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Volume 12 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Exploring the University-based Entrepreneurial Activities in International Collaboration: Development Cases of HEIs

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 1 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This paper attempts to shed some light on the entrepreneurial university elements through the examination of two HEIs – Karelia University of Applied Sciences and Poznan University of Technology. The case study explores the prerequisites for effective result-driven entrepreneurship education and business collaboration. Furthermore, the study examines what is the potential to build joint entrepreneurial pathways for HEI students and staff in an international context within the Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership Project “Entrepreneurship and Communication in Multicultural Teams (ECMT+)”.

Methodology: The nature of this exploratory case study is descriptive and data was collected using literature and reports review, participatory observation, reflection, and inference tools. The HEIs cases of practical implementation of the entrepreneurial university framework were selected with a purposeful sampling technique. The applied case study was practical orientated. Due to the small number of informants within the case and its qualitative nature, no generable conclusions can be drawn.

Findings: Even as a subjective and descriptive case study, it offers an arena to explore one authentic example of a community of practice and entrepreneurial education platform promoting the systematic competence and skills development in international collaboration context. Entrepreneurial university with a true multicultural nature supports building inclusive education bridging universities with their regions and businesses.

Value Added: The study reveals that the higher education has to be more inclusive and develop practices to meet the more diverse learners who may have disabilities and learning difficulties, diverse racial, cultural and linguistic backgrounds or meet with social and economic challenges. The value resulting from the research allow to state that the effective cooperation and building of entrepreneurial university practices at ECMT+ partner universities are beneficial both for students, teachers and the HEIs and they could be applied at other HEIs.

Recommendations: The strategic development of higher education should be oriented to promote the entrepreneurial mindset reforming the curricula to provide academic graduates more practical skilled, multi-disciplinary and social competent to discover the entrepreneurial opportunities and boosting employability. Despite the qualitative nature of the study it may enrich the discussion on the entrepreneurial university practice.

Keywords

  • curriculum development
  • entrepreneurial university
  • entrepreneurship education
  • experiential learning
  • international and intercultural collaboration

JEL Classification

  • I23
  • L26
  • M14
Open Access

Cognitive Biases in Negotiation - Literature Review

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 31 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this paper is also to thoroughly review those studies in the management literature that focused on bias in negotiation and to ascertain a couple of new research trajectories that could be observed as the result. As a matter of fact, a human’s judgment making capacity and behavior could be greatly influenced by cognitive misperceptions thus affecting decisions in negotiations. Whilst Thompson (2006) analytically examined the effects of biased decision-making processes for negotiations, the intention of this paper is to fill the gap through a systematic assessment of the literature.

Methodology: I have provided a theoretical background on decision makers’ cognition in this paper to provide context and introduce the research; after which we take a closer look at the literature and discuss its results. Based on this, I noted that limited research, with alternate results were done based on the interaction between biases bothering on mood, culture, personality as well as education and experience on the negotiators’ judgments. Finally, we suggest that future research trajectories might be on multilateral and integrative negotiations, the role of third parties and a better comprehension of the cognitive bias and how to rise above it in negotiations.

Findings: Despite the fact that this topic is considered important, it is surprisingly under-researched. Author was able to identify the void and inadequacies of the literature identified in journal articles systemizing the intersection of negotiation studies, from cognitive biases studies, group decision making and from the decision making and judgment literature.

Value Added: This paper showed that there are only a handful of papers that focus on why, how and when cognitive biases influence negotiation process.

Recommendations: There is a great need for papers that focus on cognitive biases in the negotiation process.

Keywords

  • cognitive biases in negotiation
  • negotiation process
  • decision making
  • cognition

JEL Classification

  • F51
Open Access

How to Improve Communication within an Organization? The Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Language Competence

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 53 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This article deals with the effective functioning of an organization in the international context. It focuses on the two key aspects of the communication in this respects: cultural intelligence (CQ), the capacity to operate successfully in the multicultural setting, and the quality of internal communication; it is investigated whether CQ (and its components: metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioural) are rather related to the number of foreign languages or the language proficiency a person (or an employee) knows (has).

Methodology: The sample of 132 undergraduate students of the English and Czech study programs at one private business university in the Czech Republic was used. The Spearman correlation coefficient, Chi–Square test for independence and the one–way ANOVA test (all of them conducted in the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 21) are calculated in the paper.

Findings: CQ depends on the quality (the level of proficiency) rather than the quantity (the number) of foreign language skills. This conclusion applies regardless of gender: our data did not confirm that language skills were gender-dependent.

Value Added: Recently a very fashionable cultural intelligence (CQ) construct has been explored in relation to a variety of variables and outputs. Nevertheless, insufficient attention has been given to the relationship between cultural intelligence and language competence so far; moreover, the research has brought contradictory results up to now. This study fills the actual knowledge gap.

Recommendations: It is shown that in terms of the effective functioning in a culturally unknown environment and with a restricted time to learn foreign languages, it is preferable to develop continuously one´s skills in lingua franca than parallel and more superficial studies of several languages.

Keywords

  • cultural intelligence
  • language competence
  • lingua franca

JEL Classification

  • M14
  • M16
Open Access

The Study of Nostalgia-Oriented Strategy Aimed at Millennials on The Example of The Lego Group

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 82 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to examine the effect that nostalgia-oriented strategy has on the Millennials’ perception of the LEGO brand.

Methodology: The methodology was based on past research in the field and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Pascal et al. (2002).

Findings: The research was conducted among 203 young respondents in the second quarter of 2019. During the realization of research, the indirect method of gathering information, using a survey technique was applied. The survey was conducted with the application of the techniques of electronic survey. The research methodology was based on past research in the field and a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Pascal et al. (2002) was used.

Value Added: This paper is the first to have found that companies operating in the toy industry are using nostalgia with aim of sustaining the brand loyalty.

Recommendations: The toy industry has become pretty much an unfair place to do business these days, as the biggest toymakers are involved in a fierce fight for the next generations of kids enamoured with the latest high-tech wonders. This paper demonstrates how LEGO®’s efforts reaped dividends as they have begun to address Millennials. It can be said, then, that the future of marketing in the following months would involve nostalgia as a major tool accelerating all the strategic endeavours in this clash of brands as the trend described hereinafter does not seem to slow down.

Keywords

  • LEGO
  • Nostalgia
  • Brand Management
  • Toys
  • Millennials

JEL Classification

  • M31
  • M37
Open Access

The Willingness to Employ Immigrants in Polish Organizations

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 106 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: For a long time Poland has been perceived as a rather homogenous society. However, cultural diversity and differences started to become visible after 1989 and have gained on importance since then. Combined with an increasing shortage of native workforce, the question of immigrants’ employment by Polish organisations becomes a burning issue. We have therefore decided to determine whether the fact of employing immigrants or the intention to do so in the foreseeable future affects the perception of foreign workers and the necessity of hiring them

Methodology: For this purpose, we conducted a survey among 263 entrepreneurs from the Opolskie Voivodship.

Findings: The study has demonstrated a very strong, statistically-relevant correlation between the willingness to employ immigrants and the attitude towards an employee’s country of origin. Also correlations between other analysed variables have been found statistically relevant

Value Added: The paper is an introduction to a debate on the role of immigrants on the Polish labour-market as it presents the point-of view of employers and their willingness to employ immigrants.

Recommendations: It is recommended for decision-makers to facilitate access of a wider group of immigrants to the Polish labour market, especially since a significant group of employees recognises the upcoming issue of workforce shortages and the necessity to reach for foreign employees in order to stay competitive.

Keywords

  • Cultural diversity
  • Labour immigration
  • Foreign workforce
  • Immigrants

JEL Classification

  • M21
  • M54
  • O15
Open Access

The Impact of Senior-Managerial Leadership Culture on Value Creation for Shareholders – A Study of Local and Multinational Companies in Portugal

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 134 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This study is based on the analysis of three fundamental aspects of company and managerial life: the culture of organizations, the style of leadership and financial performance. Its focus was to question the connection between these and to devise a strategy that could be applied in Portugal, during 2017 and 2019, in industrial sector companies.

Methodology: To do so, it was decided to start methodological analysis of the behaviour of managers and organizations operating in this environment, considering several classifications: multinational companies operating in Portugal and Portuguese companies with a strategy for and in the process of internationalization. On this basis the study problem was set at the level of managerial behaviour, bearing in mind that this varies depending on the type of organization in which managers’ work. The problem involves scientific, methodological, and cultural aspects that have already been demonstrated by several authors, whose considerations have been incorporated. The study was conducted in 16 companies operating in Portugal.

Findings: The characteristics of leadership in the multinationals tend towards greater balance between the four roles of each of the corresponding quadrants, while in the national companies it tends to be more internally focused.

Value Added: This difference could be related to what R. Quinn calls the Normal State of Leadership, which is focused on the comfort zone that the internal processes seem to generate; the multinational companies are more focused on external aspects and future development – Fundamental State of Leadership – centred on strategic dedication to clients and flexibility.

Recommendations: Dedication to clients and flexibility, that we intend to link with Internal Marketing strategy drivers, considering the investigation ideas for this paper, as the demonstration if some different Leadership Styles influence the Financial Performance of the Companies or not.

Keywords

  • Culture
  • Leadership
  • Management
  • Internal Marketing
  • Value Creation

JEL Classification

  • M10
  • M30
  • L20
  • G40
  • M21
6 Articles
Open Access

Exploring the University-based Entrepreneurial Activities in International Collaboration: Development Cases of HEIs

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 1 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This paper attempts to shed some light on the entrepreneurial university elements through the examination of two HEIs – Karelia University of Applied Sciences and Poznan University of Technology. The case study explores the prerequisites for effective result-driven entrepreneurship education and business collaboration. Furthermore, the study examines what is the potential to build joint entrepreneurial pathways for HEI students and staff in an international context within the Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership Project “Entrepreneurship and Communication in Multicultural Teams (ECMT+)”.

Methodology: The nature of this exploratory case study is descriptive and data was collected using literature and reports review, participatory observation, reflection, and inference tools. The HEIs cases of practical implementation of the entrepreneurial university framework were selected with a purposeful sampling technique. The applied case study was practical orientated. Due to the small number of informants within the case and its qualitative nature, no generable conclusions can be drawn.

Findings: Even as a subjective and descriptive case study, it offers an arena to explore one authentic example of a community of practice and entrepreneurial education platform promoting the systematic competence and skills development in international collaboration context. Entrepreneurial university with a true multicultural nature supports building inclusive education bridging universities with their regions and businesses.

Value Added: The study reveals that the higher education has to be more inclusive and develop practices to meet the more diverse learners who may have disabilities and learning difficulties, diverse racial, cultural and linguistic backgrounds or meet with social and economic challenges. The value resulting from the research allow to state that the effective cooperation and building of entrepreneurial university practices at ECMT+ partner universities are beneficial both for students, teachers and the HEIs and they could be applied at other HEIs.

Recommendations: The strategic development of higher education should be oriented to promote the entrepreneurial mindset reforming the curricula to provide academic graduates more practical skilled, multi-disciplinary and social competent to discover the entrepreneurial opportunities and boosting employability. Despite the qualitative nature of the study it may enrich the discussion on the entrepreneurial university practice.

Keywords

  • curriculum development
  • entrepreneurial university
  • entrepreneurship education
  • experiential learning
  • international and intercultural collaboration

JEL Classification

  • I23
  • L26
  • M14
Open Access

Cognitive Biases in Negotiation - Literature Review

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 31 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this paper is also to thoroughly review those studies in the management literature that focused on bias in negotiation and to ascertain a couple of new research trajectories that could be observed as the result. As a matter of fact, a human’s judgment making capacity and behavior could be greatly influenced by cognitive misperceptions thus affecting decisions in negotiations. Whilst Thompson (2006) analytically examined the effects of biased decision-making processes for negotiations, the intention of this paper is to fill the gap through a systematic assessment of the literature.

Methodology: I have provided a theoretical background on decision makers’ cognition in this paper to provide context and introduce the research; after which we take a closer look at the literature and discuss its results. Based on this, I noted that limited research, with alternate results were done based on the interaction between biases bothering on mood, culture, personality as well as education and experience on the negotiators’ judgments. Finally, we suggest that future research trajectories might be on multilateral and integrative negotiations, the role of third parties and a better comprehension of the cognitive bias and how to rise above it in negotiations.

Findings: Despite the fact that this topic is considered important, it is surprisingly under-researched. Author was able to identify the void and inadequacies of the literature identified in journal articles systemizing the intersection of negotiation studies, from cognitive biases studies, group decision making and from the decision making and judgment literature.

Value Added: This paper showed that there are only a handful of papers that focus on why, how and when cognitive biases influence negotiation process.

Recommendations: There is a great need for papers that focus on cognitive biases in the negotiation process.

Keywords

  • cognitive biases in negotiation
  • negotiation process
  • decision making
  • cognition

JEL Classification

  • F51
Open Access

How to Improve Communication within an Organization? The Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Language Competence

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 53 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This article deals with the effective functioning of an organization in the international context. It focuses on the two key aspects of the communication in this respects: cultural intelligence (CQ), the capacity to operate successfully in the multicultural setting, and the quality of internal communication; it is investigated whether CQ (and its components: metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioural) are rather related to the number of foreign languages or the language proficiency a person (or an employee) knows (has).

Methodology: The sample of 132 undergraduate students of the English and Czech study programs at one private business university in the Czech Republic was used. The Spearman correlation coefficient, Chi–Square test for independence and the one–way ANOVA test (all of them conducted in the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 21) are calculated in the paper.

Findings: CQ depends on the quality (the level of proficiency) rather than the quantity (the number) of foreign language skills. This conclusion applies regardless of gender: our data did not confirm that language skills were gender-dependent.

Value Added: Recently a very fashionable cultural intelligence (CQ) construct has been explored in relation to a variety of variables and outputs. Nevertheless, insufficient attention has been given to the relationship between cultural intelligence and language competence so far; moreover, the research has brought contradictory results up to now. This study fills the actual knowledge gap.

Recommendations: It is shown that in terms of the effective functioning in a culturally unknown environment and with a restricted time to learn foreign languages, it is preferable to develop continuously one´s skills in lingua franca than parallel and more superficial studies of several languages.

Keywords

  • cultural intelligence
  • language competence
  • lingua franca

JEL Classification

  • M14
  • M16
Open Access

The Study of Nostalgia-Oriented Strategy Aimed at Millennials on The Example of The Lego Group

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 82 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to examine the effect that nostalgia-oriented strategy has on the Millennials’ perception of the LEGO brand.

Methodology: The methodology was based on past research in the field and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Pascal et al. (2002).

Findings: The research was conducted among 203 young respondents in the second quarter of 2019. During the realization of research, the indirect method of gathering information, using a survey technique was applied. The survey was conducted with the application of the techniques of electronic survey. The research methodology was based on past research in the field and a modified version of a questionnaire developed by Pascal et al. (2002) was used.

Value Added: This paper is the first to have found that companies operating in the toy industry are using nostalgia with aim of sustaining the brand loyalty.

Recommendations: The toy industry has become pretty much an unfair place to do business these days, as the biggest toymakers are involved in a fierce fight for the next generations of kids enamoured with the latest high-tech wonders. This paper demonstrates how LEGO®’s efforts reaped dividends as they have begun to address Millennials. It can be said, then, that the future of marketing in the following months would involve nostalgia as a major tool accelerating all the strategic endeavours in this clash of brands as the trend described hereinafter does not seem to slow down.

Keywords

  • LEGO
  • Nostalgia
  • Brand Management
  • Toys
  • Millennials

JEL Classification

  • M31
  • M37
Open Access

The Willingness to Employ Immigrants in Polish Organizations

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 106 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: For a long time Poland has been perceived as a rather homogenous society. However, cultural diversity and differences started to become visible after 1989 and have gained on importance since then. Combined with an increasing shortage of native workforce, the question of immigrants’ employment by Polish organisations becomes a burning issue. We have therefore decided to determine whether the fact of employing immigrants or the intention to do so in the foreseeable future affects the perception of foreign workers and the necessity of hiring them

Methodology: For this purpose, we conducted a survey among 263 entrepreneurs from the Opolskie Voivodship.

Findings: The study has demonstrated a very strong, statistically-relevant correlation between the willingness to employ immigrants and the attitude towards an employee’s country of origin. Also correlations between other analysed variables have been found statistically relevant

Value Added: The paper is an introduction to a debate on the role of immigrants on the Polish labour-market as it presents the point-of view of employers and their willingness to employ immigrants.

Recommendations: It is recommended for decision-makers to facilitate access of a wider group of immigrants to the Polish labour market, especially since a significant group of employees recognises the upcoming issue of workforce shortages and the necessity to reach for foreign employees in order to stay competitive.

Keywords

  • Cultural diversity
  • Labour immigration
  • Foreign workforce
  • Immigrants

JEL Classification

  • M21
  • M54
  • O15
Open Access

The Impact of Senior-Managerial Leadership Culture on Value Creation for Shareholders – A Study of Local and Multinational Companies in Portugal

Published Online: 25 Jun 2020
Page range: 134 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

Objective: This study is based on the analysis of three fundamental aspects of company and managerial life: the culture of organizations, the style of leadership and financial performance. Its focus was to question the connection between these and to devise a strategy that could be applied in Portugal, during 2017 and 2019, in industrial sector companies.

Methodology: To do so, it was decided to start methodological analysis of the behaviour of managers and organizations operating in this environment, considering several classifications: multinational companies operating in Portugal and Portuguese companies with a strategy for and in the process of internationalization. On this basis the study problem was set at the level of managerial behaviour, bearing in mind that this varies depending on the type of organization in which managers’ work. The problem involves scientific, methodological, and cultural aspects that have already been demonstrated by several authors, whose considerations have been incorporated. The study was conducted in 16 companies operating in Portugal.

Findings: The characteristics of leadership in the multinationals tend towards greater balance between the four roles of each of the corresponding quadrants, while in the national companies it tends to be more internally focused.

Value Added: This difference could be related to what R. Quinn calls the Normal State of Leadership, which is focused on the comfort zone that the internal processes seem to generate; the multinational companies are more focused on external aspects and future development – Fundamental State of Leadership – centred on strategic dedication to clients and flexibility.

Recommendations: Dedication to clients and flexibility, that we intend to link with Internal Marketing strategy drivers, considering the investigation ideas for this paper, as the demonstration if some different Leadership Styles influence the Financial Performance of the Companies or not.

Keywords

  • Culture
  • Leadership
  • Management
  • Internal Marketing
  • Value Creation

JEL Classification

  • M10
  • M30
  • L20
  • G40
  • M21

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