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Volume 73 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)
Building Web corpora as sources for linguistic research and its applications

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 4 (June 2022)
Building Web corpora as sources for linguistic research and its applications

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)
NLP, Corpus Linguistics and Interdisciplinarity

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)
Číslo venované problematike maďarského jazyka a maďarských nárečí na Slovensku

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 3 (December 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 2 (December 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 3 (December 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 2 (December 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 3 (December 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 2 (December 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 2 (December 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 2 (December 2014)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 2 (December 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 2 (December 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 2 (December 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 1 (June 2011)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 2 (December 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 1 (June 2010)

Volume 60 (2009): Issue 2 (December 2009)

Volume 60 (2009): Issue 1 (June 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4287
ISSN
0021-5597
First Published
05 Mar 2010
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4287
ISSN
0021-5597
First Published
05 Mar 2010
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

27 Articles
Open Access

Pohľad Na Pomenovanie Cez Prizmu Teoretických Rámcov A Slovníkového Hesla

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 277 - 301

Abstract

Abstract

The first part of this paper outlines the relevant aspects of functional structuralism serving lexicographers as a departure point for building a model of lexical meaning useable in the Dictionary of Contemporary Slovak Language. This section also points to some aspects of Klára Buzássyová’s research on lexis and word­formation that have enriched the functional­structuralist paradigm. The second section shows other theoretical and methodological frameworks, such as linguistic pragmatics, cognitive linguistics and corpus linguistics (all of them departing in some respect from the structuralism and, in other aspects, being complementary with it) that can enhance the structuralist basis of the model. The third section outlines an extended model of lexical meaning that represents a synthesis of all those theoretical frameworks and, at the same time, represents a reflection of three language constituents: 1. The social constituent is present in consideration of communicative functions of utterances, naming functions of lexical units, functional styles and registers, language norms, and situational contexts; 2. The psychological component takes the form of consideration of the prototype effect, the abolition of boundaries between linguistic meaning and other parts of cognition; 3. Thanks to the structural/systematic component, a description of paradigmatic and syntagmatic behaviour of words can be performed, and an inventory of formal­content units and categories (lexemes, lexies, word­forming and grammatical structures) can be provided.

In our dictionary practice, the above­mentioned model is reflected in the methodological procedures as follows: 1. Systemization of repetitive (regular, standardized) phenomena; 2. Prototypicalization of meaning description; 3. Contextualization/encyclopedization of meaning description; 4. Pragmatization of meaning description; 5. Continualized presentation of language phenomena, i.e., introduction of numerous phenomena of transient and indeterminate nature and indicating the existence of a semantic­pragmatic and lexical­grammatical continuum; 6. “Discretization” of combinatorial continuum, i.e., identification and description of entrenched word combinations with naming functions.

Keywords

  • monolingual dictionary
  • theoretical and representational models of lexical meaning
Open Access

Lexikálny Význam V Recepcii

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 302 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

Asking first about how the lexical meaning manifests itself as we experience it in a communicative event, the author explores the background of the ways in which we are able to perceive the meaning of words in texts. One useful way of thinking about how recipients react to the words in utterances is in terms of behavioural and actional lexical meaning. The first refers to the understanding of meaning, the second corresponds to interpretations of words when the recipient does not succeed in the process of natural understanding of words. These terms lead to questions about the rationality of language. One aspect of this rationality is the function of the intentional­emergent mechanism that adjusts the interplay of automatic and deliberate use of language. This mechanism has its roots in the fundamental human nature: we are behavioural­actional beings. Pragmatic analysis sheds light on how hearers understand and interpret what they hear with regard to their conceptual knowledge associated with words.

Keywords

  • lexical meaning
  • behavioural and actional meaning
  • understanding
  • interpretation
  • pragmatic analysis
Open Access

Interlingválne A Intralingválne Súvislosti Ikonickosti A Arbitrárnosti Jazykového Znaku

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 316 - 326

Abstract

Abstract

The relation between the symmetry and the asymmetry of form and content in a language has become a basic stimulant of two central semiotic natures, „messages” of linguistic schemes: the iconic­symbolic (with symmetry of form and content; form is a part of reflectional area of the sign) and the arbitrary (with „inherited” symmetry of non­reflectional type of symmetry, but with a dominant asymmetry of form and content; form is not a part of reflectional area of the sign) semiotic principles, which closely – mostly through its elements – cooperate, supplement and regroup each other. In order to specify the relation between iconic­symbolic and arbitrary semiotic principles, it is necessary (mostly in contradiction with the connection between synchronicity and diachronicity, in particular through the viewpoint of motivation – non­motivation as a binary opposition) to analyse interlingual and intralingual relations of semiotic natures stated above. There is – according to the extent of proximity in linguistic schemes – a (largely) synchronous tendency of linguistic­semiotic units to be arbitrary in the interlingual area of the sign, and in their structuring the more intensive representation of (genetic) motivation as an „echo” of iconic linguistic „tonality” in the intralingual area of the sign. The combination of interlingual and intralingual connections between language units extends the penetration of relation between iconicity and arbitrariness in the language system.

Keywords

  • linguistic sign
  • symmetry and assymetry of form and content
  • arbitrariness
  • iconicity­symbolicity
  • motivation
  • interlingual and intralingual semiosis
Open Access

Jazyk A Lexikálna Zásoba Ako Odraz Potrieb Človeka A Ľudskej Spoločnosti

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 327 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

The paper tackles the general problem of language and language communication from an onomasiological point of view. It emphasizes the effectiveness and flexibility of language communication. The paper illustrates the ways how the language is capable of satisfying various communication needs of a speech community. The paper focuses on the systemic relations, intersubjectivity and subjectivity, rationality and emotionality and the principle of language economy, particularly in lexicon and word­formation. Examples are taken from the Slovak language.

Keywords

  • man
  • needs of a speech community
  • language communication
  • functions of the language
  • nomination and expression
  • lexicon
Open Access

Luče, Luče, Zlaté Lúče! Hviezdoslavovské Poznámky K Viacsmernosti Lexikálnej Dynamiky

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 340 - 358

Abstract

Abstract

The literary texts of Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav contain a lot of lexical items unknown to contemporary readers. From anthropocentric point of view, these words as well as many other peripheral lexical items (i.e. obsolete and dialectal words, archaicisms and historicisms) in various texts of the earlier periods may be considered lexical agnonyms. In this connection, the occurrence of small dictionaries attached to the published books as a help for readers is particularly interesting. The appended dictionaries, originating in different periods as a specific kind of reduced text dictionaries, are worth attention from the point of view of Slovak and Slovak­Czech lexicography and from the viewpoint of the language policy and planning in support of Czech­Slovak and Slovak­Czech bilingualism and biliteracy.

Keywords

  • Slovak
  • Czech
  • lexicography
  • lexicology
  • appended text dictionary
  • archaisation
  • historisation
  • dialect
  • agnonymy
  • language policy
  • language planning
  • bilingualism
  • biliteracy
Open Access

Motivácia A Slovotvorná Štruktúra Pomenovania Slnečnice V Slovanských Jazykoch

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 359 - 370

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyses the motivation and word­formation structure of the name of the sunflower (bot. Helianthus annuus L.) in dialects of Slavonic languages according to the data given in the Slavonic Linguistic Atlas and in the national dialectal atlases. The characteristic reaction of this plant of American origin to the sunlight motivated the emergence of its names with a word­stem, which is continuation of the Proto Slavonic stem *sъln- in the entire Slavonic language territory. The word­formation type ‘derivative base + derivation suffix’ is typical for the West Slavonic, Slovenian, Ukrainian and Belarusian dialects. For Russian dialects, the characteristic word­formation model is ‘derivation prefix + derivative base + derivation suffix’. Composites like suncokret, suncogled, parallel to the structurally same Italian names girasole, mirasole and Greek name heliotropion, are typical for dialects of the South Slavonic macro­area (except Slovenian and part of the Croatian dialects).

Keywords

  • Slavonic languages
  • dialectal lexicon
  • word­formation model
  • linguistic geography
Open Access

Dávno A Dlho V Sémantických A Komunikačných Súvislostiach

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 371 - 386

Abstract

Abstract

The study analyses both the similar and different conceptualizations of the sections of the world reflected in Slovak adverbials dávno [‘a long time ago’] and dlho [‘for a long time’]. Lexicographic research documents that the adverbial dávno is ambisemantic and specifies temporal localization as well as durability; the adverbial dlho is monosemantic and expresses only durability. The author attempts to identify connections, which determine their semantic and communicative compatibility and complementarity as well as incompatibility and opposition. She deals with the issues of interrelatedness of semantic, grammatical and pragmatic perspectives, discursive use of adverbials within the framework of intentionality in communication (determinacy and indeterminacy), register of interpretation (narrative, dialogical), role in the communicative structure of the sentence (position of the theme and the position of the rheme), position of an observer (relativized or maximized), etc. Using the corpus findings, the paper clarifies the influence of the adverbial, pronominal and particular modifiers ( [‘already’] and ešte [‘yet’] in particular) on the meanings of both adverbials and their impact in the pragmatics of reasoning and doubt.

Keywords

  • semantics
  • pragmatics
  • time
  • adverbials
  • focus
Open Access

Асимметрия Членов Градуальных Рядов В Русском Языке: Семантика, Деривация, Сочетаемость

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 387 - 394

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is focused on semantic peculiarities, derivational restrictions and specific combinatory properties of the lexical units in gradual paradigms of глубокий [‘deep’] – неглубокий [‘not deep’] – мелкий [‘shallow’], широкий [‘wide’] – неширокий [‘not wide’] – узкий [‘narrow’] type in Russian. Among factors which determine the speakers’ pragmatic attitudes to the non­identity of gradual paradigm member properties, the hyperonymic status of adjectives – general designations of some parameter (глубокий, широкий), type and significance of semantic modifications (negation, insufficient degree, etc.) are thought to be the leading ones.

Keywords

  • gradual paradigm
  • semantics
  • derivation
  • combinability
  • hyperonym
Open Access

Pragmatický Marker Fair Enough A Jeho Prekladové Ekvivalenty V Anglicko­Slovenskom Paralelnom Korpuse

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 395 - 414

Abstract

Abstract

Many works written by Klára Buzássyová from the 1970s onwards were devoted to the issues of contrastive research of languages. The study analyses the role of metonymy in speech acts expressing agreement in a contrastive perspective. The paper deals with linguistic variation of Slovak translation equivalents of English pragmatic marker fair enough in the exploitation of discoursive­illocutionary metonymy within indirect speech acts. It analyses data drawn from English­Slovak parallel corpus which form a translation paradigm of the given pragmatic marker. In a search for an explanation for usage of largely heterogeneous translation equivalents from various semantic­pragmatic fields, metonymy is pointed out as a central motivating factor. It functions on the basis of evocation of various aspects constituting the idealized cognitive model of agreement.

Keywords

  • pragmatic marker
  • parallel corpus
  • translation paradigm
  • discursiveillocutionary metonymy
  • agreement
  • idealized cognitive model
Open Access

Termíny – Profesionalismy – Slangismy A Jejich Podíl Na Stylu On­Line Sportovních Reportáží

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 415 - 429

Abstract

Abstract

The article focuses on a relatively new genre of computer­mediated communication, online sports reporting (also known as live text commentary or minute- by-minute match report). This is a hybrid genre which combines a chronologically structured narrative (capturing the events of the sporting match minute­by­minute) and the commentator’s evaluative formulations (evaluations which are often expressive and subjective, funny and humorous statements) as well as his implicit contact with the audience (fictitious dialogue). It thus fulfills both the informative function (providing factual information) and the entertainment one (as typical infotainment). The introductory characterization of the genre is based on the work of J. Chovanec, but unlike in his work, it focuses on Czech live text commentary (mainly from soccer, hockey and tennis matches) and on the terms, non­standard professional vocabulary units and slang expressions in the commentators’ speech. Significant attention has been devoted to these levels of the lexicon in Czech and Slovak linguistics. However, the genre in question once again confirms how difficult it is to distinguish them. For example, the combination of individual expressions (or entire language levels) with standard, “colloquial” or non­standard Czech appears to be very problematic in this respect.

Keywords

  • computer­mediated communication
  • online sports reporting
  • expressivity
  • terms
  • non­standard professional vocabulary units
  • slang expressions
Open Access

Lexéma Hrať V Trénerskom Komunikačnom Registri – K Vymedzeniu Registrovo Motivovaného Významu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 430 - 445

Abstract

Abstract

The study analyses the meaning and usage of the lexeme hrať [‘to play’] in coach register of the volleyball coaches coaching girls and boys of older school age. Theoretically, it is based on the theory of sports games, theory of communication register, theory of lexical motivation and complex concept of meaning without strict borders between semantics and pragmatics. Empirically, it is based on the analysis of tri­modal (audiovisual­graphical) corpus of the speech of two volleyball coaches (one of a girls team, one of a boys team), each of three training units and three games (50 917 tokens). The concept of register motivated meaning is explained. While analysing meaning of the lexeme hrať and its collocations (116 types of collocations), the author goes from the general meaning of the lexies (hrať 1 = to do a sports activity; hrať 2 = to present a sports performance), through its context specification to its situational actualization.

Keywords

  • communication register
  • coach register
  • lexical meaning
  • theory of lexical motivation
  • regiter motivated lexicon
  • collocation
Open Access

K Dynamike Štylistiky Slovnej Zásoby V Súčasnej Online Mediálnej Produkcii Názorového Typu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 446 - 461

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is aimed at nature, manifestation and mutual relation of two contradictory trends in alternative online periodicals with opinion­based articles (i.e. articles expressing authors’ opinions). On the one hand, the persuasive function of articles, aimed at shaping readers’ opinions, changes to pretend, change or cover the substance of a topic, usually on the edge of manipulation. This effect is reached by: a) gradation of emotions and usage of stylistically marked lexemes, b) shifts in meaning behind a common or presupposed context, c) preferring occasionalisms, d) deliberate desemantization of lexemes, e) revitalisation of semantics and stylistics of lexemes moving between the centre and the periphery of the lexicon. On the other hand there are also articles containing notional, unmarked and neutral words as basic words. Their function is to strengthen informative basis of articles. In order to reach a persuasive effect, both contradictory trends support an activity of competitive and cooperative relations. Lexicon of analysed articles becomes a vehicle for collision of persuasive and informative functions – the source of genre syncretism in media communication sphere. Research corpus consists of articles belonging to the rational type of journalism, appearing in internet alternative periodicals aimed at major geopolitical conflicts and related to crisis situation or crisis communication sphere. They cover especially public events, heated events and confrontation in the context of international political communication usually with the evidence or manifestation of geopolitical power. The corpus for stylistic analysis, interpretation and generalisation includes selected Slovak alternative online and opinion based periodicals.

Keywords

  • media communication sphere
  • online journalism
  • alternative media
  • opinion­based articles
  • persuasion
  • genre syncretism
Open Access

K Odbornej Terminológii V Slovenskej Rómčine

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 462 - 472

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to identify possible methods of formation of Romani technical terms by means of an analysis of a Slovak­Romani dictionary of administrative and legal terms. If the existing word stock of Romani is felt to be insufficient, missing words are added by borrowing from Slovak. The borrowings serve as one­word or multi­word terms (štatutaris – ‘štatutár’/’statutory person’; bežno učtos – ‘bežný účet’/’current account’); however, more often they serve as components of multi­word, most frequently two­word terms which take the form of semi­calques. Romani components of the semi­calques are either words used in their common dictionary meaning or neologisms. The analysed terminology is characterized by a high rate of homonymy of adjectival forms in the function of the determining component in multi­word naming units. The characteristic feature of the analysed Romani terminology is instability, which manifests itself especially in the use of various terms to denote the same content, either Romani terms or variant forms of terms (iribnaskeri forma – ‘písomná formaʼ/’written formʼ, irinďi informácia – ‘písomná informáciaʼ/’written informationʼ).

Keywords

  • Slovak Romani
  • technical terms
  • borrowings
  • semi­calques
  • calques
  • neologisms
  • prepositional phrases
  • descriptions
  • instability
Open Access

Víceslovné Lexikální Jednotky V Lexikonu A V Textu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 473 - 485

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with lexical collocations in speech, the fact whether they are reproduced as “prefabricates” or formed ad hoc, for the sake of a given situation. It concentrates on their position in the language system and in the text. The compilation of the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech has revealed that the relation langue – parole has to be solved not only in case of multi­word lexical units that are formed syntactically from not fixed collocations (cf. Chapters from the Dictionary-making Principles of the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech, 2016), but also in case of multi­word units that are coined by a) derivation from non­phraseological multi­word expressions (akrobatické lyžování – akrobatický lyžař – akrobatická lyžařka; hlubinná ekologie – hlubinný ekolog – hlubinná ekoložka; pozitivní diskriminace – pozitivně diskriminovat), b) transformation of phrasemes (vypouštět pokusné balonky – pokusný balonek; nosit sovy do Atén – nošení sov do Atén; střelit /střílet od boku – střelba od boku – střílení od boku). These processes result in units belonging to the lexicon (= stable, fixed) or units formed ad hoc for the sake of the text (= unstable, not fixed, produced in speech). The aim of the paper is to analyse these processes and their results, and to solve the way of lexicographic treatment of multi­word lexical units coined by derivation and transformation in the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech.

Keywords

  • collocations
  • multi­word lexical units
  • derivation
  • transformation
  • system
  • text
  • monolingual dictionary
Open Access

Ke Vztahu Slovotvorného, Potenciálního A Lexikálního Významu V Lexikografickém Popisu Desubstantivních Vztahových Adjektiv

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 486 - 496

Abstract

Abstract

The relationship between the word­formation meaning and the lexical meaning on the one hand and the relationship between potentiality and reality of the lexical meaning on the other hand belongs to the topics repeatedly dealt with by Klára Buzássyová. In her studies she also stated that the assessment of the word­formation meaning and the lexical meaning is a task for lexicographers (and a task of lexicographic treatment of the vocabulary). Denominal relational adjectives still represent a lexicographic challenge in terms of treating their (real) lexical meaning. Their word­formation meaning is general: ‘relating to the fact denoted by the motivating word’. Their lexical meaning is given by the relation to the motivating noun or the motivating multi­word unit (the polysemantic structure of the motivating noun is thus indicated in the semantic structure of the adjective) and by the reference to the governing noun (collocability of relational adjectives as a consequence of their dominant use in the attributive position, i.e. in adjective­substantive combinations, is also expressed in their semantic structure). The lexical meaning of denominal relational adjectives is also influenced by the lexicalization process, e.g. by the accumulation of semantic elements on their systemic qualificative meaning (the characteristic property meaning and comparative meaning), leading sometimes to the total loss of connection with the motivating noun.

Keywords

  • denominal relational adjective
  • lexicography
  • lexical meaning
  • word­formation meaning
  • Czech
Open Access

Posesivní Genitiv Redivivus

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 497 - 501

Abstract

Abstract

In the contemporary Czech, in both spoken and especially in written form, possessive adjectives are replaced by possessive genitives, which are originally colloquial constructions only. In the last stage of this development, the postpositive genitive changes into prepositive: Klárčina maminka, maminka Klárky, Klárky maminka (‘Klárka’s mother’). The Czech language thus loses another means of inflection and gets closer to an agglutinative language type. This change (deflective tendency) is also supported by the loss of introflexion, i.e. the loss of morphophonological alternations, in our example k – č, in other cases r – ř, g – ž, ch – š, etc. (Klárčin – Klárky [‘Klárka’s’], sestra – sestřin [‘sister’s’], Olga – Olžin [‘Olga’s’] etc.).

Keywords

  • possessive adjective
  • possessive genitive
  • inflection
  • morphophonological alternation
  • deflective tendency
Open Access

Procesy Regulujące Zasoby Kategorii Słowotwórczych

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 502 - 511

Abstract

Abstract

In the consciousness of language users, there is an inherent awareness of an elaborated word­formative system, which was well­documented in the second half of the 20th century. However, each derivatologist knows very well that apart from phenomena which are strongly representative of this system, its order is disturbed by various processes. The first one in the order of precedence is the lexical factor – words which arise in accordance with the derivation­related rules are fused with the bulk of the lexicon and they are subject to the same transformations as the non­derived lexemes. But there may arise a discrepancy between the word form and the motivating word due to the semantic shift manifested by one of these elements. Then, the phenomena of reinterpretation occur which regulate the relations between the founding and the founded word. In the next part of the article, the author discusses borrowings from foreign languages which also disturb the order of the word­formation system, for as a rule, meanings of borrowed nouns refer to the name of an action and the name of the performer of an action. However, in Slavic languages, the foundations of these categories feature verbal instead of nominal elements. In that case, there arise verbs, usually in ­ować, and then – the process of the reversal of motivation occurs. The word formation system is also disturbed by processes which apply to the sphere of inflexion. The article discusses a new word formation category – resultative departicipial adjectives in ­ły.

Keywords

  • word­formation
  • univerbisation
  • re­interpretation
  • borrowing
Open Access

Роль Словообразовательных Формантов В Сохранении Сакрального Смысла Церковнославянизмов В Русском Языке

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 512 - 526

Abstract

Abstract

The author of the article applies synchronic and diachronic approach to describe consistent patterns in Russian word formation, when the facts in contemporary Russian are explained with due regard to the history of their development and formation. The research focuses on commonly used derivatives of the Church Slavic, which have not lost their sacred meaning despite the general secularization beyond religious discourse of evangelic lexis in Russian (as well as in other Slavic languages). The preservation of the sacred meaning is influenced by a specific process of differentiation between the sacred and the secular by means of word­building formants in cognate synonyms (for example, Рождество [‘Christmas’]/рождение [‘birth’]; житие [‘the life (of a saint)’]/житье [‘ordinary life’]; Воскресение [‘Resurrection’]/воскресенье [‘Sunday’]; искупить [‘to redeem’], Искупитель [‘the Redeemer’]/выкупить [‘to buy out’] etc.). The last section of the article considers the process of semantic specification in diachrony of originally synonymic cognate derivatives like живот [‘belly’], житие [‘the life (of a saint)’], жизнь [‘life’], which has led to a complete change of the semantics of the lexeme живот [‘belly’] (a gradual strengthening of its physical component has led to the modern meaning ‘belly, part of body’) and the prevalence of the word жизнь (with its Old Slavonic suffix ­знь). The latter, having absorbed the “life­related” semantic of lexemes живот ‘belly’ and житие ‘the life (of a saint)’, expresses all aspects of its understanding and interpretation by the contemporary language community. The author assumes that this process could also have been influenced by the general correlation between the Church Slavonicisms (both elevated and general denominations) and native Russian words (both concrete and ordinary denominations) in Russian. Word­building formants play a significant role in the differentiation of the sacred and the secular (and preserving the sacred) when the religious lexicon of the Church Slavonic origin enters the modern Russian language.

Keywords

  • Russian
  • word­formation
  • Church Slavonicisms
  • desacralization
  • synchronic and diachronic approach
Open Access

Właściwości Derywacyjne Pożyczek Czasownikowych W XVI Wieku

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 527 - 535

Abstract

Abstract

The 16th century is the period of intensified processes of assimilation of foreign forms. This period provides insight into the situation of new borrowings which began to appear in the Polish language for the first time in such an extent. A considerable number of borrowed lexemes fosters the establishment of word­formative links between those lexemes in the Polish context. In this manner, the particular derivation­related nests of foreign origin were developed. In her article, the author emphasizes above all the role of verbal Latin and Greek borrowings in the organisation of the abovementioned nests, inquiring about the extent to which borrowings disrupt the existing word formation system, and about the extent to which these borrowings blend with the word formative “system”. As derivation­related bases, verbs are associated with two types of formations: with nominal and with verbal derivatives. The word­formative relations which emerged in the Polish language between a borrowed verb and a noun (which is in many cases borrowed as well) are well­documented already in the period in question (annotacyjaannotować). However, in this period, motivation­based relations between verbal borrowings were not developed, and thus foreign verbal formants did not separate out. The adaptation of these elements in the Polish language, as demonstrated by the further development in the diachronic perspective, is considerably impeded.

Keywords

  • borrowings
  • word­formative nests
  • word formation
Open Access

Nowe Derywaty Jako Wymierne Skutki Zróżnicowanych Oddziaływań Zapożyczeń Leksykalnych Na Słowotwórstwo Polszczyzny XXI W.

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 536 - 548

Abstract

Abstract

The article attempts to provide an answer to the questions concerning dimensions and aspects of morphological phenomena which result from the internationalization of the Polish lexicon both at the turn of the 20th and 21th centuries and in recent years. The main objective of the paper is to prove that (i) under the influence of new borrowings, new meanings are created in the newly “transplanted” forms; (ii) new composite expressions become more dominant; (iii) the scope of new hybrid lexical items broadens. A current tendency to undergo internationalization is viewed here as being inextricably bound up with “linguistic globalization” processes, which finds its confirmation in modern European languages, Slavic languages included.

Keywords

  • Polish lexicon
  • word­formation
  • loan words
  • internationalization
  • foreign word­formation units
  • productive foreign morphemes
Open Access

О Развитии Периферийных Словообразовательных Категорий Русских И Польских Nomina Actionis В Эпоху Глобализации

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 549 - 559

Abstract

Abstract

The main objective of the study is to analyse and describe the structural organization and semantic and cognitive properties of new peripheral word­formation types of nomina actionis in the modern Russian and Polish languages. As resistant forms and organizing principles of the thinking process, the derivational categories of nomina actionis derivatives reproduce the properties and relations of being and knowledge in the most concentrated form. It increases the need for a comprehensive study of their structure and semantics. The article analyses the main approaches to the differentiation of the peripheral types of word­formation categories according to the nature of derivational semantics. The author justifies the nominative rendering of transposition and proves that it can contribute to distinguish a mixed type of word­formation categories.

Keywords

  • globalization
  • Russian
  • Polish
  • nomina actionis
  • peripheral word­formation types
Open Access

Synchrónna Dynamika Slov Zakončených Na -Izmus/-Stvo V Textoch Slovenského Národného Korpusu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 560 - 571

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on the analysis of functioning of words with suffix -izmus/-stvo in contemporary Slovak texts. The source of the analysis is the Slovak National Corpus – particularly the corpus of older texts (texts from 1955 to 1989), primary corpus (texts from 1955 to 2017, especially since 2000), and corpus of web texts (until 2017). The comparison of the frequency and collocations of the analysed words shows the dynamics of these microsystems in the language of the previous and the current period, and of partial linguistic analyses.

Keywords

  • synchrony of the language
  • lexical analysis
  • dynamics of abstract terms
  • frequency
  • Slovak National Corpus
Open Access

Tvorbeni Potencial Glagolskih Novotvorjenk Na -Ing + -Irati V Slovenščini

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 572 - 580

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on new verbal formations in Slovene coined from borrowed nouns ending in -ing with the Slovenian morpheme -irati (e.g. šoping-irati) on the basis of analogous phonological and semantic structures in the language, and examines their spread in the sphere of informal language use. The word­formational potential of such verbs is further examined with the basic categories of cognitive grammar, such as morphemic transparency, schematicity of the word­formational pattern and the established status of the phonemic sequence *ingira* in the previously existing lexical units of the Slovene language.

Keywords

  • Slovene
  • word­formation
  • cognitive grammar
  • denominal verbal formations in
Open Access

K Pojmu Slovotvorné Solitérnosti

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 581 - 588

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on different types of word­formation uniqueness. Wordformation uniqueness can be found in solitary word­formation structures, which the author defines as unique structures representing a specific word­formation type found in a single derivative. The basic and simplest type is represented by a unique affix in a single derivative in the respective language of a given time period. An example of this is the Czech noun obličej [‘face’]: the circumfix ob-ej (with -lič- as a radix to be found in the noun líce [‘cheek’]) is found in no other noun in the contemporary Czech. Another uniquely formed noun in contemporary Czech is the noun rukáv [‘sleeve’], derived from ruka [‘hand’] with the unique suffix -áv. Specific word­formation solitaires are theoretically conceived values. They are derivatives with a specific, but not uniquely found affix which is uniquely added to the stem of a single word of a specific part of speech, e.g. the very specific suffix -ule is added to the stem of the verb vrtět [‘to wag’] so that the noun vrtule [‘propeller’] is derived. This article shows that the notion of word­formation solitariness can be theoretically postulated on different levels of abstractness, both of the form and of the word­formation meaning.

Keywords

  • word­formation
  • uniqueness
  • solitariness
  • word­formation type
Open Access

Słowackie Deminutywa W Funkcji Eufemizującej

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 589 - 599

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the study is a group of selected expressive lexical units with positive connotation, euphemisms and euphemistic diminutives belonging to the category of amelioratives. These units function within a broadly understood expressive lexicon, used to express different emotions, including negative valorization. The author assumes that expressiveness is a very important element of interpersonal communication in terms of nomination and she finds the expressive function of the language as the key one. Among the euphemizing derivatives (quasi­diminutives) and diminutives, the author distinguishes categories of nouns, adjectives and verbs. The boundaries of the units forming the ameliorative category are fuzzy and very variable. The sample material of euphemisms and diminutives in the euphemistic function comes primarily from the available monolingual dictionaries of the Slovak language and is respectively verified by examples from the National Corpus of the Slovak language. Ameliorative­diminutive forms, which also occur in the euphemizing function, became the objects of detailed analysis. From among ameliorative forms, the euphemisms (including also diminutives as well as children’s lexicon) deserve a special attention.

Keywords

  • Slovak
  • expressiveness
  • lexicon
  • diminutives
  • euphemisms
Open Access

Slovotvorná Motivácia V Jazykovom Vývine Dieťaťa

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 600 - 615

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to analyse the role of word­formation motivation in child’s language development. The character of the research problem requires a transdisciplinary approach. For this reason, the author looks back on derivational theories as well as on researches of applied linguistics in Slovakia and abroad. Analysis of the relation between word­formation motivation and language development is based on author’s empirical findings on the children’s nonce words, the role of word­formation motivation in the development of the child’s cognitive and linguistic abilities and in the comprehension of an instructional text. The paper consists of: 1) the analysis of theoretical background from the point of view of derivatology as well as of applied linguistics; 2) the analysis of relevant research findings and the clarification of relationship between particular aspects of this topic; 3) the discussion about the functions of word­formation motivation in child’s language development confronting the author’s findings with the findings of other researches in this field.

Keywords

  • word­formation
  • motivation
  • language development
  • child
  • applied linguistics
  • educational linguistics
Open Access

Klára Buzássyová V Kontexte Sémantizácie Slovenskej Lexiky Cudzincom

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 616 - 625

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the characteristics of the scientific research of the renowned Slovak linguist Klára Buzássyová who – as a lecturer at the Studia Academica Slovaca summer school of Slovak language and culture – presented to foreign students the specifics of Slovak lexis and their function in speech within the context of intraand interlingual relationships. In her lectures, she helped students to see Slovak as a developped and modern Central European language which has its own genetic and typological properties and as a language capable of reacting to dynamic changes emerging from the communication needs of language users while respecting current trends in European language policy. Klára Buzássyová presented students with the latest results of her linguistic research and discussed the issues regarding the dynamics of vocabulary with an emphasis on the methods of wordformation, motivation, and the impact on the semantic and stylistic value of lexical units. Her papers, published in the Studia Academica Slovaca proceedings from 1980 to 2001 presented her scientific orientation and became an inspiration for the linguistic and didactic conception of Slovak as a foreign language in the context of the development of Slovak studies in Slovakia as well as abroad.

Keywords

  • lexis
  • methods of word­formation
  • motivation
  • dynamic tendencies
  • the semanticization of vocabulary
  • Slovak as a foreign language
  • linguistic and didactic aspects
27 Articles
Open Access

Pohľad Na Pomenovanie Cez Prizmu Teoretických Rámcov A Slovníkového Hesla

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 277 - 301

Abstract

Abstract

The first part of this paper outlines the relevant aspects of functional structuralism serving lexicographers as a departure point for building a model of lexical meaning useable in the Dictionary of Contemporary Slovak Language. This section also points to some aspects of Klára Buzássyová’s research on lexis and word­formation that have enriched the functional­structuralist paradigm. The second section shows other theoretical and methodological frameworks, such as linguistic pragmatics, cognitive linguistics and corpus linguistics (all of them departing in some respect from the structuralism and, in other aspects, being complementary with it) that can enhance the structuralist basis of the model. The third section outlines an extended model of lexical meaning that represents a synthesis of all those theoretical frameworks and, at the same time, represents a reflection of three language constituents: 1. The social constituent is present in consideration of communicative functions of utterances, naming functions of lexical units, functional styles and registers, language norms, and situational contexts; 2. The psychological component takes the form of consideration of the prototype effect, the abolition of boundaries between linguistic meaning and other parts of cognition; 3. Thanks to the structural/systematic component, a description of paradigmatic and syntagmatic behaviour of words can be performed, and an inventory of formal­content units and categories (lexemes, lexies, word­forming and grammatical structures) can be provided.

In our dictionary practice, the above­mentioned model is reflected in the methodological procedures as follows: 1. Systemization of repetitive (regular, standardized) phenomena; 2. Prototypicalization of meaning description; 3. Contextualization/encyclopedization of meaning description; 4. Pragmatization of meaning description; 5. Continualized presentation of language phenomena, i.e., introduction of numerous phenomena of transient and indeterminate nature and indicating the existence of a semantic­pragmatic and lexical­grammatical continuum; 6. “Discretization” of combinatorial continuum, i.e., identification and description of entrenched word combinations with naming functions.

Keywords

  • monolingual dictionary
  • theoretical and representational models of lexical meaning
Open Access

Lexikálny Význam V Recepcii

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 302 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

Asking first about how the lexical meaning manifests itself as we experience it in a communicative event, the author explores the background of the ways in which we are able to perceive the meaning of words in texts. One useful way of thinking about how recipients react to the words in utterances is in terms of behavioural and actional lexical meaning. The first refers to the understanding of meaning, the second corresponds to interpretations of words when the recipient does not succeed in the process of natural understanding of words. These terms lead to questions about the rationality of language. One aspect of this rationality is the function of the intentional­emergent mechanism that adjusts the interplay of automatic and deliberate use of language. This mechanism has its roots in the fundamental human nature: we are behavioural­actional beings. Pragmatic analysis sheds light on how hearers understand and interpret what they hear with regard to their conceptual knowledge associated with words.

Keywords

  • lexical meaning
  • behavioural and actional meaning
  • understanding
  • interpretation
  • pragmatic analysis
Open Access

Interlingválne A Intralingválne Súvislosti Ikonickosti A Arbitrárnosti Jazykového Znaku

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 316 - 326

Abstract

Abstract

The relation between the symmetry and the asymmetry of form and content in a language has become a basic stimulant of two central semiotic natures, „messages” of linguistic schemes: the iconic­symbolic (with symmetry of form and content; form is a part of reflectional area of the sign) and the arbitrary (with „inherited” symmetry of non­reflectional type of symmetry, but with a dominant asymmetry of form and content; form is not a part of reflectional area of the sign) semiotic principles, which closely – mostly through its elements – cooperate, supplement and regroup each other. In order to specify the relation between iconic­symbolic and arbitrary semiotic principles, it is necessary (mostly in contradiction with the connection between synchronicity and diachronicity, in particular through the viewpoint of motivation – non­motivation as a binary opposition) to analyse interlingual and intralingual relations of semiotic natures stated above. There is – according to the extent of proximity in linguistic schemes – a (largely) synchronous tendency of linguistic­semiotic units to be arbitrary in the interlingual area of the sign, and in their structuring the more intensive representation of (genetic) motivation as an „echo” of iconic linguistic „tonality” in the intralingual area of the sign. The combination of interlingual and intralingual connections between language units extends the penetration of relation between iconicity and arbitrariness in the language system.

Keywords

  • linguistic sign
  • symmetry and assymetry of form and content
  • arbitrariness
  • iconicity­symbolicity
  • motivation
  • interlingual and intralingual semiosis
Open Access

Jazyk A Lexikálna Zásoba Ako Odraz Potrieb Človeka A Ľudskej Spoločnosti

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 327 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

The paper tackles the general problem of language and language communication from an onomasiological point of view. It emphasizes the effectiveness and flexibility of language communication. The paper illustrates the ways how the language is capable of satisfying various communication needs of a speech community. The paper focuses on the systemic relations, intersubjectivity and subjectivity, rationality and emotionality and the principle of language economy, particularly in lexicon and word­formation. Examples are taken from the Slovak language.

Keywords

  • man
  • needs of a speech community
  • language communication
  • functions of the language
  • nomination and expression
  • lexicon
Open Access

Luče, Luče, Zlaté Lúče! Hviezdoslavovské Poznámky K Viacsmernosti Lexikálnej Dynamiky

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 340 - 358

Abstract

Abstract

The literary texts of Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav contain a lot of lexical items unknown to contemporary readers. From anthropocentric point of view, these words as well as many other peripheral lexical items (i.e. obsolete and dialectal words, archaicisms and historicisms) in various texts of the earlier periods may be considered lexical agnonyms. In this connection, the occurrence of small dictionaries attached to the published books as a help for readers is particularly interesting. The appended dictionaries, originating in different periods as a specific kind of reduced text dictionaries, are worth attention from the point of view of Slovak and Slovak­Czech lexicography and from the viewpoint of the language policy and planning in support of Czech­Slovak and Slovak­Czech bilingualism and biliteracy.

Keywords

  • Slovak
  • Czech
  • lexicography
  • lexicology
  • appended text dictionary
  • archaisation
  • historisation
  • dialect
  • agnonymy
  • language policy
  • language planning
  • bilingualism
  • biliteracy
Open Access

Motivácia A Slovotvorná Štruktúra Pomenovania Slnečnice V Slovanských Jazykoch

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 359 - 370

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyses the motivation and word­formation structure of the name of the sunflower (bot. Helianthus annuus L.) in dialects of Slavonic languages according to the data given in the Slavonic Linguistic Atlas and in the national dialectal atlases. The characteristic reaction of this plant of American origin to the sunlight motivated the emergence of its names with a word­stem, which is continuation of the Proto Slavonic stem *sъln- in the entire Slavonic language territory. The word­formation type ‘derivative base + derivation suffix’ is typical for the West Slavonic, Slovenian, Ukrainian and Belarusian dialects. For Russian dialects, the characteristic word­formation model is ‘derivation prefix + derivative base + derivation suffix’. Composites like suncokret, suncogled, parallel to the structurally same Italian names girasole, mirasole and Greek name heliotropion, are typical for dialects of the South Slavonic macro­area (except Slovenian and part of the Croatian dialects).

Keywords

  • Slavonic languages
  • dialectal lexicon
  • word­formation model
  • linguistic geography
Open Access

Dávno A Dlho V Sémantických A Komunikačných Súvislostiach

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 371 - 386

Abstract

Abstract

The study analyses both the similar and different conceptualizations of the sections of the world reflected in Slovak adverbials dávno [‘a long time ago’] and dlho [‘for a long time’]. Lexicographic research documents that the adverbial dávno is ambisemantic and specifies temporal localization as well as durability; the adverbial dlho is monosemantic and expresses only durability. The author attempts to identify connections, which determine their semantic and communicative compatibility and complementarity as well as incompatibility and opposition. She deals with the issues of interrelatedness of semantic, grammatical and pragmatic perspectives, discursive use of adverbials within the framework of intentionality in communication (determinacy and indeterminacy), register of interpretation (narrative, dialogical), role in the communicative structure of the sentence (position of the theme and the position of the rheme), position of an observer (relativized or maximized), etc. Using the corpus findings, the paper clarifies the influence of the adverbial, pronominal and particular modifiers ( [‘already’] and ešte [‘yet’] in particular) on the meanings of both adverbials and their impact in the pragmatics of reasoning and doubt.

Keywords

  • semantics
  • pragmatics
  • time
  • adverbials
  • focus
Open Access

Асимметрия Членов Градуальных Рядов В Русском Языке: Семантика, Деривация, Сочетаемость

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 387 - 394

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is focused on semantic peculiarities, derivational restrictions and specific combinatory properties of the lexical units in gradual paradigms of глубокий [‘deep’] – неглубокий [‘not deep’] – мелкий [‘shallow’], широкий [‘wide’] – неширокий [‘not wide’] – узкий [‘narrow’] type in Russian. Among factors which determine the speakers’ pragmatic attitudes to the non­identity of gradual paradigm member properties, the hyperonymic status of adjectives – general designations of some parameter (глубокий, широкий), type and significance of semantic modifications (negation, insufficient degree, etc.) are thought to be the leading ones.

Keywords

  • gradual paradigm
  • semantics
  • derivation
  • combinability
  • hyperonym
Open Access

Pragmatický Marker Fair Enough A Jeho Prekladové Ekvivalenty V Anglicko­Slovenskom Paralelnom Korpuse

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 395 - 414

Abstract

Abstract

Many works written by Klára Buzássyová from the 1970s onwards were devoted to the issues of contrastive research of languages. The study analyses the role of metonymy in speech acts expressing agreement in a contrastive perspective. The paper deals with linguistic variation of Slovak translation equivalents of English pragmatic marker fair enough in the exploitation of discoursive­illocutionary metonymy within indirect speech acts. It analyses data drawn from English­Slovak parallel corpus which form a translation paradigm of the given pragmatic marker. In a search for an explanation for usage of largely heterogeneous translation equivalents from various semantic­pragmatic fields, metonymy is pointed out as a central motivating factor. It functions on the basis of evocation of various aspects constituting the idealized cognitive model of agreement.

Keywords

  • pragmatic marker
  • parallel corpus
  • translation paradigm
  • discursiveillocutionary metonymy
  • agreement
  • idealized cognitive model
Open Access

Termíny – Profesionalismy – Slangismy A Jejich Podíl Na Stylu On­Line Sportovních Reportáží

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 415 - 429

Abstract

Abstract

The article focuses on a relatively new genre of computer­mediated communication, online sports reporting (also known as live text commentary or minute- by-minute match report). This is a hybrid genre which combines a chronologically structured narrative (capturing the events of the sporting match minute­by­minute) and the commentator’s evaluative formulations (evaluations which are often expressive and subjective, funny and humorous statements) as well as his implicit contact with the audience (fictitious dialogue). It thus fulfills both the informative function (providing factual information) and the entertainment one (as typical infotainment). The introductory characterization of the genre is based on the work of J. Chovanec, but unlike in his work, it focuses on Czech live text commentary (mainly from soccer, hockey and tennis matches) and on the terms, non­standard professional vocabulary units and slang expressions in the commentators’ speech. Significant attention has been devoted to these levels of the lexicon in Czech and Slovak linguistics. However, the genre in question once again confirms how difficult it is to distinguish them. For example, the combination of individual expressions (or entire language levels) with standard, “colloquial” or non­standard Czech appears to be very problematic in this respect.

Keywords

  • computer­mediated communication
  • online sports reporting
  • expressivity
  • terms
  • non­standard professional vocabulary units
  • slang expressions
Open Access

Lexéma Hrať V Trénerskom Komunikačnom Registri – K Vymedzeniu Registrovo Motivovaného Významu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 430 - 445

Abstract

Abstract

The study analyses the meaning and usage of the lexeme hrať [‘to play’] in coach register of the volleyball coaches coaching girls and boys of older school age. Theoretically, it is based on the theory of sports games, theory of communication register, theory of lexical motivation and complex concept of meaning without strict borders between semantics and pragmatics. Empirically, it is based on the analysis of tri­modal (audiovisual­graphical) corpus of the speech of two volleyball coaches (one of a girls team, one of a boys team), each of three training units and three games (50 917 tokens). The concept of register motivated meaning is explained. While analysing meaning of the lexeme hrať and its collocations (116 types of collocations), the author goes from the general meaning of the lexies (hrať 1 = to do a sports activity; hrať 2 = to present a sports performance), through its context specification to its situational actualization.

Keywords

  • communication register
  • coach register
  • lexical meaning
  • theory of lexical motivation
  • regiter motivated lexicon
  • collocation
Open Access

K Dynamike Štylistiky Slovnej Zásoby V Súčasnej Online Mediálnej Produkcii Názorového Typu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 446 - 461

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is aimed at nature, manifestation and mutual relation of two contradictory trends in alternative online periodicals with opinion­based articles (i.e. articles expressing authors’ opinions). On the one hand, the persuasive function of articles, aimed at shaping readers’ opinions, changes to pretend, change or cover the substance of a topic, usually on the edge of manipulation. This effect is reached by: a) gradation of emotions and usage of stylistically marked lexemes, b) shifts in meaning behind a common or presupposed context, c) preferring occasionalisms, d) deliberate desemantization of lexemes, e) revitalisation of semantics and stylistics of lexemes moving between the centre and the periphery of the lexicon. On the other hand there are also articles containing notional, unmarked and neutral words as basic words. Their function is to strengthen informative basis of articles. In order to reach a persuasive effect, both contradictory trends support an activity of competitive and cooperative relations. Lexicon of analysed articles becomes a vehicle for collision of persuasive and informative functions – the source of genre syncretism in media communication sphere. Research corpus consists of articles belonging to the rational type of journalism, appearing in internet alternative periodicals aimed at major geopolitical conflicts and related to crisis situation or crisis communication sphere. They cover especially public events, heated events and confrontation in the context of international political communication usually with the evidence or manifestation of geopolitical power. The corpus for stylistic analysis, interpretation and generalisation includes selected Slovak alternative online and opinion based periodicals.

Keywords

  • media communication sphere
  • online journalism
  • alternative media
  • opinion­based articles
  • persuasion
  • genre syncretism
Open Access

K Odbornej Terminológii V Slovenskej Rómčine

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 462 - 472

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to identify possible methods of formation of Romani technical terms by means of an analysis of a Slovak­Romani dictionary of administrative and legal terms. If the existing word stock of Romani is felt to be insufficient, missing words are added by borrowing from Slovak. The borrowings serve as one­word or multi­word terms (štatutaris – ‘štatutár’/’statutory person’; bežno učtos – ‘bežný účet’/’current account’); however, more often they serve as components of multi­word, most frequently two­word terms which take the form of semi­calques. Romani components of the semi­calques are either words used in their common dictionary meaning or neologisms. The analysed terminology is characterized by a high rate of homonymy of adjectival forms in the function of the determining component in multi­word naming units. The characteristic feature of the analysed Romani terminology is instability, which manifests itself especially in the use of various terms to denote the same content, either Romani terms or variant forms of terms (iribnaskeri forma – ‘písomná formaʼ/’written formʼ, irinďi informácia – ‘písomná informáciaʼ/’written informationʼ).

Keywords

  • Slovak Romani
  • technical terms
  • borrowings
  • semi­calques
  • calques
  • neologisms
  • prepositional phrases
  • descriptions
  • instability
Open Access

Víceslovné Lexikální Jednotky V Lexikonu A V Textu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 473 - 485

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with lexical collocations in speech, the fact whether they are reproduced as “prefabricates” or formed ad hoc, for the sake of a given situation. It concentrates on their position in the language system and in the text. The compilation of the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech has revealed that the relation langue – parole has to be solved not only in case of multi­word lexical units that are formed syntactically from not fixed collocations (cf. Chapters from the Dictionary-making Principles of the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech, 2016), but also in case of multi­word units that are coined by a) derivation from non­phraseological multi­word expressions (akrobatické lyžování – akrobatický lyžař – akrobatická lyžařka; hlubinná ekologie – hlubinný ekolog – hlubinná ekoložka; pozitivní diskriminace – pozitivně diskriminovat), b) transformation of phrasemes (vypouštět pokusné balonky – pokusný balonek; nosit sovy do Atén – nošení sov do Atén; střelit /střílet od boku – střelba od boku – střílení od boku). These processes result in units belonging to the lexicon (= stable, fixed) or units formed ad hoc for the sake of the text (= unstable, not fixed, produced in speech). The aim of the paper is to analyse these processes and their results, and to solve the way of lexicographic treatment of multi­word lexical units coined by derivation and transformation in the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech.

Keywords

  • collocations
  • multi­word lexical units
  • derivation
  • transformation
  • system
  • text
  • monolingual dictionary
Open Access

Ke Vztahu Slovotvorného, Potenciálního A Lexikálního Významu V Lexikografickém Popisu Desubstantivních Vztahových Adjektiv

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 486 - 496

Abstract

Abstract

The relationship between the word­formation meaning and the lexical meaning on the one hand and the relationship between potentiality and reality of the lexical meaning on the other hand belongs to the topics repeatedly dealt with by Klára Buzássyová. In her studies she also stated that the assessment of the word­formation meaning and the lexical meaning is a task for lexicographers (and a task of lexicographic treatment of the vocabulary). Denominal relational adjectives still represent a lexicographic challenge in terms of treating their (real) lexical meaning. Their word­formation meaning is general: ‘relating to the fact denoted by the motivating word’. Their lexical meaning is given by the relation to the motivating noun or the motivating multi­word unit (the polysemantic structure of the motivating noun is thus indicated in the semantic structure of the adjective) and by the reference to the governing noun (collocability of relational adjectives as a consequence of their dominant use in the attributive position, i.e. in adjective­substantive combinations, is also expressed in their semantic structure). The lexical meaning of denominal relational adjectives is also influenced by the lexicalization process, e.g. by the accumulation of semantic elements on their systemic qualificative meaning (the characteristic property meaning and comparative meaning), leading sometimes to the total loss of connection with the motivating noun.

Keywords

  • denominal relational adjective
  • lexicography
  • lexical meaning
  • word­formation meaning
  • Czech
Open Access

Posesivní Genitiv Redivivus

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 497 - 501

Abstract

Abstract

In the contemporary Czech, in both spoken and especially in written form, possessive adjectives are replaced by possessive genitives, which are originally colloquial constructions only. In the last stage of this development, the postpositive genitive changes into prepositive: Klárčina maminka, maminka Klárky, Klárky maminka (‘Klárka’s mother’). The Czech language thus loses another means of inflection and gets closer to an agglutinative language type. This change (deflective tendency) is also supported by the loss of introflexion, i.e. the loss of morphophonological alternations, in our example k – č, in other cases r – ř, g – ž, ch – š, etc. (Klárčin – Klárky [‘Klárka’s’], sestra – sestřin [‘sister’s’], Olga – Olžin [‘Olga’s’] etc.).

Keywords

  • possessive adjective
  • possessive genitive
  • inflection
  • morphophonological alternation
  • deflective tendency
Open Access

Procesy Regulujące Zasoby Kategorii Słowotwórczych

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 502 - 511

Abstract

Abstract

In the consciousness of language users, there is an inherent awareness of an elaborated word­formative system, which was well­documented in the second half of the 20th century. However, each derivatologist knows very well that apart from phenomena which are strongly representative of this system, its order is disturbed by various processes. The first one in the order of precedence is the lexical factor – words which arise in accordance with the derivation­related rules are fused with the bulk of the lexicon and they are subject to the same transformations as the non­derived lexemes. But there may arise a discrepancy between the word form and the motivating word due to the semantic shift manifested by one of these elements. Then, the phenomena of reinterpretation occur which regulate the relations between the founding and the founded word. In the next part of the article, the author discusses borrowings from foreign languages which also disturb the order of the word­formation system, for as a rule, meanings of borrowed nouns refer to the name of an action and the name of the performer of an action. However, in Slavic languages, the foundations of these categories feature verbal instead of nominal elements. In that case, there arise verbs, usually in ­ować, and then – the process of the reversal of motivation occurs. The word formation system is also disturbed by processes which apply to the sphere of inflexion. The article discusses a new word formation category – resultative departicipial adjectives in ­ły.

Keywords

  • word­formation
  • univerbisation
  • re­interpretation
  • borrowing
Open Access

Роль Словообразовательных Формантов В Сохранении Сакрального Смысла Церковнославянизмов В Русском Языке

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 512 - 526

Abstract

Abstract

The author of the article applies synchronic and diachronic approach to describe consistent patterns in Russian word formation, when the facts in contemporary Russian are explained with due regard to the history of their development and formation. The research focuses on commonly used derivatives of the Church Slavic, which have not lost their sacred meaning despite the general secularization beyond religious discourse of evangelic lexis in Russian (as well as in other Slavic languages). The preservation of the sacred meaning is influenced by a specific process of differentiation between the sacred and the secular by means of word­building formants in cognate synonyms (for example, Рождество [‘Christmas’]/рождение [‘birth’]; житие [‘the life (of a saint)’]/житье [‘ordinary life’]; Воскресение [‘Resurrection’]/воскресенье [‘Sunday’]; искупить [‘to redeem’], Искупитель [‘the Redeemer’]/выкупить [‘to buy out’] etc.). The last section of the article considers the process of semantic specification in diachrony of originally synonymic cognate derivatives like живот [‘belly’], житие [‘the life (of a saint)’], жизнь [‘life’], which has led to a complete change of the semantics of the lexeme живот [‘belly’] (a gradual strengthening of its physical component has led to the modern meaning ‘belly, part of body’) and the prevalence of the word жизнь (with its Old Slavonic suffix ­знь). The latter, having absorbed the “life­related” semantic of lexemes живот ‘belly’ and житие ‘the life (of a saint)’, expresses all aspects of its understanding and interpretation by the contemporary language community. The author assumes that this process could also have been influenced by the general correlation between the Church Slavonicisms (both elevated and general denominations) and native Russian words (both concrete and ordinary denominations) in Russian. Word­building formants play a significant role in the differentiation of the sacred and the secular (and preserving the sacred) when the religious lexicon of the Church Slavonic origin enters the modern Russian language.

Keywords

  • Russian
  • word­formation
  • Church Slavonicisms
  • desacralization
  • synchronic and diachronic approach
Open Access

Właściwości Derywacyjne Pożyczek Czasownikowych W XVI Wieku

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 527 - 535

Abstract

Abstract

The 16th century is the period of intensified processes of assimilation of foreign forms. This period provides insight into the situation of new borrowings which began to appear in the Polish language for the first time in such an extent. A considerable number of borrowed lexemes fosters the establishment of word­formative links between those lexemes in the Polish context. In this manner, the particular derivation­related nests of foreign origin were developed. In her article, the author emphasizes above all the role of verbal Latin and Greek borrowings in the organisation of the abovementioned nests, inquiring about the extent to which borrowings disrupt the existing word formation system, and about the extent to which these borrowings blend with the word formative “system”. As derivation­related bases, verbs are associated with two types of formations: with nominal and with verbal derivatives. The word­formative relations which emerged in the Polish language between a borrowed verb and a noun (which is in many cases borrowed as well) are well­documented already in the period in question (annotacyjaannotować). However, in this period, motivation­based relations between verbal borrowings were not developed, and thus foreign verbal formants did not separate out. The adaptation of these elements in the Polish language, as demonstrated by the further development in the diachronic perspective, is considerably impeded.

Keywords

  • borrowings
  • word­formative nests
  • word formation
Open Access

Nowe Derywaty Jako Wymierne Skutki Zróżnicowanych Oddziaływań Zapożyczeń Leksykalnych Na Słowotwórstwo Polszczyzny XXI W.

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 536 - 548

Abstract

Abstract

The article attempts to provide an answer to the questions concerning dimensions and aspects of morphological phenomena which result from the internationalization of the Polish lexicon both at the turn of the 20th and 21th centuries and in recent years. The main objective of the paper is to prove that (i) under the influence of new borrowings, new meanings are created in the newly “transplanted” forms; (ii) new composite expressions become more dominant; (iii) the scope of new hybrid lexical items broadens. A current tendency to undergo internationalization is viewed here as being inextricably bound up with “linguistic globalization” processes, which finds its confirmation in modern European languages, Slavic languages included.

Keywords

  • Polish lexicon
  • word­formation
  • loan words
  • internationalization
  • foreign word­formation units
  • productive foreign morphemes
Open Access

О Развитии Периферийных Словообразовательных Категорий Русских И Польских Nomina Actionis В Эпоху Глобализации

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 549 - 559

Abstract

Abstract

The main objective of the study is to analyse and describe the structural organization and semantic and cognitive properties of new peripheral word­formation types of nomina actionis in the modern Russian and Polish languages. As resistant forms and organizing principles of the thinking process, the derivational categories of nomina actionis derivatives reproduce the properties and relations of being and knowledge in the most concentrated form. It increases the need for a comprehensive study of their structure and semantics. The article analyses the main approaches to the differentiation of the peripheral types of word­formation categories according to the nature of derivational semantics. The author justifies the nominative rendering of transposition and proves that it can contribute to distinguish a mixed type of word­formation categories.

Keywords

  • globalization
  • Russian
  • Polish
  • nomina actionis
  • peripheral word­formation types
Open Access

Synchrónna Dynamika Slov Zakončených Na -Izmus/-Stvo V Textoch Slovenského Národného Korpusu

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 560 - 571

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on the analysis of functioning of words with suffix -izmus/-stvo in contemporary Slovak texts. The source of the analysis is the Slovak National Corpus – particularly the corpus of older texts (texts from 1955 to 1989), primary corpus (texts from 1955 to 2017, especially since 2000), and corpus of web texts (until 2017). The comparison of the frequency and collocations of the analysed words shows the dynamics of these microsystems in the language of the previous and the current period, and of partial linguistic analyses.

Keywords

  • synchrony of the language
  • lexical analysis
  • dynamics of abstract terms
  • frequency
  • Slovak National Corpus
Open Access

Tvorbeni Potencial Glagolskih Novotvorjenk Na -Ing + -Irati V Slovenščini

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 572 - 580

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on new verbal formations in Slovene coined from borrowed nouns ending in -ing with the Slovenian morpheme -irati (e.g. šoping-irati) on the basis of analogous phonological and semantic structures in the language, and examines their spread in the sphere of informal language use. The word­formational potential of such verbs is further examined with the basic categories of cognitive grammar, such as morphemic transparency, schematicity of the word­formational pattern and the established status of the phonemic sequence *ingira* in the previously existing lexical units of the Slovene language.

Keywords

  • Slovene
  • word­formation
  • cognitive grammar
  • denominal verbal formations in
Open Access

K Pojmu Slovotvorné Solitérnosti

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 581 - 588

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on different types of word­formation uniqueness. Wordformation uniqueness can be found in solitary word­formation structures, which the author defines as unique structures representing a specific word­formation type found in a single derivative. The basic and simplest type is represented by a unique affix in a single derivative in the respective language of a given time period. An example of this is the Czech noun obličej [‘face’]: the circumfix ob-ej (with -lič- as a radix to be found in the noun líce [‘cheek’]) is found in no other noun in the contemporary Czech. Another uniquely formed noun in contemporary Czech is the noun rukáv [‘sleeve’], derived from ruka [‘hand’] with the unique suffix -áv. Specific word­formation solitaires are theoretically conceived values. They are derivatives with a specific, but not uniquely found affix which is uniquely added to the stem of a single word of a specific part of speech, e.g. the very specific suffix -ule is added to the stem of the verb vrtět [‘to wag’] so that the noun vrtule [‘propeller’] is derived. This article shows that the notion of word­formation solitariness can be theoretically postulated on different levels of abstractness, both of the form and of the word­formation meaning.

Keywords

  • word­formation
  • uniqueness
  • solitariness
  • word­formation type
Open Access

Słowackie Deminutywa W Funkcji Eufemizującej

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 589 - 599

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the study is a group of selected expressive lexical units with positive connotation, euphemisms and euphemistic diminutives belonging to the category of amelioratives. These units function within a broadly understood expressive lexicon, used to express different emotions, including negative valorization. The author assumes that expressiveness is a very important element of interpersonal communication in terms of nomination and she finds the expressive function of the language as the key one. Among the euphemizing derivatives (quasi­diminutives) and diminutives, the author distinguishes categories of nouns, adjectives and verbs. The boundaries of the units forming the ameliorative category are fuzzy and very variable. The sample material of euphemisms and diminutives in the euphemistic function comes primarily from the available monolingual dictionaries of the Slovak language and is respectively verified by examples from the National Corpus of the Slovak language. Ameliorative­diminutive forms, which also occur in the euphemizing function, became the objects of detailed analysis. From among ameliorative forms, the euphemisms (including also diminutives as well as children’s lexicon) deserve a special attention.

Keywords

  • Slovak
  • expressiveness
  • lexicon
  • diminutives
  • euphemisms
Open Access

Slovotvorná Motivácia V Jazykovom Vývine Dieťaťa

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 600 - 615

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to analyse the role of word­formation motivation in child’s language development. The character of the research problem requires a transdisciplinary approach. For this reason, the author looks back on derivational theories as well as on researches of applied linguistics in Slovakia and abroad. Analysis of the relation between word­formation motivation and language development is based on author’s empirical findings on the children’s nonce words, the role of word­formation motivation in the development of the child’s cognitive and linguistic abilities and in the comprehension of an instructional text. The paper consists of: 1) the analysis of theoretical background from the point of view of derivatology as well as of applied linguistics; 2) the analysis of relevant research findings and the clarification of relationship between particular aspects of this topic; 3) the discussion about the functions of word­formation motivation in child’s language development confronting the author’s findings with the findings of other researches in this field.

Keywords

  • word­formation
  • motivation
  • language development
  • child
  • applied linguistics
  • educational linguistics
Open Access

Klára Buzássyová V Kontexte Sémantizácie Slovenskej Lexiky Cudzincom

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 616 - 625

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the characteristics of the scientific research of the renowned Slovak linguist Klára Buzássyová who – as a lecturer at the Studia Academica Slovaca summer school of Slovak language and culture – presented to foreign students the specifics of Slovak lexis and their function in speech within the context of intraand interlingual relationships. In her lectures, she helped students to see Slovak as a developped and modern Central European language which has its own genetic and typological properties and as a language capable of reacting to dynamic changes emerging from the communication needs of language users while respecting current trends in European language policy. Klára Buzássyová presented students with the latest results of her linguistic research and discussed the issues regarding the dynamics of vocabulary with an emphasis on the methods of wordformation, motivation, and the impact on the semantic and stylistic value of lexical units. Her papers, published in the Studia Academica Slovaca proceedings from 1980 to 2001 presented her scientific orientation and became an inspiration for the linguistic and didactic conception of Slovak as a foreign language in the context of the development of Slovak studies in Slovakia as well as abroad.

Keywords

  • lexis
  • methods of word­formation
  • motivation
  • dynamic tendencies
  • the semanticization of vocabulary
  • Slovak as a foreign language
  • linguistic and didactic aspects

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