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Volume 73 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)
Building Web corpora as sources for linguistic research and its applications

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 4 (June 2022)
Building Web corpora as sources for linguistic research and its applications

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)
NLP, Corpus Linguistics and Interdisciplinarity

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)
Číslo venované problematike maďarského jazyka a maďarských nárečí na Slovensku

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 3 (December 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 2 (December 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 3 (December 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 2 (December 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 3 (December 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 2 (December 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 2 (December 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 2 (December 2014)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 2 (December 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 2 (December 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 2 (December 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 1 (June 2011)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 2 (December 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 1 (June 2010)

Volume 60 (2009): Issue 2 (December 2009)

Volume 60 (2009): Issue 1 (June 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4287
First Published
05 Mar 2010
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 3 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4287
First Published
05 Mar 2010
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Relation of the codification and the real language in reflection of Ján Bosák

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 505 - 513

Abstract

Abstract

In the study, the author analyzes the relation between communication and the real language, as this relation had been reflected by Ján Bosák (1939 – 2019), an important representative of the Slovak linguistics of the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century. The theoretical and methodological coordinates of Ján Bosák’s research evolved from systemic linguistics to studying language in communication and language as a social phenomenon of its own kind. Ján Bosák has contributed to the Slovak linguistic research on the function of standard Slovak by introducing notions of the ordinary Slovak vernacular and the vernacularity, not only in the sense of stylistics, but in the sense that this vernacular represents a newly emerging variety in contemporary language situation. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Ján Bosák has systematically developed, as well as, strictly speaking, initiated the Slovak research in sociolinguistics, while he focused especially on sociolinguistic interpretation of variants and later on an original research into stratification of the Slovak language. Using sociolinguistic perspective as a starting point, Ján Bosák creatively revised the theory of Slovak national/standard language, as well as engaged in the discussion on both the norm(s) and codification of standard Slovak and the issues of language culture and possibilities for its cultivation. He also defined the so-called communication spheres and their relation to functional styles. Willingly or not, he had to leave the view of traditional theory, especially with regard to the issue of how to perceive plurality, diversity and variability within language, given that, as he assumed, the norm can neither be identified with codification nor subsumed under standards of the previous language situation. Ján Bosák undoubtedly deserves credit for the fact that the Slovak linguistics has gradually endorsed a new perspective on standard Slovak and that a diversity of views has been established in this respect. He tied in with the previous research tradition in that he held the notions of norm, codification and common use to be important with respect to the issues of standard Slovak and language culture. He believed, however, that the codification needs to be grounded in meticulous scientific knowledge on the real norm and that it is also inevitable to respect innovations and accept the principle of variety. Ján Bosák also believed that the distance in mutual communication between the norm and codification continues to grow because the “hypostatization” of the notion of system, in the sense that “everything happens in the name of the system and its sustenance” is still a characteristic tendency in Slovak linguistics. In this way, the relation between system and norm on the level of particular speech activity goes missing with regards to the individual user. A certain part of Slovak linguists is severely mistaken in that they identify norm with codification. But, as Ján Bosák argued, the contradictions of norm, common use and codification can best be grasped and interpreted through a symbiosis of systemic approach, communication approach and sociolinguistic strategy.

Keywords

  • codification
  • real language
  • sociolinguistic strategy
  • systemic approach
  • variability
Open Access

Stratification of language users

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 515 - 528

Abstract

Abstract

This study is about one of the ways in which community of language users appear to be structured: the users of standard language are hierarchicaly stratified with regard to the degree of rationality that determines the ways in which language is conceived of. The starting-point is that all language users are linguistic experts that are stratified in four groups with these labels: practical, educated, theoretical and metatheoretical linguistic experts. Practical linguistic expert is not a commonly used term but it is useful in answering questions that could be asked about the status of ordinary language users in the linguistic life of society. The author argues for the right of these users to power to influence the linguistic behaviour in the public communication. He is interested in the contrast between practical and rational linguistic order and in the reasons for why preference of practical linguistic order is in accordance with tendency to natural communication activity.

Keywords

  • stratification
  • language user
  • power
  • linguistic behaviour
  • communication
Open Access

Dynamic tendencies in natural Slovak orthography

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 529 - 544

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays we can observe changes in the use of literary Slovak, or, to be more precise, in the orthographic standard. These changes result from the language practice associated with promoting natural Slovak language. Natural Slovak language develops in oral and written form. The current codification of the literary language must deal with the emergence of different language usages in different spheres of communication.

Keywords

  • natural Slovak language
  • orthographic norm
  • language knowledge
  • language awareness
Open Access

To the relations between morphemic and word-formation structure of a word in Slovak

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 545 - 572

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on relations between word-formation and morphemic structure of a Slovak word based on the material from Slovník koreňových morfém slovenčiny [Slovak Dictionary of Root Morphemes] (Sokolová et al., 2012). Particularly, manifestations of morphemic variation determined by word-formation poly-motivation are analysed. Poly-motivation arises from the re-grouping of the relations within a word-formation nest, where the mediated motivation can be understood as an alternative direct motivation, e.g. aerodynamika [noun, ‘aerodynamics’] → (aerodynamický [adjective, ‘related to aerodynamics’]) → aerodynamicky [adverb]. The adverb aerodynamicky is derived from the adjective (aerodynamickýaerodynamick-y ‘in an aerodynamic manner’) as well as from the noun (aerodynamikaaerodynamic-ky ‘with regard to aerodynamics’). Thus, the structure of affixes can be extended as a result of infixation conditioned by poly-motivation, cf. aerodynamick-y (suffix -y) / aerodynamic-ky (suffix -y with an infix: -k:y). As far as poly-motivation is concerned, a particular affix can have several morphemic and word-formation manifestations, e.g. Slovak adverb suffix -y can be manifested as -y, -ky, -icky, -isticky, -sky, -euticky, -aticky, -eticky, -ecky, -nícky.

Keywords

  • word-formation
  • polymotivation
  • morphemics
  • affixation
  • infixation
  • Slovak language
Open Access

Language for special purposes and the research of its vocabulary

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 573 - 590

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to touch upon the complexity of LSP-related research and to sketch some of its important terminological and methodological issues. The paper also provides an overview of the history, themes, discussions, approaches and outputs in the contemporary LSP-research mainly in French and German speaking countries, but also including a selection of Czech and English authors. The contribution presents a variety of ways how the concept of LSP has been defined in linguistics in the last 50 years, as well as descriptive and modeling efforts with respect to the stratification of LSP. The paper pays special attention to the issue and concept of the so-called Basic Scientific Vocabulary, that is, its various names, definitions and research projects aimed at identifying such a vocabulary, or even, as is the case with German research tradition, a genuine sub-language. The paper concludes with a picture of some French, German and other LSP-related projects that have been launched in the last decades in the direction of corpus-based and -driven research. This tendency shows the importance of rich empirical material (corpora) not only as a foundation for further linguistic research in LSP, but also a basis for the lexicographical and terminographical research.

Keywords

  • language for special purposes
  • corpus linguistics
  • stratification of LSP
  • Basic Scientific Vocabulary
Open Access

Colloquiality and stylistics of online alternative news media

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 591 - 606

Abstract

Abstract

The main line of the study is bound to the conditions, demonstrations and effects of colloquiality (colloquialization) parameter that has been applied in the current electronic media communication sphere. Colloquiality as a non-verbal, structural and compositional attribute of a piece of communication is primarily present in the open, semi- and non-official communication contacts with direct, immediate involvement of their participants. In traditional print journalism built on the verified principles of printedness/ writtenness, colloquiality occurs as a secondary, accompanying attribute of the media communication pieces. Regardless of the genre affiliation of the newspaper products, it helps perform their, e.g., documentary, persuasive, captivating, characterizing, relieving or aesthetic functions. Apart from the parameter of printedness, both mainstream and alternative (complementary) online media generally calculate upon the advanced options of the visual code systems. Thus, language-based online newspapers are easily supplemented with simultaneous, additional, or substitutional means and procedures of cinematographic origin, e.g., a surprising choice, dynamic edition, purpose-made superposition of the text, audio and video sequences being applied through hyperlinking, audiovisual effects, etc. Besides, accompanying dialogization and consequent de-officialization of online newspapers are changing conventional characteristics of the journalistic style. The expanding zone of colloquiality loosens the standards of codified language in written/printed communication. Boundaries between the varieties in the framework of language stratification are already easily penetrable. The material base and argument platform of the study consist of author texts published in the Slovak online alternative news media.

Keywords

  • media communication sphere
  • online alternative news media
  • colloquiality
  • printedness/writtenness
  • language stratification
  • journalistic style
  • genre
Open Access

Sociostylistics as a part of interactive stylistics – getting back and perspectives

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 607 - 625

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the concept of interactive stylistics and sociostylistics as one of its subdisciplines. The interactive stylistics is explained as a transdisciplinary field of knowledge. In a way, the article is also a reaction to the stylistic views of Ján Bosák from the 1990s. The concept of interactive stylistics is incorporated in the trends of the Slovak stylistics in the 21st century. The article explains the crucial terms: interaction, communication, style, stylistic/style quality, styleme, axiological competence, principles that conduct, coordinate and control the process of stylization. Style is defined as the mode of verbal interaction which in a specific communication act acquires the qualitative value. It has a processual character. Styleme is a cognitive-pragmatic unit of the stylistic/style quality defined by its content, the inner and outer form and function. The paper presents a division of the theoretical stylistics into its subdisciplines and their research fields. Sociostylistics is divided into macro- and microsociostylistics. The concepts of macrosocial and microsocial communication registers and stratification of Slovak language are explained as the key concepts, which, stylistically understood, are the main areas of interest of sociostylistics.

Keywords

  • stylistics
  • interactive stylistics
  • sociostylistics
  • style
  • styleme
  • stylistic/style quality
  • axiological competence
Open Access

“Here’s to you, dear Janko, on your birthday...” On the ways of addressing people in Slovak (and something over and above that)

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 627 - 651

Abstract

Abstract

Ján Bosák’s passing away before reaching of his 80th birthday has given an impulse for a reflection on the ways of addressing people in Slovak, with special regard to vocative and non-vocative forms of the name Ján [Slovak equivalent of John]. The attention is partially also given to comparison with Czech – in contrast to standard Slovak where vocative forms have declined similarly as in the dialects of Central Slovakia, the vocative forms in standard Czech are still alive. Besides the use of nominative hypocoristic/diminutive forms Jano, Janko, Janík, Janíčko as common ways of addressing people, the study also mentions the use of a compound addressing with possessive pronoun in post-position (Jano môj, Janko/Janík/Janíčko môj) which represents a specific substitute for the vocative forms in Slovak. In addition, the study deals with the vitality of vocative case in Slovak dialects and in common communication. It also offers a few probes into “textual life” of the historic vocative form Jane, especially in ethnoculturally rare Slovak midsummer songs (e.g. Jane, Jane, Vajane) and in the spiritual poetry of Ján Hollý.

Keywords

  • Ján Bosák
  • Slovak language
  • vocative forms
  • neo-vocative
  • addressing
  • Slovak-Czech comparison
  • Slovak dialects
  • midsummer songs
8 Articles
Open Access

Relation of the codification and the real language in reflection of Ján Bosák

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 505 - 513

Abstract

Abstract

In the study, the author analyzes the relation between communication and the real language, as this relation had been reflected by Ján Bosák (1939 – 2019), an important representative of the Slovak linguistics of the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century. The theoretical and methodological coordinates of Ján Bosák’s research evolved from systemic linguistics to studying language in communication and language as a social phenomenon of its own kind. Ján Bosák has contributed to the Slovak linguistic research on the function of standard Slovak by introducing notions of the ordinary Slovak vernacular and the vernacularity, not only in the sense of stylistics, but in the sense that this vernacular represents a newly emerging variety in contemporary language situation. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Ján Bosák has systematically developed, as well as, strictly speaking, initiated the Slovak research in sociolinguistics, while he focused especially on sociolinguistic interpretation of variants and later on an original research into stratification of the Slovak language. Using sociolinguistic perspective as a starting point, Ján Bosák creatively revised the theory of Slovak national/standard language, as well as engaged in the discussion on both the norm(s) and codification of standard Slovak and the issues of language culture and possibilities for its cultivation. He also defined the so-called communication spheres and their relation to functional styles. Willingly or not, he had to leave the view of traditional theory, especially with regard to the issue of how to perceive plurality, diversity and variability within language, given that, as he assumed, the norm can neither be identified with codification nor subsumed under standards of the previous language situation. Ján Bosák undoubtedly deserves credit for the fact that the Slovak linguistics has gradually endorsed a new perspective on standard Slovak and that a diversity of views has been established in this respect. He tied in with the previous research tradition in that he held the notions of norm, codification and common use to be important with respect to the issues of standard Slovak and language culture. He believed, however, that the codification needs to be grounded in meticulous scientific knowledge on the real norm and that it is also inevitable to respect innovations and accept the principle of variety. Ján Bosák also believed that the distance in mutual communication between the norm and codification continues to grow because the “hypostatization” of the notion of system, in the sense that “everything happens in the name of the system and its sustenance” is still a characteristic tendency in Slovak linguistics. In this way, the relation between system and norm on the level of particular speech activity goes missing with regards to the individual user. A certain part of Slovak linguists is severely mistaken in that they identify norm with codification. But, as Ján Bosák argued, the contradictions of norm, common use and codification can best be grasped and interpreted through a symbiosis of systemic approach, communication approach and sociolinguistic strategy.

Keywords

  • codification
  • real language
  • sociolinguistic strategy
  • systemic approach
  • variability
Open Access

Stratification of language users

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 515 - 528

Abstract

Abstract

This study is about one of the ways in which community of language users appear to be structured: the users of standard language are hierarchicaly stratified with regard to the degree of rationality that determines the ways in which language is conceived of. The starting-point is that all language users are linguistic experts that are stratified in four groups with these labels: practical, educated, theoretical and metatheoretical linguistic experts. Practical linguistic expert is not a commonly used term but it is useful in answering questions that could be asked about the status of ordinary language users in the linguistic life of society. The author argues for the right of these users to power to influence the linguistic behaviour in the public communication. He is interested in the contrast between practical and rational linguistic order and in the reasons for why preference of practical linguistic order is in accordance with tendency to natural communication activity.

Keywords

  • stratification
  • language user
  • power
  • linguistic behaviour
  • communication
Open Access

Dynamic tendencies in natural Slovak orthography

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 529 - 544

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays we can observe changes in the use of literary Slovak, or, to be more precise, in the orthographic standard. These changes result from the language practice associated with promoting natural Slovak language. Natural Slovak language develops in oral and written form. The current codification of the literary language must deal with the emergence of different language usages in different spheres of communication.

Keywords

  • natural Slovak language
  • orthographic norm
  • language knowledge
  • language awareness
Open Access

To the relations between morphemic and word-formation structure of a word in Slovak

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 545 - 572

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on relations between word-formation and morphemic structure of a Slovak word based on the material from Slovník koreňových morfém slovenčiny [Slovak Dictionary of Root Morphemes] (Sokolová et al., 2012). Particularly, manifestations of morphemic variation determined by word-formation poly-motivation are analysed. Poly-motivation arises from the re-grouping of the relations within a word-formation nest, where the mediated motivation can be understood as an alternative direct motivation, e.g. aerodynamika [noun, ‘aerodynamics’] → (aerodynamický [adjective, ‘related to aerodynamics’]) → aerodynamicky [adverb]. The adverb aerodynamicky is derived from the adjective (aerodynamickýaerodynamick-y ‘in an aerodynamic manner’) as well as from the noun (aerodynamikaaerodynamic-ky ‘with regard to aerodynamics’). Thus, the structure of affixes can be extended as a result of infixation conditioned by poly-motivation, cf. aerodynamick-y (suffix -y) / aerodynamic-ky (suffix -y with an infix: -k:y). As far as poly-motivation is concerned, a particular affix can have several morphemic and word-formation manifestations, e.g. Slovak adverb suffix -y can be manifested as -y, -ky, -icky, -isticky, -sky, -euticky, -aticky, -eticky, -ecky, -nícky.

Keywords

  • word-formation
  • polymotivation
  • morphemics
  • affixation
  • infixation
  • Slovak language
Open Access

Language for special purposes and the research of its vocabulary

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 573 - 590

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to touch upon the complexity of LSP-related research and to sketch some of its important terminological and methodological issues. The paper also provides an overview of the history, themes, discussions, approaches and outputs in the contemporary LSP-research mainly in French and German speaking countries, but also including a selection of Czech and English authors. The contribution presents a variety of ways how the concept of LSP has been defined in linguistics in the last 50 years, as well as descriptive and modeling efforts with respect to the stratification of LSP. The paper pays special attention to the issue and concept of the so-called Basic Scientific Vocabulary, that is, its various names, definitions and research projects aimed at identifying such a vocabulary, or even, as is the case with German research tradition, a genuine sub-language. The paper concludes with a picture of some French, German and other LSP-related projects that have been launched in the last decades in the direction of corpus-based and -driven research. This tendency shows the importance of rich empirical material (corpora) not only as a foundation for further linguistic research in LSP, but also a basis for the lexicographical and terminographical research.

Keywords

  • language for special purposes
  • corpus linguistics
  • stratification of LSP
  • Basic Scientific Vocabulary
Open Access

Colloquiality and stylistics of online alternative news media

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 591 - 606

Abstract

Abstract

The main line of the study is bound to the conditions, demonstrations and effects of colloquiality (colloquialization) parameter that has been applied in the current electronic media communication sphere. Colloquiality as a non-verbal, structural and compositional attribute of a piece of communication is primarily present in the open, semi- and non-official communication contacts with direct, immediate involvement of their participants. In traditional print journalism built on the verified principles of printedness/ writtenness, colloquiality occurs as a secondary, accompanying attribute of the media communication pieces. Regardless of the genre affiliation of the newspaper products, it helps perform their, e.g., documentary, persuasive, captivating, characterizing, relieving or aesthetic functions. Apart from the parameter of printedness, both mainstream and alternative (complementary) online media generally calculate upon the advanced options of the visual code systems. Thus, language-based online newspapers are easily supplemented with simultaneous, additional, or substitutional means and procedures of cinematographic origin, e.g., a surprising choice, dynamic edition, purpose-made superposition of the text, audio and video sequences being applied through hyperlinking, audiovisual effects, etc. Besides, accompanying dialogization and consequent de-officialization of online newspapers are changing conventional characteristics of the journalistic style. The expanding zone of colloquiality loosens the standards of codified language in written/printed communication. Boundaries between the varieties in the framework of language stratification are already easily penetrable. The material base and argument platform of the study consist of author texts published in the Slovak online alternative news media.

Keywords

  • media communication sphere
  • online alternative news media
  • colloquiality
  • printedness/writtenness
  • language stratification
  • journalistic style
  • genre
Open Access

Sociostylistics as a part of interactive stylistics – getting back and perspectives

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 607 - 625

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the concept of interactive stylistics and sociostylistics as one of its subdisciplines. The interactive stylistics is explained as a transdisciplinary field of knowledge. In a way, the article is also a reaction to the stylistic views of Ján Bosák from the 1990s. The concept of interactive stylistics is incorporated in the trends of the Slovak stylistics in the 21st century. The article explains the crucial terms: interaction, communication, style, stylistic/style quality, styleme, axiological competence, principles that conduct, coordinate and control the process of stylization. Style is defined as the mode of verbal interaction which in a specific communication act acquires the qualitative value. It has a processual character. Styleme is a cognitive-pragmatic unit of the stylistic/style quality defined by its content, the inner and outer form and function. The paper presents a division of the theoretical stylistics into its subdisciplines and their research fields. Sociostylistics is divided into macro- and microsociostylistics. The concepts of macrosocial and microsocial communication registers and stratification of Slovak language are explained as the key concepts, which, stylistically understood, are the main areas of interest of sociostylistics.

Keywords

  • stylistics
  • interactive stylistics
  • sociostylistics
  • style
  • styleme
  • stylistic/style quality
  • axiological competence
Open Access

“Here’s to you, dear Janko, on your birthday...” On the ways of addressing people in Slovak (and something over and above that)

Published Online: 13 Apr 2020
Page range: 627 - 651

Abstract

Abstract

Ján Bosák’s passing away before reaching of his 80th birthday has given an impulse for a reflection on the ways of addressing people in Slovak, with special regard to vocative and non-vocative forms of the name Ján [Slovak equivalent of John]. The attention is partially also given to comparison with Czech – in contrast to standard Slovak where vocative forms have declined similarly as in the dialects of Central Slovakia, the vocative forms in standard Czech are still alive. Besides the use of nominative hypocoristic/diminutive forms Jano, Janko, Janík, Janíčko as common ways of addressing people, the study also mentions the use of a compound addressing with possessive pronoun in post-position (Jano môj, Janko/Janík/Janíčko môj) which represents a specific substitute for the vocative forms in Slovak. In addition, the study deals with the vitality of vocative case in Slovak dialects and in common communication. It also offers a few probes into “textual life” of the historic vocative form Jane, especially in ethnoculturally rare Slovak midsummer songs (e.g. Jane, Jane, Vajane) and in the spiritual poetry of Ján Hollý.

Keywords

  • Ján Bosák
  • Slovak language
  • vocative forms
  • neo-vocative
  • addressing
  • Slovak-Czech comparison
  • Slovak dialects
  • midsummer songs

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