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Volume 14 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 13 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 13 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 13 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 13 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 10 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 10 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 10 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 10 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 9 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 9 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 9 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 9 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 8 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 8 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 8 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 8 (2016): Issue 1 (January 2016)

Volume 7 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 7 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 7 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 7 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 4-1 (December 2014)
Part I

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 4-2 (December 2014)
Part II

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 5 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 5 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 5 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 5 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Developing a City Brand

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyses theoretical aspects of a city brand definition, applying cases of various brands of Lithuanian cities. A brand is any sign or symbol which helps to distinguish goods or services for one person from the goods or services of another, and which may be represented graphically. The brand can be a variety of symbols, their combination, and other visual manifestations of information, such as words, names, slogans, letters, numbers, drawings, emblems; or spatial characteristics of the product itself – its image, packaging, shape, color, color combination or a combination of all these. City development usually includes an image dimension. The common ground for this is that a well-known toponym often generates events, investments, etc. Many cities are actively positioning and promoting their strategic intentions. Often times a city brand is associated with its fight for investment, tourist numbers, or successful businesses.

Objective: To scrutinize relevant theories applicable to city visual branding; to look through various definitions of the city branding and envisage some advantages and disadvantages they might pose; and to analyze various case studies so that we could summarize the methodologies of why and how we could better position our local products globally.

Methodology: The case study methods were used as part of a complex study and combined with in-depth interviews as well as benchmarking methods from various sources. In-depth interview method was used to obtain expert opinions on the subject. The in-depth interview method helped to analyze logo usage, goals, define pros and cons, and evaluate the results of logo design in urban development. This method was chosen to collect detailed and authentic material based on the attitudes and experiences of those involved in such a creative process.

Findings: The conclusion was reached that since a place prompts a lot of variables, in the future we need to consider more numerous components, such as population, industries, landscape, economies or history, etc. The hypothesis was confirmed about the variables of the city to be further considered for (re)branding, such as the cost, semantic complexity, societal charge, and the dynamics (changeability, or rigidity). As for the methodologies, we arrived at the conclusion that the best way to create a viable city brand is a collaboration between different stakeholders.

Value Added: The article adds to European experts’ suggestion of rethinking the concept of design itself, as until now a one-sided approach to design as a means of schematizing a product has prevailed. This approach, even regulated by Lithuanian law, does not cover the whole process of creating and implementing an idea. “Design is a problem-solving approach that focuses on the user during its development. It can be applied in both the public and private sectors to promote innovation in products, services, processes and even legislation,” says Dr Anna Whicher, expert on design policy and strategy of the European Commission. In other words, design has been increasingly integrated into the science, business, social and service sectors to maximize innovation.

As many as 63 percent of Lithuanian businesses do not use design solutions (product design, stylization or business strategy development) at any stage of production. This figure is below the EU average, where almost half of all businesses already integrate design solutions into their operations. Lithuania is also one of the 13 countries in Europe (out of 28) that does not have design policy documents or a community uniting organization, such as design centers in Great Britain, Denmark, Estonia or other countries. The paper invites Lithuania to re-think its design development policies at large, paying attention to urban design solutions in particular.

Recommendations: In further research, while selecting potential expert for city logo development, it is recommended that priority should be given to (a) responsible experts in strategic / territorial and national policy making or related activities, (b) experts with knowledge of sustainable development, (c) independent sustainable development analysts / consultants / private and academic or who have implemented specific project-based SDs both nationally and internationally. The stakeholders in this process should be representing: 1) Public Sector, 2) NGOs, 3) Private Sector, 4) Academy and 5) Independent Experts.

Keywords

  • city brand
  • city development
  • brand identity
  • design
  • logics
  • urban marketing

JEL Classification

  • M31 Marketing
  • M37 Advertising
Open Access

General Concept of Neo-institutional Measurements of Business Processes

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 28 - 80

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: General concept of neo-institutional measurements of business processes is an approach developed by the author, which fits in with the practical search for appropriate methods and tools that would optimize effectiveness and efficiency of business process management. The objective of the following discussion is to prove the thesis that effectiveness of business processes that take place within a company depends on the quality of support of such processes that is included in the set of supporting factors, as well as on neo-institutional determinants of business processes.

Methodology: In the article, the author used primarily long-term observations of the functioning of enterprises, critical literature analysis and thought experiment.

Findings: The concept was based on long-term of author’s experience in business management and it was essentially grounded in the model of the new institutional economics. On the basis of critical analysis of the literature and with the use of empirical research results from different industries and countries, it defines four hypotheses, which make ground for the concept in question. These are: hypothesis of rational change of condition, hypothesis of expected determinants of business processes, hypothesis of rational determinants of business processes and intensity of impact hypothesis.

Value Added: The concept presents a new holistic and behavioral method for business processes analysis.

Recommendations: The general concept of neo-institutional measurements of business processes may become a new economic approach concerning the issues of effectiveness and efficiency of business processes, but also it may become the ground for creation of a new catalogue of recommendations for managers, who, on a daily basis, make difficult managerial decisions.

Keywords

  • internal organization
  • organizational behavior
  • transactions
  • transaction costs
  • firms

JEL Classification

  • D230 Organizational Behavior
  • Transaction Costs
  • Property Rights
  • L220 Firm Organization and Market Structure
  • M210 Business Economics
Open Access

Legal Compliance Systems – a Necessary Mechanism in Organizational Risk Management

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 81 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: Compliance is currently seen as an integral structure of managing financial organizations and it is widely gaining popularity in other types of companies. However, despite model solutions being widespread across the world, there are still many problems due to the lack of effective business compliance management systems meeting the expectations of managers or executives. This is caused by not only incessant legislative changes, but also the multilateral character and function of compliance norms in legal practice and theory. The research purpose of this theoretical dissertation is to demonstrate that legal compliance management systems are a necessary tool for organizational risk management, both formally and practically.

Methodology: This research intends to study the impact of compliance on effectiveness of administrative bodies and private sector participants as part of the methodology in the form of a theoretical article

Findings: The initial hypothesis states that normative compliance first introduced in financial institutions is becoming an organizational standard in risk management, directly affecting the quality and systemic management processes.

Value Added: This article discusses the theoretical meaning and functions of compliance, in terms of both EU law and one of its member states, namely Poland. The choice of Poland as the subject of the study in comparison with the EU is motivated by the fact that this year Poland enforced a rather strict system of legal norms, comprising a broad code of compliance as part of the draft act on the responsibility of collective entities.

Recommendations: The system of legal compliance is a necessary mechanism of risk management in organizations, in both formal and practical sense, immediately strengthening the very traditional functions of management.

Keywords

  • compliance
  • legal standards
  • management
  • the risk of non-compliance

JEL Classification

  • K40 Legal Procedure
  • the Legal System
  • and Illegal Behavior: General
  • G32 Financing Policy
  • Financial Risk and Risk Management
Open Access

Increasing the Motivation of Human Potential via Identifying with the Meaning of the Business Activity

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 100 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this article was to analyse the impact of the meaning of business activity on employees’ motivation. In the article, the basic contexts between the terms within the studied issue were presented.

Methodology: Several methods and thought processes have been used in the article, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, or questionnaire survey. After analysing the theoretical background, questionnaires, interviews and observations were conducted and evaluated and their results led to the creation of specific recommendations. The research was carried out periodically in 2016 and subsequently in 2018.

Findings: The basic sense of the functioning of the company must be properly explained to the employees in order to increase the level of their motivation. Only if employees identify themselves with the tasks assigned, they will take responsibility for them and will be willing to work with enthusiasm and interest. Such behaviour will have an impact on improving the efficiency of work performance and individual processes, which will also increase the overall efficiency of the organization.

The first questionnaire survey revealed the high positive impact of several factors on increasing employee motivation. For example: interest in work; strive to be a good employee of the company; involvement in the workplace. The respondents of the second survey identified involvement in decision-making and participation in problem solving as important factors.

Value Added: The core value of this article is based on the recommended model. In addition to the model that illustrates the basic elements in employee identification with the business meaning, a mechanism has been created to achieve this goal. If this mechanism, consisting of six key points, is used to implement a project, it can be assumed that employees will understand the importance of specific tasks.

Recommendations: Motivation as an inner force of shifting a person – an employee – to achieve specific goals can be influenced by the motivation process. This process uses specific motivational tools to influence the behaviour of individuals. In line with this idea, the motivation of employees should be explored and encouraged. The main recommendation is to pay attention to identification of employees with the business meaning. In this case, employees will be involved in the decision-making, will be identified with the assigned tasks and will be willing to work with enthusiasm and interest.

Keywords

  • meaning
  • identification
  • motivation
  • employees
  • effectiveness

JEL Classification

  • M12 Personnel Management
Open Access

Compliance Risk Management in Polish and German Companies

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 115 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This article focuses on the analysis of cultural similarities and differences important in terms of the compliance risk management in Polish and German enterprises, with the deliberate omission of Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions, in favour of the modified E. Schein’s model. This article explains the basic concept of risk management culture, the compliance risk and the essence of the compliance management system in Poland and Germany as well as the impact of cultural factors of each of the analysed countries on the development of compliance. The research objective of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the examined countries, through the analysis of compliance management systems, as an indispensable element of risk management in an organisation, both in practical and formal terms.

Methodology: This research is based on a critical review of the source literature and inference with assigned classical and fuzzy logic values as part of the culture description and risk management.

Findings: The initial hypothesis is that the compliance risk management in companies in Poland and Germany has common and standardised features of the Community legal standards, which can be differently displayed from the declarative and actual point of view in Germany, due to an increase in internationalisation and intercultural relations.

Value Added: This article presents the theoretical significance and functions of compliance risk management based on an analysis of applicable compliance systems and cultural systems in Poland and in Germany.

Recommendations: The compliance risk management system is an essential risk management mechanism in organisations, both in formal and practical terms. It should take into account both the cultural diversity of the regions in Germany and the high cultural and ethnic homogeneity of enterprises in Poland – open, however, to cultural diversity.

Keywords

  • risk
  • compliance risk
  • management
  • compliance
  • compliance management system
  • interculturality

JEL Classification

  • K40 Legal Procedure
  • the Legal System
  • and Illegal Behavior
  • General
  • G32 Financing Policy
  • Financial Risk and Risk Management
Open Access

Problems with Modernizing Human Resources in The Lithuanian Service Sector

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 146 - 157

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: Problems in modernizing human resources of Lithuania’s service sector are discussed in the article. The objective of the article is to reveal the issues of human resources modernization, identify the trends and measures for human resources’ modernization in the service sector of Lithuania. The process of human resource management is understood as a continuous procedure where the main activities are planning, recruitment, selection, socialization, training and improvement, assessment of activity, promotion, displacement, downgrading or dismissal. The essential trends and measures for modernizing management of human resources is strategic management of human resources, growth of employee competencies and development of electronic human resources. Noteworthy to mention that in the modern world, when striving for competitive advantage, it is important to follow the guidelines of strategic management of human resources. The significance of information technologies cannot be forgotten, because the instalment of these technologies helps to coordinate innovations in science, originality and practical experience, all of which is oriented towards creation of new services and products for the society.

Methodology: The research methods are based on the insights of the researchers using the analysis of scientific literature and synthesis methods. The study analyzes issues related to the modernization of human resources management in the Lithuanian service sector.

Findings: Summarizing the study results, aspects of a modern organizational culture can be distinguished: promotion of friendly communication among employees (this allows solving problems in the organization among employees without the need for the employer to interrupt); constructive conflict solving with the help of a mediator; an employee who is valued in the organization becomes initiative, able to independently make decisions, is more involved in achieving goals of the organization; organizational culture is being modernized by promoting employee creativeness, or through pleasant and beneficial tasks; a manager in a modern organization is distinguished by a democratic leading style, is not a sole controller – decisions are made with the involvement of the entire team; it is modern to seek for a high level of service provision (not to be only profit-oriented).

Value Added: Based on the results of the research, a way of modernizing human resource management in Lithuanian catering establishments was suggested in order to maintain high level of services provided by modern motivation methods and other elements of the organizational culture model.

Recommendations: Summarizing the results of the research it is possible to distinguish aspects of modern organization culture, which showed that modernization of human resource management in Lithuanian catering establishments includes ensuring of microclimate in the organization; healthy workplace emotional and physical well-being; employee socialization; motivation of employees and encouragement to seek a high level of service in modern ways of motivation and other elements of the organizational culture model that are recommended to be emphasized in the organization.

Keywords

  • human resources
  • modernization of human resources
  • service sector
  • catering sector

JEL Classification

  • M12 – Personnel Management
Open Access

Priority Areas of Poland’s Development in Line with EU Policy (Smart Specializations) – Poland’s Food Security and Climate Change

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 158 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this article is to determine whether the problem of climate change has been included in the smart specialization programs as one that significantly determines the food security of a given region.

Methodology: For this purpose an analysis of provincial programs/strategies for the development was made. The programs indicate areas of importance for the region (the desk research method was used, which is a research method involving the analysis of available data).

Value Added: The starting point for the considerations taken in the article is the Strategy for smart and sustainable development, which sets out the objectives and priorities of the European Union for the years between 2010 and 2020 [EC, 2010]. In response to the above mentioned strategies, the Ministry of Development in Poland has distinguished National Smart Specializations (KIS) [Internet source A], their idea is to identify key sectors for the socio-economic development of the country and their financial support from EU funds (Smart Development Operational Program - POIR). The five sectors of smart specialization include agri-food, forestry and environmental bio-economy, which emphasize the importance of increasing the country’s food security and improving food quality. Regional Innovation Strategies (RSI) are the response to KIS. They distinguish the smart specializations of the region, and their assumptions and goals are to be appropriate for the characteristics of the region.

One of the biggest challenges of today is the climate change, which significantly affects the productivity of the agricultural industry. The European Commission in the White Paper and in its subsequent regulations emphasized the need to support local, regional, national and EU activities which will increase readiness and ability to respond to the effects of climate change (EC, 2013). Is it true that in connection with the above, the issue of adaptation of climate change to agricultural, as one of the important elements conditioning food security of the country, was taken into account when creating the concept of smart specializations? They do not decisively affect adaptation activities in the country, individual regions and industries, but in principle they are intended to raise important and current issues for the development of the country, and climate change and its consequences are undoubtedly such an issue.

Recommendations: The analysis of Most Voivodeship Development Strategies carried out shows lack the appropriate form. The scientific language and extensive documentation make it difficult to complete tasks, fail to reach the right recipient, and promote excessive bureaucracy. This is probably not conducive to the development of innovation, but only drives bureaucracy and generates unnecessary costs.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • food security
  • EU policy

JEL Classification

  • O2 Development Planning and Policy
  • O1 Economic Development
7 Articles
Open Access

Developing a City Brand

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyses theoretical aspects of a city brand definition, applying cases of various brands of Lithuanian cities. A brand is any sign or symbol which helps to distinguish goods or services for one person from the goods or services of another, and which may be represented graphically. The brand can be a variety of symbols, their combination, and other visual manifestations of information, such as words, names, slogans, letters, numbers, drawings, emblems; or spatial characteristics of the product itself – its image, packaging, shape, color, color combination or a combination of all these. City development usually includes an image dimension. The common ground for this is that a well-known toponym often generates events, investments, etc. Many cities are actively positioning and promoting their strategic intentions. Often times a city brand is associated with its fight for investment, tourist numbers, or successful businesses.

Objective: To scrutinize relevant theories applicable to city visual branding; to look through various definitions of the city branding and envisage some advantages and disadvantages they might pose; and to analyze various case studies so that we could summarize the methodologies of why and how we could better position our local products globally.

Methodology: The case study methods were used as part of a complex study and combined with in-depth interviews as well as benchmarking methods from various sources. In-depth interview method was used to obtain expert opinions on the subject. The in-depth interview method helped to analyze logo usage, goals, define pros and cons, and evaluate the results of logo design in urban development. This method was chosen to collect detailed and authentic material based on the attitudes and experiences of those involved in such a creative process.

Findings: The conclusion was reached that since a place prompts a lot of variables, in the future we need to consider more numerous components, such as population, industries, landscape, economies or history, etc. The hypothesis was confirmed about the variables of the city to be further considered for (re)branding, such as the cost, semantic complexity, societal charge, and the dynamics (changeability, or rigidity). As for the methodologies, we arrived at the conclusion that the best way to create a viable city brand is a collaboration between different stakeholders.

Value Added: The article adds to European experts’ suggestion of rethinking the concept of design itself, as until now a one-sided approach to design as a means of schematizing a product has prevailed. This approach, even regulated by Lithuanian law, does not cover the whole process of creating and implementing an idea. “Design is a problem-solving approach that focuses on the user during its development. It can be applied in both the public and private sectors to promote innovation in products, services, processes and even legislation,” says Dr Anna Whicher, expert on design policy and strategy of the European Commission. In other words, design has been increasingly integrated into the science, business, social and service sectors to maximize innovation.

As many as 63 percent of Lithuanian businesses do not use design solutions (product design, stylization or business strategy development) at any stage of production. This figure is below the EU average, where almost half of all businesses already integrate design solutions into their operations. Lithuania is also one of the 13 countries in Europe (out of 28) that does not have design policy documents or a community uniting organization, such as design centers in Great Britain, Denmark, Estonia or other countries. The paper invites Lithuania to re-think its design development policies at large, paying attention to urban design solutions in particular.

Recommendations: In further research, while selecting potential expert for city logo development, it is recommended that priority should be given to (a) responsible experts in strategic / territorial and national policy making or related activities, (b) experts with knowledge of sustainable development, (c) independent sustainable development analysts / consultants / private and academic or who have implemented specific project-based SDs both nationally and internationally. The stakeholders in this process should be representing: 1) Public Sector, 2) NGOs, 3) Private Sector, 4) Academy and 5) Independent Experts.

Keywords

  • city brand
  • city development
  • brand identity
  • design
  • logics
  • urban marketing

JEL Classification

  • M31 Marketing
  • M37 Advertising
Open Access

General Concept of Neo-institutional Measurements of Business Processes

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 28 - 80

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: General concept of neo-institutional measurements of business processes is an approach developed by the author, which fits in with the practical search for appropriate methods and tools that would optimize effectiveness and efficiency of business process management. The objective of the following discussion is to prove the thesis that effectiveness of business processes that take place within a company depends on the quality of support of such processes that is included in the set of supporting factors, as well as on neo-institutional determinants of business processes.

Methodology: In the article, the author used primarily long-term observations of the functioning of enterprises, critical literature analysis and thought experiment.

Findings: The concept was based on long-term of author’s experience in business management and it was essentially grounded in the model of the new institutional economics. On the basis of critical analysis of the literature and with the use of empirical research results from different industries and countries, it defines four hypotheses, which make ground for the concept in question. These are: hypothesis of rational change of condition, hypothesis of expected determinants of business processes, hypothesis of rational determinants of business processes and intensity of impact hypothesis.

Value Added: The concept presents a new holistic and behavioral method for business processes analysis.

Recommendations: The general concept of neo-institutional measurements of business processes may become a new economic approach concerning the issues of effectiveness and efficiency of business processes, but also it may become the ground for creation of a new catalogue of recommendations for managers, who, on a daily basis, make difficult managerial decisions.

Keywords

  • internal organization
  • organizational behavior
  • transactions
  • transaction costs
  • firms

JEL Classification

  • D230 Organizational Behavior
  • Transaction Costs
  • Property Rights
  • L220 Firm Organization and Market Structure
  • M210 Business Economics
Open Access

Legal Compliance Systems – a Necessary Mechanism in Organizational Risk Management

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 81 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: Compliance is currently seen as an integral structure of managing financial organizations and it is widely gaining popularity in other types of companies. However, despite model solutions being widespread across the world, there are still many problems due to the lack of effective business compliance management systems meeting the expectations of managers or executives. This is caused by not only incessant legislative changes, but also the multilateral character and function of compliance norms in legal practice and theory. The research purpose of this theoretical dissertation is to demonstrate that legal compliance management systems are a necessary tool for organizational risk management, both formally and practically.

Methodology: This research intends to study the impact of compliance on effectiveness of administrative bodies and private sector participants as part of the methodology in the form of a theoretical article

Findings: The initial hypothesis states that normative compliance first introduced in financial institutions is becoming an organizational standard in risk management, directly affecting the quality and systemic management processes.

Value Added: This article discusses the theoretical meaning and functions of compliance, in terms of both EU law and one of its member states, namely Poland. The choice of Poland as the subject of the study in comparison with the EU is motivated by the fact that this year Poland enforced a rather strict system of legal norms, comprising a broad code of compliance as part of the draft act on the responsibility of collective entities.

Recommendations: The system of legal compliance is a necessary mechanism of risk management in organizations, in both formal and practical sense, immediately strengthening the very traditional functions of management.

Keywords

  • compliance
  • legal standards
  • management
  • the risk of non-compliance

JEL Classification

  • K40 Legal Procedure
  • the Legal System
  • and Illegal Behavior: General
  • G32 Financing Policy
  • Financial Risk and Risk Management
Open Access

Increasing the Motivation of Human Potential via Identifying with the Meaning of the Business Activity

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 100 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this article was to analyse the impact of the meaning of business activity on employees’ motivation. In the article, the basic contexts between the terms within the studied issue were presented.

Methodology: Several methods and thought processes have been used in the article, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, or questionnaire survey. After analysing the theoretical background, questionnaires, interviews and observations were conducted and evaluated and their results led to the creation of specific recommendations. The research was carried out periodically in 2016 and subsequently in 2018.

Findings: The basic sense of the functioning of the company must be properly explained to the employees in order to increase the level of their motivation. Only if employees identify themselves with the tasks assigned, they will take responsibility for them and will be willing to work with enthusiasm and interest. Such behaviour will have an impact on improving the efficiency of work performance and individual processes, which will also increase the overall efficiency of the organization.

The first questionnaire survey revealed the high positive impact of several factors on increasing employee motivation. For example: interest in work; strive to be a good employee of the company; involvement in the workplace. The respondents of the second survey identified involvement in decision-making and participation in problem solving as important factors.

Value Added: The core value of this article is based on the recommended model. In addition to the model that illustrates the basic elements in employee identification with the business meaning, a mechanism has been created to achieve this goal. If this mechanism, consisting of six key points, is used to implement a project, it can be assumed that employees will understand the importance of specific tasks.

Recommendations: Motivation as an inner force of shifting a person – an employee – to achieve specific goals can be influenced by the motivation process. This process uses specific motivational tools to influence the behaviour of individuals. In line with this idea, the motivation of employees should be explored and encouraged. The main recommendation is to pay attention to identification of employees with the business meaning. In this case, employees will be involved in the decision-making, will be identified with the assigned tasks and will be willing to work with enthusiasm and interest.

Keywords

  • meaning
  • identification
  • motivation
  • employees
  • effectiveness

JEL Classification

  • M12 Personnel Management
Open Access

Compliance Risk Management in Polish and German Companies

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 115 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This article focuses on the analysis of cultural similarities and differences important in terms of the compliance risk management in Polish and German enterprises, with the deliberate omission of Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions, in favour of the modified E. Schein’s model. This article explains the basic concept of risk management culture, the compliance risk and the essence of the compliance management system in Poland and Germany as well as the impact of cultural factors of each of the analysed countries on the development of compliance. The research objective of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the examined countries, through the analysis of compliance management systems, as an indispensable element of risk management in an organisation, both in practical and formal terms.

Methodology: This research is based on a critical review of the source literature and inference with assigned classical and fuzzy logic values as part of the culture description and risk management.

Findings: The initial hypothesis is that the compliance risk management in companies in Poland and Germany has common and standardised features of the Community legal standards, which can be differently displayed from the declarative and actual point of view in Germany, due to an increase in internationalisation and intercultural relations.

Value Added: This article presents the theoretical significance and functions of compliance risk management based on an analysis of applicable compliance systems and cultural systems in Poland and in Germany.

Recommendations: The compliance risk management system is an essential risk management mechanism in organisations, both in formal and practical terms. It should take into account both the cultural diversity of the regions in Germany and the high cultural and ethnic homogeneity of enterprises in Poland – open, however, to cultural diversity.

Keywords

  • risk
  • compliance risk
  • management
  • compliance
  • compliance management system
  • interculturality

JEL Classification

  • K40 Legal Procedure
  • the Legal System
  • and Illegal Behavior
  • General
  • G32 Financing Policy
  • Financial Risk and Risk Management
Open Access

Problems with Modernizing Human Resources in The Lithuanian Service Sector

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 146 - 157

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: Problems in modernizing human resources of Lithuania’s service sector are discussed in the article. The objective of the article is to reveal the issues of human resources modernization, identify the trends and measures for human resources’ modernization in the service sector of Lithuania. The process of human resource management is understood as a continuous procedure where the main activities are planning, recruitment, selection, socialization, training and improvement, assessment of activity, promotion, displacement, downgrading or dismissal. The essential trends and measures for modernizing management of human resources is strategic management of human resources, growth of employee competencies and development of electronic human resources. Noteworthy to mention that in the modern world, when striving for competitive advantage, it is important to follow the guidelines of strategic management of human resources. The significance of information technologies cannot be forgotten, because the instalment of these technologies helps to coordinate innovations in science, originality and practical experience, all of which is oriented towards creation of new services and products for the society.

Methodology: The research methods are based on the insights of the researchers using the analysis of scientific literature and synthesis methods. The study analyzes issues related to the modernization of human resources management in the Lithuanian service sector.

Findings: Summarizing the study results, aspects of a modern organizational culture can be distinguished: promotion of friendly communication among employees (this allows solving problems in the organization among employees without the need for the employer to interrupt); constructive conflict solving with the help of a mediator; an employee who is valued in the organization becomes initiative, able to independently make decisions, is more involved in achieving goals of the organization; organizational culture is being modernized by promoting employee creativeness, or through pleasant and beneficial tasks; a manager in a modern organization is distinguished by a democratic leading style, is not a sole controller – decisions are made with the involvement of the entire team; it is modern to seek for a high level of service provision (not to be only profit-oriented).

Value Added: Based on the results of the research, a way of modernizing human resource management in Lithuanian catering establishments was suggested in order to maintain high level of services provided by modern motivation methods and other elements of the organizational culture model.

Recommendations: Summarizing the results of the research it is possible to distinguish aspects of modern organization culture, which showed that modernization of human resource management in Lithuanian catering establishments includes ensuring of microclimate in the organization; healthy workplace emotional and physical well-being; employee socialization; motivation of employees and encouragement to seek a high level of service in modern ways of motivation and other elements of the organizational culture model that are recommended to be emphasized in the organization.

Keywords

  • human resources
  • modernization of human resources
  • service sector
  • catering sector

JEL Classification

  • M12 – Personnel Management
Open Access

Priority Areas of Poland’s Development in Line with EU Policy (Smart Specializations) – Poland’s Food Security and Climate Change

Published Online: 28 Jan 2020
Page range: 158 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this article is to determine whether the problem of climate change has been included in the smart specialization programs as one that significantly determines the food security of a given region.

Methodology: For this purpose an analysis of provincial programs/strategies for the development was made. The programs indicate areas of importance for the region (the desk research method was used, which is a research method involving the analysis of available data).

Value Added: The starting point for the considerations taken in the article is the Strategy for smart and sustainable development, which sets out the objectives and priorities of the European Union for the years between 2010 and 2020 [EC, 2010]. In response to the above mentioned strategies, the Ministry of Development in Poland has distinguished National Smart Specializations (KIS) [Internet source A], their idea is to identify key sectors for the socio-economic development of the country and their financial support from EU funds (Smart Development Operational Program - POIR). The five sectors of smart specialization include agri-food, forestry and environmental bio-economy, which emphasize the importance of increasing the country’s food security and improving food quality. Regional Innovation Strategies (RSI) are the response to KIS. They distinguish the smart specializations of the region, and their assumptions and goals are to be appropriate for the characteristics of the region.

One of the biggest challenges of today is the climate change, which significantly affects the productivity of the agricultural industry. The European Commission in the White Paper and in its subsequent regulations emphasized the need to support local, regional, national and EU activities which will increase readiness and ability to respond to the effects of climate change (EC, 2013). Is it true that in connection with the above, the issue of adaptation of climate change to agricultural, as one of the important elements conditioning food security of the country, was taken into account when creating the concept of smart specializations? They do not decisively affect adaptation activities in the country, individual regions and industries, but in principle they are intended to raise important and current issues for the development of the country, and climate change and its consequences are undoubtedly such an issue.

Recommendations: The analysis of Most Voivodeship Development Strategies carried out shows lack the appropriate form. The scientific language and extensive documentation make it difficult to complete tasks, fail to reach the right recipient, and promote excessive bureaucracy. This is probably not conducive to the development of innovation, but only drives bureaucracy and generates unnecessary costs.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • food security
  • EU policy

JEL Classification

  • O2 Development Planning and Policy
  • O1 Economic Development

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