also measured.

Keywords

  • commissioning
  • accuracy
  • output
  • LINAC
  • transmission factor
  • in-plane and cross-plane
Open Access

Broadband spectroscopy for characterization of tissue-like phantom optical properties

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 121 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

Optical phantoms are widely used for evaluating the performance of biomedical optical modalities, and hence, absorbing and scattering materials are required for the construction of optical phantoms. Towards that aim, new readily available and inexpensive black Ink (Parker) as a simulating absorber as well as Intralipid 20% as a simulating scatterer are thoroughly investigated. Broadband Transmittance and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements were performed in the visible range 400 – 700 nm. Optical properties of the phantom materials are determined. Analytical expressions for absorption and scattering coefficient related to the concentrations and wavelength of the Parker ink and Intralipid are also presented and discussed. The results show nonlinear trend in the absorption coefficient of Parker ink over the examined visible spectral range. Furthermore, Intralipid scattering coefficient variation across the mentioned spectral range shows a tissue-like scattering trend. The findings demonstrate the capability of the broadband transmission and diffuse reflectance for characterizing tissue-like phantom materials in the examined spectral range.

Keywords

  • optical phantoms
  • Parker ink
  • Intralipid
  • diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
7 Articles

Scientific Papers

Open Access

Hybrid ANN optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm based classifier for classification of suspicious lesions in breast DCE-MRI

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 81 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

Automatic mass or lesion classification systems are developed to aid in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions present in the breast DCE-MR images, the systems need to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MR image interpretation in order to be successful for clinical use. A new classifier (a set of features together with a classification method) based on artificial neural networks trained using artificial fish swarm optimization (AFSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The basic idea behind the proposed classifier is to use AFSO algorithm for searching the best combination of synaptic weights for the neural network. An optimal set of features based on the statistical textural features is presented. The investigational outcomes of the proposed suspicious lesion classifier algorithm therefore confirm that the resulting classifier performs better than other such classifiers reported in the literature. Therefore this classifier demonstrates that the improvement in both the sensitivity and specificity are possible through automated image analysis.

Keywords

  • Breast DCE-MR Images
  • lesion classification
  • classifier
  • Artificial Neural Networks
  • Artificial fishes swarm algorithm
Open Access

Direct monitoring of erythrocytes aggregation under the effect of the low-intensity magnetic field by measuring light transmission at wavelength 800 nm

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 89 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

Interacting electromagnetic field with the living organisms and cells became of the great interest in the last decade. Erythrocytes are the most common types of the blood cells and have unique rheological, electrical, and magnetic properties. Aggregation is one of the important characteristics of the erythrocytes which has a great impact in some clinical cases. The present study introduces a simple method to monitor the effect of static magnetic field on erythrocytes aggregation using light transmission. Features were extracted from the time course curve of the light transmission through the whole blood under different intensities of the magnetic field. The findings of this research showed that static magnetic field could influence the size and the rate of erythrocytes aggregation. The strong correlations confirmed these results between the static magnetic field intensity and both the time of aggregation and sedimentation of erythrocytes. From this study, it can be concluded that static magnetic field can be used to modify the mechanisms of erythrocytes aggregation.

Keywords

  • erythrocytes
  • aggregation
  • magnetic field
  • light
  • transmission
Open Access

Interpretation of Gamma Index for Quality Assurance of Simultaneously Integrated Boost (SIB) IMRT Plans for Head and Neck Carcinoma

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 93 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans.

Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%.

Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

Keywords

  • simultaneous integrated boost SIB
  • distance to agreement DTA
  • dose difference DD
  • portal dosimetry
  • quality assurance QA
  • head and neck
Open Access

Study of impacts of different evaluation criteria on gamma pass rates in VMAT QA using MatriXX and EPID

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 99 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Aim: This study evaluates the impacts of using different evaluation criteria on gamma pass rates in two commercially available QA methods employed for the verification of VMAT plans using different hypothetical planning target volumes (PTVs) and anatomical regions.

Introduction: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a widely accepted technique to deliver highly conformal treatment in a very efficient manner. As their level of complexity is high in comparison to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the implementation of stringent quality assurance (QA) before treatment delivery is of paramount importance.

Material and Methods: Two sets of VMAT plans were generated using Eclipse planning systems, one with five different complex hypothetical three-dimensional PTVs and one including three anatomical regions. The verification of these plans was performed using a MatriXX ionization chamber array embedded inside a MultiCube phantom and a Varian EPID dosimetric system attached to a Clinac iX. The plans were evaluated based on the 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm global gamma criteria and with three low-dose threshold values (0%, 10%, and 20%).

Results: The gamma pass rates were above 95% in all VMAT plans, when the 3%/3mm gamma criterion was used and no threshold was applied. In both systems, the pass rates decreased as the criteria become stricter. Higher pass rates were observed when no threshold was applied and they tended to decrease for 10% and 20% thresholds.

Conclusion: The results confirm the suitability of the equipments used and the validity of the plans. The study also confirmed that the threshold settings greatly affect the gamma pass rates, especially for lower gamma criteria.

Keywords

  • VMAT
  • quality assurance
  • MatriXX
  • EPID
  • gamma-index method
Open Access

Comparison of cardiac and lung doses for breast cancer patients with free breathing and deep inspiration breath hold technique in 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy - a dosimetric study

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 109 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the cardio-pulmonary doses between Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) and Free Breathing (FB) technique in left sided breast irradiation.

Materials & Methods: DIBH CT and FB CT were acquired for 10 left sided breast patients who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without nodal irradiation. Three fields single isocenter technique were used for patients with node positive patients along with two tangential conformal fields whereas only two tangential fields were used in node negative patients. All the critical structures like lungs, heart, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated in both DIBH and FB scan. Both DIBH and FB scans were fused with the Dicom origin as they were acquired with the same Dicom coordinates. Plans were created in the DIBH scan for a dose range between 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Critical structures doses were recorded from the Dose Volume Histogram for both the DIBH and FB data set for evaluation.

Results: The average mean heart dose in DIBH vs FB was 13.18 Gy vs 6.97 Gy, (p = 0.0063) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB technique. The relative reduction in average mean heart dose was 47.12%. The relative V5 reduced by 14.70% (i.e. 34.42% vs 19.72%, p = 0.0080), V10 reduced by 13.83% (i.e. 27.79 % vs 13.96%, p = 0.0073). V20 reduced by 13.19% (i.e. 24.54 % vs 11.35%, p = 0.0069), V30 reduced by 12.38% (i.e. 22.27 % vs 9.89 %, p = 0.0073) significantly with DIBH as compared to FB. The average mean left lung dose reduced marginally by 1.43 Gy (13.73 Gy vs 12.30 Gy, p = 0.4599) but insignificantly with DIBH as compared to FB. Other left lung parameters (V5, V10, V20 and V30) shows marginal decreases in DIBH plans compare to FB plans.

Conclusion: DIBH shows a substantial reduction of cardiac doses but slight and insignificant reduction of pulmonary doses as compared with FB technique. Using the simple DIBH technique, we can effectively reduce the cardiac morbidity and at the same time radiation induced lung pneumonitis is unlikely to increase.

Keywords

  • cardiac toxicity
  • lung toxicity
  • deep inspiration breath hold
  • free breathing
  • breast radiotherapy

Technical Notes

Open Access

Photon beam commissioning of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 115 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to present the results of commissioning of Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (linac). The acceptance test and commissioning were performed for three photon beams energies 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV and for the multileaf collimator (MLC). The percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane beam profiles, head scatter factors (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor and MLC transmission factors were measured. The size of gantry, collimator, and couch isocenter were also measured.

Keywords

  • commissioning
  • accuracy
  • output
  • LINAC
  • transmission factor
  • in-plane and cross-plane
Open Access

Broadband spectroscopy for characterization of tissue-like phantom optical properties

Published Online: 21 Dec 2017
Page range: 121 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

Optical phantoms are widely used for evaluating the performance of biomedical optical modalities, and hence, absorbing and scattering materials are required for the construction of optical phantoms. Towards that aim, new readily available and inexpensive black Ink (Parker) as a simulating absorber as well as Intralipid 20% as a simulating scatterer are thoroughly investigated. Broadband Transmittance and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements were performed in the visible range 400 – 700 nm. Optical properties of the phantom materials are determined. Analytical expressions for absorption and scattering coefficient related to the concentrations and wavelength of the Parker ink and Intralipid are also presented and discussed. The results show nonlinear trend in the absorption coefficient of Parker ink over the examined visible spectral range. Furthermore, Intralipid scattering coefficient variation across the mentioned spectral range shows a tissue-like scattering trend. The findings demonstrate the capability of the broadband transmission and diffuse reflectance for characterizing tissue-like phantom materials in the examined spectral range.

Keywords

  • optical phantoms
  • Parker ink
  • Intralipid
  • diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

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