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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Retraction note

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

Open Access

Academic Autonomy in the Contemporary University

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 2 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this article is to show changes in the understanding of academic autonomy and the manifestations of its erosion, by appropriating this value to legitimise the increase in managerial autonomy, discrediting the value of community autonomy and increasingly restricting individual academic autonomy.

Methodology: The article is based on a critical analysis of the literature dealing with the reality of the functioning of autonomy in higher education institutions and materials related to the implementation of contemporary higher education reforms - mainly in Poland.

Findings: Changes in the perception of autonomy, threats to institutional and individual autonomy resulting from the uncritical subordination of transformations of higher education to the new public management concept as well as institutional isomorphism are presented.

Value Added: Attention has also been paid to ignoring the critical discourse on the consequences of too-one-sided transformation of higher education institutions, losing key values, whose carrier is community and individual autonomy – both academic teachers, for whom it is a necessary condition for the development of didactic and scientific creativity, as well as students who only in a situation of feeling are able to take responsibility for their own development.

Recommendations: Individual autonomy and participatory management, which determine creative activity and academic entrepreneurship, should be a particular concern for university managers. It is necessary to undertake research on the autonomy of students as members of the academic community.

Keywords

  • academic autonomy
  • managerial autonomy
  • academic community
  • collegiality

JEL Classification

  • I 23
Open Access

Long-term Development of National Human Capital. Evidence from China and Poland

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 30 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the long-term development of the chosen human capital indices that uncovers and compares the outcome of the national efforts performed by the two culturally distant countries (China and Poland) over the decade. Additionally, paper indicates the areas of further HC progress in both nations.

Methodology: The study was based on measuring human capital with the help of deliberately chosen set of macroeconomic indices (28 items) referring to the nations’ capability to create innovations. Analysis was performed for the 2007–2017 years.

Findings: Positive phenomena in the case of human capital development outperform the negative ones in both countries, however, the extent is more remarkable in the case of China. China managed to: improve greatly the pupil-teacher ratio (both in primary and secondary schools), increase secondary and tertiary education enrolment rate along with the rise of the no. of students from abroad. In Poland, the greatest increase was observed in the case of the number of researchers what consequently contributed to the improvement of number of scientific and technical articles and citable documents (h-index).

Value Added: To the best Author’s knowledge this is the first paper that compares national human capital development in Poland and China with a set of indices focused on capability to create innovations and adopts longitudinal approach.

Recommendations: Policy-makers in the case of Poland should concentrate on: fostering university/industry research collaboration, improving rank in worldwide QS classification and performing more efforts to attract and retain talents. Moreover, the negative trends should be reversed with regard to: PISA scores and general quality of education system. In turn, Chinese authorities should facilitate better PISA scores and increase the presence of scientific and technical articles.

Keywords

  • human capital
  • education
  • innovations
  • development model
  • longitudinal study

JEL Classification

  • O14
  • O15
  • O57
Open Access

Organizational Identification at a Multinational Company

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 67 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The present case study investigates to what extent employees working at the Dutch site of an American multinational biotechnology organization identify with this company. According to prior research, organizational identification leads to higher commitment to the organization. Gaining more insight into which factors drive or impede organizational identification can help organizations increase their employees’ identification and thus, commitment. Two hypotheses were tested. First, organizational identification was expected to be higher among international employees than Dutch employees. Second, a correlation was expected between organizational identification and organizational commitment.

Methodology: A questionnaire was conducted among 296 employees of the company site. The scale of Edwards and Peccei (2007) was used to measure the construct of organizational identification. Mowday et al.’s (1979) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used to measure the construct of organizational commitment. All data was statistically analyzed with the software SPSS; an independent samples t-test was performed to test the first hypothesis and a Pearson correlation coefficient was computed to test the second hypothesis.

Findings: Both hypotheses were confirmed. A significant difference was found between international employees (M = 5.25, SD = 1.05, n = 81) and Dutch employees (M = 4.96, SD = 1.12, n = 215) regarding organizational identification (t(293) = -2.03, p =.04, d = 0.27). Moreover, a significant positive correlation exists between organizational identification and organizational commitment (r(295) = .81, p < .001).

Value Added: Most prior research regarding organizational identification has focused on top-down processes, stressing the roles managers play in developing organizational identification among employees. Scholars have devoted little attention to what factors drive or impede organizational identification in cross-cultural workplaces. Taking on a bottom-up perspective, this study concentrates on the impact of employees’ social identities, mainly considering expatriate membership, on the extent of their organizational identification.

Recommendations: In order to increase organizational identification, multinational organizations could: 1) facilitate identity synergy by acknowledging the full portfolio of identities employees seek to enact within organizations, and 2) increase peer identification among employees by initiating group activities that facilitate peer-to-peer interactions, create a sense of community and strongly bond individuals to the organization.

Keywords

  • Organizational Identification
  • Organizational Commitment
  • Multinational Organizations
  • Social Identity Theory
  • Organizational Commitment Questionnaire

JEL Classification

  • F23 Multinational Firms
  • International Business
  • J61 Geographic Labor Mobility
  • Immigrant Workers
  • M14 Corporate Culture
  • Diversity
  • Social Responsibility
Open Access

Beyond the Subjective Experience of Visual Information in the Modern Media

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 99 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: According to researchers, visuality appeals to the cognitive aspects of image consumption, hence, the nature of information technologies becomes more important than the content itself. Based on this relevance, the article’s aim is twofold: when seeking to better understand the phenomenon of visual information to analyse the visual communication experience of public relation professionals who apply visual solutions to achieve a specific effect in their work.

Methodology: A quasi-structured in-depth interview of the experts and the method of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to gather and process the data of the research.

Findings: The paper presents insights into the interaction between receiver’s visual information experience and one’s world view. The research revealed that the visual information influences a person’s perception and interpretation of a message when it serves as supplement for information alongside text in press, advertisement, etc.

Value Added: Based on the research, the visual information experience was defined as an instantaneous action of giving meaning to personal experience and imagination by finding the intersection of narratives between the image and oneself.

Recommendations: A narrow boundary exists between the stimulation and constriction of the observer’s imagination when analysing the visual message. With the help of image communication, a new reality can be created. To reach effective communication, it is recommended to avoid abstract images that allow the observer’s imagination to give it whole other meanings than intended by the sender of the message.

Keywords

  • visual culture
  • visual communication
  • public relations
  • modern media
  • phenomenology

JEL Classification

  • M3
  • D83
Open Access

YouTube Vloggers as Brand Influencers on Consumer Purchase Behaviour

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 117 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The increasing influence of YouTube vloggers on consumer purchase behaviour and the specificity of the vloggers _ viewers/subscribers relationship are under-researched. Addressing this gap in knowledge, this paper explores the role of vloggers as brand influencers on consumer (their viewers) purchase behaviour. It aims to investigate the interaction between vloggers and viewers/subscribers in terms of brand awareness and consumers’ purchase behaviour.

Methodology: A mixed-method approach (often connected with netnography) incorporated non-participant observation of vloggers’ activities and vloggers-viewers interactions within selected popular vlogs, supported by an online survey with both vloggers and viewers.

Findings: We have observed specific brand endorsements and experiences, depending on the vloggers’ context, leading to both positive and negative feedback. This interaction and the consistently positive perception of reasons behind the vloggers’ choice of the endorsed brands underpin the credibility of the vloggers – viewers/subscribers relationship.

Value added: Our results show not only the significance of vloggers as brand influencers, providing their audiences information perceived as trustworthy and convincing in terms of purchase recommendations but also explore the factors affecting this process.

Recommendations: This research directed our attention into the viewer-viewer interaction on the vlogs platforms. It is a very dynamic and challenging (difficult to control) part of vlog marketing activities (including various eWOM aspects) which can be very influential in the analysed context and stays a task for the future research.

Keywords

  • YouTube vloggers
  • vlog
  • brand
  • consumer behaviour
  • purchase behaviour

JEL Classification

  • M31
  • M37
6 Articles
Open Access

Retraction note

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

Open Access

Academic Autonomy in the Contemporary University

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 2 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this article is to show changes in the understanding of academic autonomy and the manifestations of its erosion, by appropriating this value to legitimise the increase in managerial autonomy, discrediting the value of community autonomy and increasingly restricting individual academic autonomy.

Methodology: The article is based on a critical analysis of the literature dealing with the reality of the functioning of autonomy in higher education institutions and materials related to the implementation of contemporary higher education reforms - mainly in Poland.

Findings: Changes in the perception of autonomy, threats to institutional and individual autonomy resulting from the uncritical subordination of transformations of higher education to the new public management concept as well as institutional isomorphism are presented.

Value Added: Attention has also been paid to ignoring the critical discourse on the consequences of too-one-sided transformation of higher education institutions, losing key values, whose carrier is community and individual autonomy – both academic teachers, for whom it is a necessary condition for the development of didactic and scientific creativity, as well as students who only in a situation of feeling are able to take responsibility for their own development.

Recommendations: Individual autonomy and participatory management, which determine creative activity and academic entrepreneurship, should be a particular concern for university managers. It is necessary to undertake research on the autonomy of students as members of the academic community.

Keywords

  • academic autonomy
  • managerial autonomy
  • academic community
  • collegiality

JEL Classification

  • I 23
Open Access

Long-term Development of National Human Capital. Evidence from China and Poland

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 30 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the long-term development of the chosen human capital indices that uncovers and compares the outcome of the national efforts performed by the two culturally distant countries (China and Poland) over the decade. Additionally, paper indicates the areas of further HC progress in both nations.

Methodology: The study was based on measuring human capital with the help of deliberately chosen set of macroeconomic indices (28 items) referring to the nations’ capability to create innovations. Analysis was performed for the 2007–2017 years.

Findings: Positive phenomena in the case of human capital development outperform the negative ones in both countries, however, the extent is more remarkable in the case of China. China managed to: improve greatly the pupil-teacher ratio (both in primary and secondary schools), increase secondary and tertiary education enrolment rate along with the rise of the no. of students from abroad. In Poland, the greatest increase was observed in the case of the number of researchers what consequently contributed to the improvement of number of scientific and technical articles and citable documents (h-index).

Value Added: To the best Author’s knowledge this is the first paper that compares national human capital development in Poland and China with a set of indices focused on capability to create innovations and adopts longitudinal approach.

Recommendations: Policy-makers in the case of Poland should concentrate on: fostering university/industry research collaboration, improving rank in worldwide QS classification and performing more efforts to attract and retain talents. Moreover, the negative trends should be reversed with regard to: PISA scores and general quality of education system. In turn, Chinese authorities should facilitate better PISA scores and increase the presence of scientific and technical articles.

Keywords

  • human capital
  • education
  • innovations
  • development model
  • longitudinal study

JEL Classification

  • O14
  • O15
  • O57
Open Access

Organizational Identification at a Multinational Company

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 67 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The present case study investigates to what extent employees working at the Dutch site of an American multinational biotechnology organization identify with this company. According to prior research, organizational identification leads to higher commitment to the organization. Gaining more insight into which factors drive or impede organizational identification can help organizations increase their employees’ identification and thus, commitment. Two hypotheses were tested. First, organizational identification was expected to be higher among international employees than Dutch employees. Second, a correlation was expected between organizational identification and organizational commitment.

Methodology: A questionnaire was conducted among 296 employees of the company site. The scale of Edwards and Peccei (2007) was used to measure the construct of organizational identification. Mowday et al.’s (1979) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used to measure the construct of organizational commitment. All data was statistically analyzed with the software SPSS; an independent samples t-test was performed to test the first hypothesis and a Pearson correlation coefficient was computed to test the second hypothesis.

Findings: Both hypotheses were confirmed. A significant difference was found between international employees (M = 5.25, SD = 1.05, n = 81) and Dutch employees (M = 4.96, SD = 1.12, n = 215) regarding organizational identification (t(293) = -2.03, p =.04, d = 0.27). Moreover, a significant positive correlation exists between organizational identification and organizational commitment (r(295) = .81, p < .001).

Value Added: Most prior research regarding organizational identification has focused on top-down processes, stressing the roles managers play in developing organizational identification among employees. Scholars have devoted little attention to what factors drive or impede organizational identification in cross-cultural workplaces. Taking on a bottom-up perspective, this study concentrates on the impact of employees’ social identities, mainly considering expatriate membership, on the extent of their organizational identification.

Recommendations: In order to increase organizational identification, multinational organizations could: 1) facilitate identity synergy by acknowledging the full portfolio of identities employees seek to enact within organizations, and 2) increase peer identification among employees by initiating group activities that facilitate peer-to-peer interactions, create a sense of community and strongly bond individuals to the organization.

Keywords

  • Organizational Identification
  • Organizational Commitment
  • Multinational Organizations
  • Social Identity Theory
  • Organizational Commitment Questionnaire

JEL Classification

  • F23 Multinational Firms
  • International Business
  • J61 Geographic Labor Mobility
  • Immigrant Workers
  • M14 Corporate Culture
  • Diversity
  • Social Responsibility
Open Access

Beyond the Subjective Experience of Visual Information in the Modern Media

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 99 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: According to researchers, visuality appeals to the cognitive aspects of image consumption, hence, the nature of information technologies becomes more important than the content itself. Based on this relevance, the article’s aim is twofold: when seeking to better understand the phenomenon of visual information to analyse the visual communication experience of public relation professionals who apply visual solutions to achieve a specific effect in their work.

Methodology: A quasi-structured in-depth interview of the experts and the method of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to gather and process the data of the research.

Findings: The paper presents insights into the interaction between receiver’s visual information experience and one’s world view. The research revealed that the visual information influences a person’s perception and interpretation of a message when it serves as supplement for information alongside text in press, advertisement, etc.

Value Added: Based on the research, the visual information experience was defined as an instantaneous action of giving meaning to personal experience and imagination by finding the intersection of narratives between the image and oneself.

Recommendations: A narrow boundary exists between the stimulation and constriction of the observer’s imagination when analysing the visual message. With the help of image communication, a new reality can be created. To reach effective communication, it is recommended to avoid abstract images that allow the observer’s imagination to give it whole other meanings than intended by the sender of the message.

Keywords

  • visual culture
  • visual communication
  • public relations
  • modern media
  • phenomenology

JEL Classification

  • M3
  • D83
Open Access

YouTube Vloggers as Brand Influencers on Consumer Purchase Behaviour

Published Online: 14 Oct 2020
Page range: 117 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The increasing influence of YouTube vloggers on consumer purchase behaviour and the specificity of the vloggers _ viewers/subscribers relationship are under-researched. Addressing this gap in knowledge, this paper explores the role of vloggers as brand influencers on consumer (their viewers) purchase behaviour. It aims to investigate the interaction between vloggers and viewers/subscribers in terms of brand awareness and consumers’ purchase behaviour.

Methodology: A mixed-method approach (often connected with netnography) incorporated non-participant observation of vloggers’ activities and vloggers-viewers interactions within selected popular vlogs, supported by an online survey with both vloggers and viewers.

Findings: We have observed specific brand endorsements and experiences, depending on the vloggers’ context, leading to both positive and negative feedback. This interaction and the consistently positive perception of reasons behind the vloggers’ choice of the endorsed brands underpin the credibility of the vloggers – viewers/subscribers relationship.

Value added: Our results show not only the significance of vloggers as brand influencers, providing their audiences information perceived as trustworthy and convincing in terms of purchase recommendations but also explore the factors affecting this process.

Recommendations: This research directed our attention into the viewer-viewer interaction on the vlogs platforms. It is a very dynamic and challenging (difficult to control) part of vlog marketing activities (including various eWOM aspects) which can be very influential in the analysed context and stays a task for the future research.

Keywords

  • YouTube vloggers
  • vlog
  • brand
  • consumer behaviour
  • purchase behaviour

JEL Classification

  • M31
  • M37

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