Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

13 Articles
Open Access

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus: More than Just a Bacterial Hunter

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 169 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory gram-negative delta-proteobacteria that preys on other gram-negative bacterial species. With the surge in the cases of Anti-Microbial Resistance and the demand to replace conventional antibiotics, this predatory attribute of B. bacteriovorus has led to a vast number of studies in the last decade alone. These studies demonstrated various aspects of predation and proposed using B. bacteriovorus as an alternative new approach to conventional antibiotics in humans. Here we review the current progress made in this promising new area of research to develop novel antibacterial approaches.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial
  • gram-negative
  • live antibiotic
  • predatory species
Open Access

Microbially-Produced Organic Acids as Leaching Agents for Metal Recovery Processes

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 179 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

Minerals have been important throughout history, but nowadays, their use has increased, as well as their extraction needs. Therefore, due to the growing demand for metals, and both the depletion of high-grade ores and their related environmental concerns, the mining industry has been forced to leave behind the past traditional techniques of metal recovery (use of inorganic acids), and adopt eco-friendlier alternatives, such as the utilization of weaker leaching agents, such as organic acids. Thus, the present review is focused on the use of microbially-produced organic acids as a promising alternative to conventional techniques in the mining industry, with emphasis on the following topics: a) the advantages and disadvantages of the use of organic acids for leaching purposes, b) the main microorganisms studied for the production of these organic acids, c) a summary of the latest reports on bioleaching as well as a comparison of the existent techniques; d) the explanation of leaching mechanisms where organic acids may be involved, to fulfill metal recovery; and, e) interactions between metallic ions and organic acids. The review of the current knowledge regarding the use of organic acids for leaching purposes seeks the visualization of relevant strategies that may be improved for metal-recovery processes, intending to develop circular economy practices that may have the potential to be implemented at an industrial scale.

Keywords

  • bioleaching
  • biological synthesis
  • metal recovery
  • microbial processes
  • organic acids
Open Access

Interactions between Small Regulatory RNAs and Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Gram-Negative Bacteria

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 191 - 204

Abstract

Summary

Small, regulatory RNA molecules (sRNAs) together with two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are part of extensive networks for controlling bacterial gene expression. By interacting with each other, they ensure a swift and precise response of bacteria to changing living conditions. They control many processes, including the composition of the bacterial cell envelope and biofilm formation. Very often, sRNAs are the missing links between TCSs and their target genes or other regulatory systems in response to complex environmental stimuli. TCS-sRNA interaction is now considered a global regulatory feature in many prokaryotes. Learning about these control mechanisms paves the way to developing new strategies to combat pathogens.

Keywords

  • two-component signal transduction systems (TCS)
  • small regulatory RNA (sRNA)
  • TCS-sRNA interactions

Słowa kluczowe

  • dwuskładnikowe systemy transdukcji sygnału (TCS)
  • małe regulatorowe RNA (sRNA)
  • oddziaływania TCS-sRNA
Open Access

Different Faces of the Famous Discoverer in Memory of Louis Pasteur on the 200,Anniversary of his Birthday

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 205 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

Louis Pasteur is considered one of the world’s greatest scientists. However, some cracks in the Pasteur’s monument have been spotted. His character and certain activities are subject to criticism or at least controversy. The review of achievements of the French scientist, contained in this article, prepared on the occasion of the bicentenary of his birth, shows that, despite the accusations formulated from different sides, Pasteur fully deserves to be called a “benefactor of mankind”.

Keywords

  • fermentation
  • tartaric acid
  • spontaneous generation
  • vaccination

Słowa kluczowe

  • fermentacja
  • kwas winowy
  • samorództwo
  • szczepienia
Open Access

Modern Methods of Identification of Protein Vaccine Antigens

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 211 - 221

Abstract

Abstract

Advancements in modern genomics driven by the continuous DNA sequencing of complete microbial genomes, including pathogenic microorganisms, have revolutionised the approach to the process of designing new generation vaccine antigens. Genomic data is the source of hypotheses about potential antigen immunogenicity, reversing the standard science research process. As a result, it is possible to analyse thousands of genes regardless of their in vivo expression levels. On this basis, we can choose the pool of protein candidates to examine further, mapping their epitopes recognised by the elements of the human immune system. The acquired information on the structure of the selected antigen and its interactions with the immune system may be used to design and synthesise new immunogenic molecules, optimising time and resources needed to introduce new vaccines to the market.

Keywords

  • antigen
  • reverse vaccinology
  • vaccine

Słowa kluczowe

  • antygen
  • odwrotna wakcynologia
  • szczepionka
Open Access

The Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome – Selected Data

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 223 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents new data indicating the composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiome, consisting of bacteria, archaea, viruses (including bacteriophages), as well as eukaryotic and heterotrophic organisms such as fungi – the existence of which in the gastrointestinal tract is referred to as the mycobiome. The human digestive tract, divided into the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine, inhabited by the microorganisms mentioned above, forms a specific qualitative and quantitative, rich and diverse specific ecosystem. Thanks to the use of bioinformatic and molecular methods, including metagenomic sequencing, it is still being discovered. In this review, systematic groups of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi occurring in individual sections of the gastrointestinal tract are presented, and enterotypes of the large intestine are indicated. Considering the amounts of the above-mentioned groups of microorganisms in individual sections of the gastrointestinal tract of the human, the environment of the large intestine and oral cavity are the richest parts of the microbiome, while the throat and esophagus are the poorest. Among the microbiome of the digestive tract of the human, the most numerous group are bacteria located in the mouth and small intestine, while the the most limited group of bacteria is registered in the pharynx and esophagus. Archaea, on the other hand, have been described most frequently in the large intestine and stomach, and were not found in the throat and small intestine. Most viruses in the gastrointestinal tract were found in the large intestine and the oral cavity, while they were absent in the stomach. The fungi found in the microbiome were most abundant in the large intestine and stomach, and the smallest amount in the throat and small intestine.

Keywords

  • archea
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • microbiome
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • viruses

Słowa kluczowe

  • archea
  • bakterie
  • grzyby
  • mikrobiom
  • przewód pokarmowy
  • wirusy
Open Access

Former and Contemporary Methods for Wine Stabilization

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 235 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

Enology, a science dealing with issues related to wine production, combines ancient tradition with the present time. It was not until Louis Pasteur proved that vinification does not happen by itself and that microorganisms are responsible for this process. It was a beginning for a branch of enology focused on the microbiology of wine, which led to gradual evolution of production methods and the development of advanced techniques for wine stabilization. Nevertheless, alternative methods that can replace or modify the sulfation process as wine preservation are still sought. Physical and chemical methods can be found among them. Also, nanotechnology offers process improvements to enology. This article describes the past and the current wine stabilization methods and summarizes the directions for developing this interdisciplinary branch of knowledge.

Keywords

  • biotechnology
  • nanobiotechnology
  • sterilization
  • wine

Słowa kluczowe

  • biotechnologia
  • nanobiotechnologia
  • sterylizacja
  • wino
Open Access

Opportunistic Pathogens of the Genus Cryptococcus in Louis Pasteur Days and in 200th Anniversary of his Birth

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 247 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

This year we are celebrating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Louis Pasteur, one of the fathers of microbiology. Interestingly, the time when Pasteur disproved the doctrine of „spontaneous generation” and announced the “germ theory of disease” coincides with the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans and its role in cryptococcosis. Today, only in the realm of guesswork can remain the correct answer to the question „whether the observed parallelism of these events was accidental?” or „whether Pasteur’s discoveries constituted a solid foundation of the research on the etiological factors of cryptococcosis?”. Until recently, it might seem that all major virulence factors of pathogenic fungi of the Cryptococcus species complex have been thoroughly described. Meanwhile, the simultaneous publication in 2018 of three in vitro protocols for the induction of Titan cells, also known as giant cells, opened up new possibilities for research on the relatively uncharacterized virulence factor that is crucial for Cryptococcus spp. Research on the titanization process makes us realize how little we know about the virulence factors of these fungi, and how much more can be improved in the context of the treatment and prevention of cryptococcosis. The following review is not only a historical outline of research on Cryptococcus spp. and cryptococcosis, but also synthetically describes the virulence factors of these basidiomycetous yeasts, with particular emphasis on the titanization process. The phenomenon of titanization as a process of a specific morphological transformation, like Titan cells, are completely new terms in Polish literature, which will be introduced to readers here. We live in a post-antibiotic era where the lack of effective and non-toxic drugs affects patients all over the world. Specifically, the availability of only fluconazole, amphotericin B and flucytosine in therapy of cryptococcosis constitutes a significant limitation. For this reason, research on the virulence factors of Cryptococcus spp. will allow to find new effective antimycotics, including inhibitors of the titanization process.

Keywords

  • cryptococcosis
  • historical outline
  • Titan cells
  • titanization process
  • virulence factors

Słowa kluczowe

  • kryptokokoza
  • zarys historyczny
  • komórki tytan
  • proces tytanizacji
  • czynniki wirulencji
Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Przemysław Zięba: Taxonomy of dermatophytes – the classification systems may change but the identification problems remain the same.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 261 - 261

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Mariusz Dyląg: Molekularne metody diagnostyki dermatomykoz – przegląd dostępnych technik oraz ocena ich zalet i wad w implementacji do rutynowego stosowania.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 262 - 262

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Dominik Łagowski, Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Mechanizmy powstawania oporności dermatofitów na substancje przeciwgrzybicze.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 263 - 263

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Zastosowanie techniki MALDI-TOF MS do identyfikacji dermatofitów.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 264 - 264

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Mariusz Dyląg, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Ludzki mykobiom w stanach normobiozy i dysbiozy– charakterystyka i metody analizy.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 265 - 265

Abstract

13 Articles
Open Access

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus: More than Just a Bacterial Hunter

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 169 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory gram-negative delta-proteobacteria that preys on other gram-negative bacterial species. With the surge in the cases of Anti-Microbial Resistance and the demand to replace conventional antibiotics, this predatory attribute of B. bacteriovorus has led to a vast number of studies in the last decade alone. These studies demonstrated various aspects of predation and proposed using B. bacteriovorus as an alternative new approach to conventional antibiotics in humans. Here we review the current progress made in this promising new area of research to develop novel antibacterial approaches.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial
  • gram-negative
  • live antibiotic
  • predatory species
Open Access

Microbially-Produced Organic Acids as Leaching Agents for Metal Recovery Processes

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 179 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

Minerals have been important throughout history, but nowadays, their use has increased, as well as their extraction needs. Therefore, due to the growing demand for metals, and both the depletion of high-grade ores and their related environmental concerns, the mining industry has been forced to leave behind the past traditional techniques of metal recovery (use of inorganic acids), and adopt eco-friendlier alternatives, such as the utilization of weaker leaching agents, such as organic acids. Thus, the present review is focused on the use of microbially-produced organic acids as a promising alternative to conventional techniques in the mining industry, with emphasis on the following topics: a) the advantages and disadvantages of the use of organic acids for leaching purposes, b) the main microorganisms studied for the production of these organic acids, c) a summary of the latest reports on bioleaching as well as a comparison of the existent techniques; d) the explanation of leaching mechanisms where organic acids may be involved, to fulfill metal recovery; and, e) interactions between metallic ions and organic acids. The review of the current knowledge regarding the use of organic acids for leaching purposes seeks the visualization of relevant strategies that may be improved for metal-recovery processes, intending to develop circular economy practices that may have the potential to be implemented at an industrial scale.

Keywords

  • bioleaching
  • biological synthesis
  • metal recovery
  • microbial processes
  • organic acids
Open Access

Interactions between Small Regulatory RNAs and Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Gram-Negative Bacteria

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 191 - 204

Abstract

Summary

Small, regulatory RNA molecules (sRNAs) together with two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are part of extensive networks for controlling bacterial gene expression. By interacting with each other, they ensure a swift and precise response of bacteria to changing living conditions. They control many processes, including the composition of the bacterial cell envelope and biofilm formation. Very often, sRNAs are the missing links between TCSs and their target genes or other regulatory systems in response to complex environmental stimuli. TCS-sRNA interaction is now considered a global regulatory feature in many prokaryotes. Learning about these control mechanisms paves the way to developing new strategies to combat pathogens.

Keywords

  • two-component signal transduction systems (TCS)
  • small regulatory RNA (sRNA)
  • TCS-sRNA interactions

Słowa kluczowe

  • dwuskładnikowe systemy transdukcji sygnału (TCS)
  • małe regulatorowe RNA (sRNA)
  • oddziaływania TCS-sRNA
Open Access

Different Faces of the Famous Discoverer in Memory of Louis Pasteur on the 200,Anniversary of his Birthday

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 205 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

Louis Pasteur is considered one of the world’s greatest scientists. However, some cracks in the Pasteur’s monument have been spotted. His character and certain activities are subject to criticism or at least controversy. The review of achievements of the French scientist, contained in this article, prepared on the occasion of the bicentenary of his birth, shows that, despite the accusations formulated from different sides, Pasteur fully deserves to be called a “benefactor of mankind”.

Keywords

  • fermentation
  • tartaric acid
  • spontaneous generation
  • vaccination

Słowa kluczowe

  • fermentacja
  • kwas winowy
  • samorództwo
  • szczepienia
Open Access

Modern Methods of Identification of Protein Vaccine Antigens

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 211 - 221

Abstract

Abstract

Advancements in modern genomics driven by the continuous DNA sequencing of complete microbial genomes, including pathogenic microorganisms, have revolutionised the approach to the process of designing new generation vaccine antigens. Genomic data is the source of hypotheses about potential antigen immunogenicity, reversing the standard science research process. As a result, it is possible to analyse thousands of genes regardless of their in vivo expression levels. On this basis, we can choose the pool of protein candidates to examine further, mapping their epitopes recognised by the elements of the human immune system. The acquired information on the structure of the selected antigen and its interactions with the immune system may be used to design and synthesise new immunogenic molecules, optimising time and resources needed to introduce new vaccines to the market.

Keywords

  • antigen
  • reverse vaccinology
  • vaccine

Słowa kluczowe

  • antygen
  • odwrotna wakcynologia
  • szczepionka
Open Access

The Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome – Selected Data

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 223 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents new data indicating the composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiome, consisting of bacteria, archaea, viruses (including bacteriophages), as well as eukaryotic and heterotrophic organisms such as fungi – the existence of which in the gastrointestinal tract is referred to as the mycobiome. The human digestive tract, divided into the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine, inhabited by the microorganisms mentioned above, forms a specific qualitative and quantitative, rich and diverse specific ecosystem. Thanks to the use of bioinformatic and molecular methods, including metagenomic sequencing, it is still being discovered. In this review, systematic groups of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi occurring in individual sections of the gastrointestinal tract are presented, and enterotypes of the large intestine are indicated. Considering the amounts of the above-mentioned groups of microorganisms in individual sections of the gastrointestinal tract of the human, the environment of the large intestine and oral cavity are the richest parts of the microbiome, while the throat and esophagus are the poorest. Among the microbiome of the digestive tract of the human, the most numerous group are bacteria located in the mouth and small intestine, while the the most limited group of bacteria is registered in the pharynx and esophagus. Archaea, on the other hand, have been described most frequently in the large intestine and stomach, and were not found in the throat and small intestine. Most viruses in the gastrointestinal tract were found in the large intestine and the oral cavity, while they were absent in the stomach. The fungi found in the microbiome were most abundant in the large intestine and stomach, and the smallest amount in the throat and small intestine.

Keywords

  • archea
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • microbiome
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • viruses

Słowa kluczowe

  • archea
  • bakterie
  • grzyby
  • mikrobiom
  • przewód pokarmowy
  • wirusy
Open Access

Former and Contemporary Methods for Wine Stabilization

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 235 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

Enology, a science dealing with issues related to wine production, combines ancient tradition with the present time. It was not until Louis Pasteur proved that vinification does not happen by itself and that microorganisms are responsible for this process. It was a beginning for a branch of enology focused on the microbiology of wine, which led to gradual evolution of production methods and the development of advanced techniques for wine stabilization. Nevertheless, alternative methods that can replace or modify the sulfation process as wine preservation are still sought. Physical and chemical methods can be found among them. Also, nanotechnology offers process improvements to enology. This article describes the past and the current wine stabilization methods and summarizes the directions for developing this interdisciplinary branch of knowledge.

Keywords

  • biotechnology
  • nanobiotechnology
  • sterilization
  • wine

Słowa kluczowe

  • biotechnologia
  • nanobiotechnologia
  • sterylizacja
  • wino
Open Access

Opportunistic Pathogens of the Genus Cryptococcus in Louis Pasteur Days and in 200th Anniversary of his Birth

Published Online: 30 Nov 2022
Page range: 247 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

This year we are celebrating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Louis Pasteur, one of the fathers of microbiology. Interestingly, the time when Pasteur disproved the doctrine of „spontaneous generation” and announced the “germ theory of disease” coincides with the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans and its role in cryptococcosis. Today, only in the realm of guesswork can remain the correct answer to the question „whether the observed parallelism of these events was accidental?” or „whether Pasteur’s discoveries constituted a solid foundation of the research on the etiological factors of cryptococcosis?”. Until recently, it might seem that all major virulence factors of pathogenic fungi of the Cryptococcus species complex have been thoroughly described. Meanwhile, the simultaneous publication in 2018 of three in vitro protocols for the induction of Titan cells, also known as giant cells, opened up new possibilities for research on the relatively uncharacterized virulence factor that is crucial for Cryptococcus spp. Research on the titanization process makes us realize how little we know about the virulence factors of these fungi, and how much more can be improved in the context of the treatment and prevention of cryptococcosis. The following review is not only a historical outline of research on Cryptococcus spp. and cryptococcosis, but also synthetically describes the virulence factors of these basidiomycetous yeasts, with particular emphasis on the titanization process. The phenomenon of titanization as a process of a specific morphological transformation, like Titan cells, are completely new terms in Polish literature, which will be introduced to readers here. We live in a post-antibiotic era where the lack of effective and non-toxic drugs affects patients all over the world. Specifically, the availability of only fluconazole, amphotericin B and flucytosine in therapy of cryptococcosis constitutes a significant limitation. For this reason, research on the virulence factors of Cryptococcus spp. will allow to find new effective antimycotics, including inhibitors of the titanization process.

Keywords

  • cryptococcosis
  • historical outline
  • Titan cells
  • titanization process
  • virulence factors

Słowa kluczowe

  • kryptokokoza
  • zarys historyczny
  • komórki tytan
  • proces tytanizacji
  • czynniki wirulencji
Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Przemysław Zięba: Taxonomy of dermatophytes – the classification systems may change but the identification problems remain the same.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 261 - 261

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Mariusz Dyląg: Molekularne metody diagnostyki dermatomykoz – przegląd dostępnych technik oraz ocena ich zalet i wad w implementacji do rutynowego stosowania.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 262 - 262

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Dominik Łagowski, Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Mechanizmy powstawania oporności dermatofitów na substancje przeciwgrzybicze.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 263 - 263

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Zastosowanie techniki MALDI-TOF MS do identyfikacji dermatofitów.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 264 - 264

Abstract

Open Access

RETRACTION OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Mariusz Dyląg, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Ludzki mykobiom w stanach normobiozy i dysbiozy– charakterystyka i metody analizy.

Published Online: 30 Oct 2022
Page range: 265 - 265

Abstract

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