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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 3 (January 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

10 Articles
access type Open Access

Microbiome Of The Women’S Genital System

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 227 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The genital system of women has been colonized by various species of microorganisms since the beginning of life. In the postnatal period, the method of birth is important; when a child is born naturally, passing the female genital tract, it acquires bacteria present in the mother’s vagina, and when through the cesarean section, the child’s organism is first colonized by the mother’s skin microbiota and hospital strains. In female newborns during the first days after the natural birth, the presence of Lactobacillus rods, which acidify the vagina, is readily observed. Later, however, they disappear and during the childhood period, the pH of the vagina becomes alkaline. Only in the period of puberty and full puberty, as a result of the increase in the level of estrogen in the female body, the amount of Lactobacillus strains increases and this continues up to the menopause period, when pathogenic strains begin to dominate. The female vagina is home to not only numerous bacteria, but also fungi, including mainly Candida yeast and filamentous fungi at a lower extent. Dysbiosis of the vagina may be caused by the predominance of pathogenic bacteria over Lactobacillus, resulting in bacterial vaginosis or excess of Candida yeast, resulting in candidiasis. An effective method leading to the homeostasis of the female sexual system is the use of vaginal probiotics, which should consist of strains characteristic to a given female population.

1. Introduction. 2. Microbiome of the baby in the prenatal and postnatal period. 3. Lactobacillus genus as the dominant microbiota of the female genital system. 4. Mycobiome of the female vagina. 5. Vaginal probiotics. 6. Summary

Key words

  • microbiome
  • mycobiome
  • vaginal probiotics
  • genital system of women

Słowa kluczowe

  • mikrobiom
  • mykobiom
  • probiotyki dopochwowe
  • układ płciowy kobiet
access type Open Access

Gut Microbiota In Chronic Kidney Disease

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 237 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

In health, the relationship between gut microflora and the host is of a mutualistic kind. Microbiota offers many benefits to the host, including harvesting energy, regulating host immunity, and the synthesis of vitamins. Alteration in gut microflora can lead to homeostasis disruption and development of various diseases. Dysbiosis is commonly observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutrient processing by gut microbiota results in the production of some uremic toxins, and these accumulate in CKD causing deleterious effects. Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier, which is also seen in CKD contributes to the development of the uremic state. These factors are associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and therefore are involved in CKD-related complications, including disease progression, cardiovascular disease, anemia, mineral-metabolism, and insulin resistance. This review describes connections between altered gut microflora and development of CKD and its complications, as well as possible therapeutic options.

1. Microbiota – short characteristic. 2. Mechanisms leading to alterations in gut microbiota and their effects on intestinal barrier permeability. 3. Causes of chronic kidney disease progression related to gut microbiota alterations. 4. Complications of chronic kidney disease related to gut microbiota alterations. 4.1. Cardiovascular disease. 4.2. Anemia. 4.3. Bone metabolism disorders. 4.4. Insulin resistance in CKD. 5. Therapeutic options. 6. Summary

Key words

  • intestinal barrier
  • dysbiosis
  • gut microflora
  • microbiota
  • chronic kidney disease

Słowa kluczowe

  • bariera jelitowa
  • dysbioza
  • flora jelitowa
  • mikrobiota
  • przewlekła choroba nerek
access type Open Access

The Role Of The Stringent Components In The Regulation Of Virulence

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 247 - 258

Abstract

Streszczenie

Celem istnienia każdego organizmu żywego jest przetrwanie i przekazanie materiału genetycznego komórkom potomnym. Patogen po infekcji gospodarza musi pokonać jego barierę obronną. Wykorzystuje do tego cechy związane z wirulencją, takie jak możliwości inwazji komórek i tkanek, przywieranie do powierzchni, wytwarzanie toksyn. Liczne patogeny łączą swoje szlaki wirulencji z ogólnymi mechanizmami umożliwiającymi adaptację do zmieniających się warunków środowiska. Wiele z nich wykorzystuje w tym celu globalny mechanizm reakcji bakterii na stany stresu – odpowiedź ścisłą. W artykule omówiono, w jaki sposób komponenty odpowiedzi ścisłej wpływają na wirulencję bakterii patogennych.

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Metabolizm (p)ppGpp. 2.1. Cele regulatorowe (p)ppGpp. 3. Wirulencja a adaptacja do niekorzystnych warunków środowiska. 4. Udział odpowiedzi ścisłej w wirulencji bakterii Gram-ujemnych. 4.1. Escherichia coli EHEC. 4.2. Escherichia coli UPEC. 4.3. Shigella flexneri. 4.4. Vibrio cholerae. 4.5. Salmonella enterica. 4.6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 4.7. Francisella tularensis. 4.8. Bordetella pertussis. 5. Udział odpowiedzi ścisłej w wirulencji u bakterii Gram-dodatnich. 5.1. Enterococcus faecalis. 5.2. Bacillus anthracis. 5.3. Staphylococcus aureus. 5.4. Streptococcus pyogenes. 5.5. Listeria monocytogenes. 6. Wpływ odpowiedzi ścisłej na wirulencję Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 7. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • pathogenic bacteria
  • virulence factors
  • stringent response
  • (p)ppGpp

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie patogenne
  • czynniki wirulencji
  • odpowiedź ścisła
  • (p)ppGpp
access type Open Access

Antibiotic Resistance Of Bacteria A Growing Threat For Animals And Public Health

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 259 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

The major aspect of the consequences of antibiotic resistance usually concerns people. The animals are often seen as a source of pathogens or resistance genes implying a potential risk of their transmission to humans and thereby a potential hazard on public health. Despite the fact that transmission of resistant pathogens from animals to humans is possible we must also recognize that the animals for veterinarians are patients, which suffer from different bacterial infections, and require antibiotic treatment. Similarly to human infections, loss of effective therapy causes suffering for the affected animals, negative emotional and social effects on their owners, economic losses, and subsequently contributes to social costs. Infections in humans and animals with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), as well as with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have rapidly emerged worldwide. Most of these bacteria, usually in a high density, inhabit the respective body compartments of animal and human hosts and are in close contact with each other. In such conditions genetic material can be transmitted between different bacteria, often belonging to phylogenetically distant taxons. Staphylococci harbor a wide variety of resistance genes and resistance-mediating mutations. Many of them are located on the same plasmid or SCCmec cassette. MRSP originates from animal reservoirs. It is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. However, the transmission of this species is limited. The population of MRSP is highly diverse and include several clonal complexes (CCs) usually exhibiting specific antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative rods is also a grooving issue in veterinary medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a common problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and many others. ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli strains are found both in companion and food-producing animals as well as in food of animal origin. Reports of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals include E. coli Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In a single case, the carbapenemase VIM-1 producing strains of Salmonella Infantis and E. coli were recovered from diseased piglet and fattening pigs, respectively.

1. Introduction. 2. Problems of antibiotic therapy in animals. 3. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci. 4. Antibiotic resistance of selected Gram-negative rods. 5. Data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 6. Concluding remarks

Key words

  • antibiotic resistance of bacteria pathogenic to animals
  • antibiotic resistance of staphylococci
  • antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative rods
  • spread of antibiotic resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność bakterii chorobotwórczych dla zwierząt
  • antybiotykooporność gronkowców
  • antybiotykooporność Gram-ujemnych pałeczek
  • szerzenie się antybiotykooporności
access type Open Access

Carbapenemase Of Intestinal Rods – The Beginning Of Post-Antibiotic Era?

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 271 - 289

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years in Poland as well as globally at an alarming rate, the number of bacteria producing mechanisms of antibiotic resistance has been increased. The major source of concern is the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Carbapenems are considered as last resort drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. At the present time the greatest menaces to public health are strains producing KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases), NDM (New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase) and OXA-48 (Oxacillinase-48). Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales have been resistant to most and sometimes even to all drugs that would be considered for treatment. Therefore, the accurate therapeutic options for the treatment of infections due to CRE strains are limited to the following antibiotics: colistin, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and aminoglycosides. Moreover, combination therapy containing two or more antibiotics has been recommended for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales. Due to the rapid spread of carbapenem-resistant strains and the lack of new antibiotic drug development, there is an urgent need to broaden our knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance.

1. Introduction. 2. Carbapenemases. 2.1. Metallo-β-lactamases. 2.2. Class A Carbapenemases. 2.3. Class D Carbapenemases (OXA). 3. Review of antibiotic treatment options of infections due to carbapenem-resistant strains. 3.1. Colistin. 3.2. Fosfomycin. 3.3. Tigecycline. 3.4. Aminoglycosides. 3.5. Carbapenems. 3.6. Mechanism of NDM – likely antibiotic/ chemotherapeutics could be used in the therapy. 3.7. Mechanism of KPC – likely antibiotic/ chemotherapeutics could be used in the therapy. 3.8. Mechanism of OXA-48 – likely antibiotic/ chemotherapeutics could be used in the therapy. 4. Summary

Key words

  • Carbapenemases
  • KPC
  • NDM
  • OXA-48
  • multidrug resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • Karbapenemazy
  • KPC
  • NDM
  • OXA-48
  • wielolekooporność
access type Open Access

Possibilities Of Prevention And Treatment Of Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Including New Drugs And Compounds With Potential Application

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 291 - 299

Abstract

Abstract

Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) or human herpesvirus 5 (HHV5) is one of the most common pathogens. Studies indicate the presence of infection in 60–100% of individuals. The ability to cause asymptomatic, infection and a latency promotes the persistence and spread of the virus. hCMV infection is usually asymptomatic and does not require treatment, but in some cases especially in immunocompromised persons (e.g., transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancies, untreated HIV infected individuals) symptoms can be serious and life-threatening. The paper presents drugs currently used for treatment or prevention of hCMV infection, as well as the prospect of new treatment options. Currently, ganciclovir or valganciclovir are used as the first-line drugs and foscarnet and cidofovir are used alternatively. These drugs usually allow to control hCMV infections, however, there are important limitations. These include the toxicity and the possibility of the development of resistance, including the cross-resistance to all four drugs because they have a common mechanism of action, inhibition of viral DNA polymerase. Therefore, the creation of new drugs, with different mechanisms of action, lower toxicity and better pharmacokinetic parameters is important. Recently, the new drug, letermovir have been registered. Letermovir acts as hCMV DNA terminase inhibitor and due to the different mechanism of action the drug is active against hCMV strains resistant to DNA polymerase inhibitors, and potentially can act synergistically with them. The other drugs that are in the research stage or clinical studies include: brincidofovir, a cidofovir derivative, maribavir, a competitive inhibitor of ATP, cyclopropavir, a guanosine analog and antiviral peptides.

1. Introduction – epidemiology of hCMV infections and prophylaxis schemes. 2. Drugs approved for use in the prevention and treatment of hCMV infections. 2.1. Nucleoside analogues: ganciclovir and valganciclovir. 2.2. Foscarnet. 2.3. Cidofovir. 2.4. Letermovir. 3. Compounds with potential use in the treatment of hCMV infections. 3.1. Brincidofovir. 3.2. Maribavir. 3.3. Cyclopropavir 3.4. Antiviral peptides. 4. Summary

Key words

  • hCMV
  • nucleoside analoques
  • ganciclovir
  • letermovir

Słowa kluczowe

  • hCMV
  • analogi nukleozydów
  • gancyklowir
  • letermowir
access type Open Access

Parechoviruses – Underestimated Risk

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 301 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

Parechoviruses are small, non-enveloped, icosahedral-shaped capsid viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae family. They are characterized by a single-positive-strand genomic RNA and as others RNA viruses have a great potential for genetic variation, the rapid evolution and adaptation. Genus Parechovirus has been established in the 90s and currently, 19 types of human parechoviruses (HPeV) are discovered. They usually cause mild respiratory or gastrointestinal illness, mainly in young children, but also can cause severe diseases such as encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis and sepsis. Severe HPeV infections in infants are also associated with a risk of long-term complications. Although it is known that HPeV plays a significant role in severe pediatric diseases, routine diagnostics are not performed in clinical practice. No antiviral drugs have been approved for the treatment of HPeV infections, and only symptomatic treatment is available. Increased detection of human parechovirus infection in infants and connection of serious clinical complication with parechovirus infection was the reason why surveillance was established in some countries, while the worldwide extensive surveillance needs to be performed in order to monitor prevalence, genetic diversity, and clinical significance of HPeV. Although the first HPeV strains were discovered 6 decades ago, recognition of HPeV biology, epidemiology, evolution and pathogenicity still requires more research to appreciate the risk for public health that these small viruses can be.

1. Introduction. 2. Classification, structure and replication. 3. Cellular receptors and HPeV variability. 4. Course of infection 5. HPeV types in the world 6. Diagnosis 7. Pathogenesis 8. Summary

Key words

  • childhood diseases
  • parechoviruses
  • sepsis – like virus illness
  • meningitis

Słowa kluczowe

  • choroby wieku dziecięcego
  • parechowirusy
  • sepsa w przebiegu chorób wirusowych
  • zapalenie opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych
access type Open Access

Chitinases As The Key To The Interaction Between Plants And Microorganisms

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 317 - 327

Abstract

Abstract

Chitin is the main structural component of fungal cells and of the exoskeletons of insects. Plant and bacterial cells are equipped with chitinases, enzymes that break down chitin. Chitinases participate in many interactions between organisms, including symbiosis and antagonism. These interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. Additionally, due to the common occupation of habitat, fungi and bacteria engage in complex interactions that lead to critical changes in the behavior of microorganisms like endosymbiotic bacteria of mycorrhizal fungi. Thus, chitinases are of interest in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology. The present review describes the role of plant and bacterial chitinases in mutual interactions.

1. Introduction. 2. Differentiation of chitinases. 3. Chitinases in interactions with the environment. 3.1. Plant chitinases in interactions with microorganisms. 3.2. Bacterial chitinases in interactions with other microorganisms. 4. Practical application of chitinases. 5. Summary

Key words

  • chitinases
  • microbiological interactions
  • biotic and abiotic stress
  • symbiosis
  • fungal pathogens
  • plant defense response

Słowa kluczowe

  • chitynazy
  • interakcje mikrobiologiczne
  • stres biotyczny i abiotyczny
  • symbioza
  • patogeny grzybowe
  • odporność roślin
access type Open Access

Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate As An Example Of A Biopolymer Produced By Methanotrophic Bacteria

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 329 - 338

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this review paper is to present the current state of knowledge about poly-3-hydroxybutyrate produced by methanotrophic bacteria. Methanotrophs are a large group of microorganisms, which live in different kinds of environment, but they preferably occupy places with high methane production, such as swamps, peat bogs, rice fields, or widely understood geological deposits. Methanotrophic bacteria are an important object of research for specialists of environmental biotechnology, are increasingly identified in environmental samples. Methanotrophs are Gram-negative microorganisms, they belonging to the group of Proteobacteria and classified as methylotrophs. In their metabolic cycle, they use methane as the main source of coal and energy. PHB is a linear polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, PHB is accumulated in microorganisms during physiological stress, triggered by the deficit of biogenic elements, such as nitrogen or phosphorus and when the concentration of carbon source is high. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate belongs to a large group of biodegradable polymers known as polyhydroxyalkanoates. PHB has a similar physico-chemical properties as conventional polymers. PHB is environmentally friendly due to the fast biodegradation and production non-toxic waste during degradation. For this reason poli-3-hydroxybutyrate is an interesting alternative to petrochemical polymers. PHB found a lot of applications in industry, medicine and pharmacy.

1. Introduction. 2. General characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria. 3. Biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by methanotrophic bacteria. 4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate characteristic. 5. Application of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. 6. Biodegradation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in the environment. 7. Summary

Key words

  • methanotrophic bacteria
  • biopolymers
  • poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
  • polyhydroxyalkanoates

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie metanotroficzne
  • biopolimery
  • poli-3-hydroksymaślan
  • polihydroksyalkanolany
access type Open Access

Biosynthesis And The Possibility Of Using Ectoine And Hydroxyectoine In Health Care

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 339 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

The global production of L-amino acids is largely based on microbiological synthesis. The largest bioproduction concerns L-glutamic acid (1.5 million tons per year), and L-lysine (850,000 tons per year). Among other amino acids, ectoine and hydroxyectoine are mentioned in the growing demand. Currently, the main producer of ectoine based on the biotechnology process is the German company Bitop. The organism used in the ectoine production is Halomonas elongata isolated from a solar salt facility on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. The production of ectoine described in the literature is based on the so-called “milking” process. The great demand for amino acids is related to their properties and potential use. Ectoine, as a kosmotropic substance, has the property of stabilizing the structure of water molecules. Just like other osmolytes in aqueous solutions, ectoine increases the hydration of macromolecules, preventing them from denaturation. The industrial use of ectoine is based mainly on the ability to protect the skin and alleviate its inflammation but also applies to other, broad possibilities of its application in biotechnology, cosmetology, medicine and pharmacy.

1. Introduction. 2. Properties of ectoine. 3. The use of ectoine. 4. Chemical and biotechnological production of ectoine 5. Microorganisms synthesizing ectoine. 5.1. Methanotrophic bacteria. 6. Summary

Słowa kluczowe

  • ektoina
  • halofile
  • hydroksyektoina
  • metanotrofy

Key words

  • ectoine
  • halophile
  • hydroxyectoine
  • methanotrophs
access type Open Access

Antibiotic Resistance Of Bacteria A Growing Threat For Animals And Public Health

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 259 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

The major aspect of the consequences of antibiotic resistance usually concerns people. The animals are often seen as a source of pathogens or resistance genes implying a potential risk of their transmission to humans and thereby a potential hazard on public health. Despite the fact that transmission of resistant pathogens from animals to humans is possible we must also recognize that the animals for veterinarians are patients, which suffer from different bacterial infections, and require antibiotic treatment. Similarly to human infections, loss of effective therapy causes suffering for the affected animals, negative emotional and social effects on their owners, economic losses, and subsequently contributes to social costs. Infections in humans and animals with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), as well as with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have rapidly emerged worldwide. Most of these bacteria, usually in a high density, inhabit the respective body compartments of animal and human hosts and are in close contact with each other. In such conditions genetic material can be transmitted between different bacteria, often belonging to phylogenetically distant taxons. Staphylococci harbor a wide variety of resistance genes and resistance-mediating mutations. Many of them are located on the same plasmid or SCCmec cassette. MRSP originates from animal reservoirs. It is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. However, the transmission of this species is limited. The population of MRSP is highly diverse and include several clonal complexes (CCs) usually exhibiting specific antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative rods is also a grooving issue in veterinary medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a common problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and many others. ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli strains are found both in companion and food-producing animals as well as in food of animal origin. Reports of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals include E. coli Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In a single case, the carbapenemase VIM-1 producing strains of Salmonella Infantis and E. coli were recovered from diseased piglet and fattening pigs, respectively.

1. Introduction. 2. Problems of antibiotic therapy in animals. 3. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci. 4. Antibiotic resistance of selected Gram-negative rods. 5. Data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 6. Concluding remarks

Key words

  • antibiotic resistance of bacteria pathogenic to animals
  • antibiotic resistance of staphylococci
  • antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative rods
  • spread of antibiotic resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność bakterii chorobotwórczych dla zwierząt
  • antybiotykooporność gronkowców
  • antybiotykooporność Gram-ujemnych pałeczek
  • szerzenie się antybiotykooporności
10 Articles
access type Open Access

Microbiome Of The Women’S Genital System

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 227 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The genital system of women has been colonized by various species of microorganisms since the beginning of life. In the postnatal period, the method of birth is important; when a child is born naturally, passing the female genital tract, it acquires bacteria present in the mother’s vagina, and when through the cesarean section, the child’s organism is first colonized by the mother’s skin microbiota and hospital strains. In female newborns during the first days after the natural birth, the presence of Lactobacillus rods, which acidify the vagina, is readily observed. Later, however, they disappear and during the childhood period, the pH of the vagina becomes alkaline. Only in the period of puberty and full puberty, as a result of the increase in the level of estrogen in the female body, the amount of Lactobacillus strains increases and this continues up to the menopause period, when pathogenic strains begin to dominate. The female vagina is home to not only numerous bacteria, but also fungi, including mainly Candida yeast and filamentous fungi at a lower extent. Dysbiosis of the vagina may be caused by the predominance of pathogenic bacteria over Lactobacillus, resulting in bacterial vaginosis or excess of Candida yeast, resulting in candidiasis. An effective method leading to the homeostasis of the female sexual system is the use of vaginal probiotics, which should consist of strains characteristic to a given female population.

1. Introduction. 2. Microbiome of the baby in the prenatal and postnatal period. 3. Lactobacillus genus as the dominant microbiota of the female genital system. 4. Mycobiome of the female vagina. 5. Vaginal probiotics. 6. Summary

Key words

  • microbiome
  • mycobiome
  • vaginal probiotics
  • genital system of women

Słowa kluczowe

  • mikrobiom
  • mykobiom
  • probiotyki dopochwowe
  • układ płciowy kobiet
access type Open Access

Gut Microbiota In Chronic Kidney Disease

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 237 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

In health, the relationship between gut microflora and the host is of a mutualistic kind. Microbiota offers many benefits to the host, including harvesting energy, regulating host immunity, and the synthesis of vitamins. Alteration in gut microflora can lead to homeostasis disruption and development of various diseases. Dysbiosis is commonly observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutrient processing by gut microbiota results in the production of some uremic toxins, and these accumulate in CKD causing deleterious effects. Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier, which is also seen in CKD contributes to the development of the uremic state. These factors are associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and therefore are involved in CKD-related complications, including disease progression, cardiovascular disease, anemia, mineral-metabolism, and insulin resistance. This review describes connections between altered gut microflora and development of CKD and its complications, as well as possible therapeutic options.

1. Microbiota – short characteristic. 2. Mechanisms leading to alterations in gut microbiota and their effects on intestinal barrier permeability. 3. Causes of chronic kidney disease progression related to gut microbiota alterations. 4. Complications of chronic kidney disease related to gut microbiota alterations. 4.1. Cardiovascular disease. 4.2. Anemia. 4.3. Bone metabolism disorders. 4.4. Insulin resistance in CKD. 5. Therapeutic options. 6. Summary

Key words

  • intestinal barrier
  • dysbiosis
  • gut microflora
  • microbiota
  • chronic kidney disease

Słowa kluczowe

  • bariera jelitowa
  • dysbioza
  • flora jelitowa
  • mikrobiota
  • przewlekła choroba nerek
access type Open Access

The Role Of The Stringent Components In The Regulation Of Virulence

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 247 - 258

Abstract

Streszczenie

Celem istnienia każdego organizmu żywego jest przetrwanie i przekazanie materiału genetycznego komórkom potomnym. Patogen po infekcji gospodarza musi pokonać jego barierę obronną. Wykorzystuje do tego cechy związane z wirulencją, takie jak możliwości inwazji komórek i tkanek, przywieranie do powierzchni, wytwarzanie toksyn. Liczne patogeny łączą swoje szlaki wirulencji z ogólnymi mechanizmami umożliwiającymi adaptację do zmieniających się warunków środowiska. Wiele z nich wykorzystuje w tym celu globalny mechanizm reakcji bakterii na stany stresu – odpowiedź ścisłą. W artykule omówiono, w jaki sposób komponenty odpowiedzi ścisłej wpływają na wirulencję bakterii patogennych.

1. Wprowadzenie. 2. Metabolizm (p)ppGpp. 2.1. Cele regulatorowe (p)ppGpp. 3. Wirulencja a adaptacja do niekorzystnych warunków środowiska. 4. Udział odpowiedzi ścisłej w wirulencji bakterii Gram-ujemnych. 4.1. Escherichia coli EHEC. 4.2. Escherichia coli UPEC. 4.3. Shigella flexneri. 4.4. Vibrio cholerae. 4.5. Salmonella enterica. 4.6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 4.7. Francisella tularensis. 4.8. Bordetella pertussis. 5. Udział odpowiedzi ścisłej w wirulencji u bakterii Gram-dodatnich. 5.1. Enterococcus faecalis. 5.2. Bacillus anthracis. 5.3. Staphylococcus aureus. 5.4. Streptococcus pyogenes. 5.5. Listeria monocytogenes. 6. Wpływ odpowiedzi ścisłej na wirulencję Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 7. Podsumowanie

Key words

  • pathogenic bacteria
  • virulence factors
  • stringent response
  • (p)ppGpp

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie patogenne
  • czynniki wirulencji
  • odpowiedź ścisła
  • (p)ppGpp
access type Open Access

Antibiotic Resistance Of Bacteria A Growing Threat For Animals And Public Health

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 259 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

The major aspect of the consequences of antibiotic resistance usually concerns people. The animals are often seen as a source of pathogens or resistance genes implying a potential risk of their transmission to humans and thereby a potential hazard on public health. Despite the fact that transmission of resistant pathogens from animals to humans is possible we must also recognize that the animals for veterinarians are patients, which suffer from different bacterial infections, and require antibiotic treatment. Similarly to human infections, loss of effective therapy causes suffering for the affected animals, negative emotional and social effects on their owners, economic losses, and subsequently contributes to social costs. Infections in humans and animals with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), as well as with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have rapidly emerged worldwide. Most of these bacteria, usually in a high density, inhabit the respective body compartments of animal and human hosts and are in close contact with each other. In such conditions genetic material can be transmitted between different bacteria, often belonging to phylogenetically distant taxons. Staphylococci harbor a wide variety of resistance genes and resistance-mediating mutations. Many of them are located on the same plasmid or SCCmec cassette. MRSP originates from animal reservoirs. It is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. However, the transmission of this species is limited. The population of MRSP is highly diverse and include several clonal complexes (CCs) usually exhibiting specific antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative rods is also a grooving issue in veterinary medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a common problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and many others. ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli strains are found both in companion and food-producing animals as well as in food of animal origin. Reports of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals include E. coli Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In a single case, the carbapenemase VIM-1 producing strains of Salmonella Infantis and E. coli were recovered from diseased piglet and fattening pigs, respectively.

1. Introduction. 2. Problems of antibiotic therapy in animals. 3. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci. 4. Antibiotic resistance of selected Gram-negative rods. 5. Data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 6. Concluding remarks

Key words

  • antibiotic resistance of bacteria pathogenic to animals
  • antibiotic resistance of staphylococci
  • antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative rods
  • spread of antibiotic resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność bakterii chorobotwórczych dla zwierząt
  • antybiotykooporność gronkowców
  • antybiotykooporność Gram-ujemnych pałeczek
  • szerzenie się antybiotykooporności
access type Open Access

Carbapenemase Of Intestinal Rods – The Beginning Of Post-Antibiotic Era?

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 271 - 289

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years in Poland as well as globally at an alarming rate, the number of bacteria producing mechanisms of antibiotic resistance has been increased. The major source of concern is the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Carbapenems are considered as last resort drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. At the present time the greatest menaces to public health are strains producing KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases), NDM (New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase) and OXA-48 (Oxacillinase-48). Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales have been resistant to most and sometimes even to all drugs that would be considered for treatment. Therefore, the accurate therapeutic options for the treatment of infections due to CRE strains are limited to the following antibiotics: colistin, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and aminoglycosides. Moreover, combination therapy containing two or more antibiotics has been recommended for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales. Due to the rapid spread of carbapenem-resistant strains and the lack of new antibiotic drug development, there is an urgent need to broaden our knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance.

1. Introduction. 2. Carbapenemases. 2.1. Metallo-β-lactamases. 2.2. Class A Carbapenemases. 2.3. Class D Carbapenemases (OXA). 3. Review of antibiotic treatment options of infections due to carbapenem-resistant strains. 3.1. Colistin. 3.2. Fosfomycin. 3.3. Tigecycline. 3.4. Aminoglycosides. 3.5. Carbapenems. 3.6. Mechanism of NDM – likely antibiotic/ chemotherapeutics could be used in the therapy. 3.7. Mechanism of KPC – likely antibiotic/ chemotherapeutics could be used in the therapy. 3.8. Mechanism of OXA-48 – likely antibiotic/ chemotherapeutics could be used in the therapy. 4. Summary

Key words

  • Carbapenemases
  • KPC
  • NDM
  • OXA-48
  • multidrug resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • Karbapenemazy
  • KPC
  • NDM
  • OXA-48
  • wielolekooporność
access type Open Access

Possibilities Of Prevention And Treatment Of Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Including New Drugs And Compounds With Potential Application

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 291 - 299

Abstract

Abstract

Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) or human herpesvirus 5 (HHV5) is one of the most common pathogens. Studies indicate the presence of infection in 60–100% of individuals. The ability to cause asymptomatic, infection and a latency promotes the persistence and spread of the virus. hCMV infection is usually asymptomatic and does not require treatment, but in some cases especially in immunocompromised persons (e.g., transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancies, untreated HIV infected individuals) symptoms can be serious and life-threatening. The paper presents drugs currently used for treatment or prevention of hCMV infection, as well as the prospect of new treatment options. Currently, ganciclovir or valganciclovir are used as the first-line drugs and foscarnet and cidofovir are used alternatively. These drugs usually allow to control hCMV infections, however, there are important limitations. These include the toxicity and the possibility of the development of resistance, including the cross-resistance to all four drugs because they have a common mechanism of action, inhibition of viral DNA polymerase. Therefore, the creation of new drugs, with different mechanisms of action, lower toxicity and better pharmacokinetic parameters is important. Recently, the new drug, letermovir have been registered. Letermovir acts as hCMV DNA terminase inhibitor and due to the different mechanism of action the drug is active against hCMV strains resistant to DNA polymerase inhibitors, and potentially can act synergistically with them. The other drugs that are in the research stage or clinical studies include: brincidofovir, a cidofovir derivative, maribavir, a competitive inhibitor of ATP, cyclopropavir, a guanosine analog and antiviral peptides.

1. Introduction – epidemiology of hCMV infections and prophylaxis schemes. 2. Drugs approved for use in the prevention and treatment of hCMV infections. 2.1. Nucleoside analogues: ganciclovir and valganciclovir. 2.2. Foscarnet. 2.3. Cidofovir. 2.4. Letermovir. 3. Compounds with potential use in the treatment of hCMV infections. 3.1. Brincidofovir. 3.2. Maribavir. 3.3. Cyclopropavir 3.4. Antiviral peptides. 4. Summary

Key words

  • hCMV
  • nucleoside analoques
  • ganciclovir
  • letermovir

Słowa kluczowe

  • hCMV
  • analogi nukleozydów
  • gancyklowir
  • letermowir
access type Open Access

Parechoviruses – Underestimated Risk

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 301 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

Parechoviruses are small, non-enveloped, icosahedral-shaped capsid viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae family. They are characterized by a single-positive-strand genomic RNA and as others RNA viruses have a great potential for genetic variation, the rapid evolution and adaptation. Genus Parechovirus has been established in the 90s and currently, 19 types of human parechoviruses (HPeV) are discovered. They usually cause mild respiratory or gastrointestinal illness, mainly in young children, but also can cause severe diseases such as encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis and sepsis. Severe HPeV infections in infants are also associated with a risk of long-term complications. Although it is known that HPeV plays a significant role in severe pediatric diseases, routine diagnostics are not performed in clinical practice. No antiviral drugs have been approved for the treatment of HPeV infections, and only symptomatic treatment is available. Increased detection of human parechovirus infection in infants and connection of serious clinical complication with parechovirus infection was the reason why surveillance was established in some countries, while the worldwide extensive surveillance needs to be performed in order to monitor prevalence, genetic diversity, and clinical significance of HPeV. Although the first HPeV strains were discovered 6 decades ago, recognition of HPeV biology, epidemiology, evolution and pathogenicity still requires more research to appreciate the risk for public health that these small viruses can be.

1. Introduction. 2. Classification, structure and replication. 3. Cellular receptors and HPeV variability. 4. Course of infection 5. HPeV types in the world 6. Diagnosis 7. Pathogenesis 8. Summary

Key words

  • childhood diseases
  • parechoviruses
  • sepsis – like virus illness
  • meningitis

Słowa kluczowe

  • choroby wieku dziecięcego
  • parechowirusy
  • sepsa w przebiegu chorób wirusowych
  • zapalenie opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych
access type Open Access

Chitinases As The Key To The Interaction Between Plants And Microorganisms

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 317 - 327

Abstract

Abstract

Chitin is the main structural component of fungal cells and of the exoskeletons of insects. Plant and bacterial cells are equipped with chitinases, enzymes that break down chitin. Chitinases participate in many interactions between organisms, including symbiosis and antagonism. These interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. Additionally, due to the common occupation of habitat, fungi and bacteria engage in complex interactions that lead to critical changes in the behavior of microorganisms like endosymbiotic bacteria of mycorrhizal fungi. Thus, chitinases are of interest in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology. The present review describes the role of plant and bacterial chitinases in mutual interactions.

1. Introduction. 2. Differentiation of chitinases. 3. Chitinases in interactions with the environment. 3.1. Plant chitinases in interactions with microorganisms. 3.2. Bacterial chitinases in interactions with other microorganisms. 4. Practical application of chitinases. 5. Summary

Key words

  • chitinases
  • microbiological interactions
  • biotic and abiotic stress
  • symbiosis
  • fungal pathogens
  • plant defense response

Słowa kluczowe

  • chitynazy
  • interakcje mikrobiologiczne
  • stres biotyczny i abiotyczny
  • symbioza
  • patogeny grzybowe
  • odporność roślin
access type Open Access

Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate As An Example Of A Biopolymer Produced By Methanotrophic Bacteria

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 329 - 338

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this review paper is to present the current state of knowledge about poly-3-hydroxybutyrate produced by methanotrophic bacteria. Methanotrophs are a large group of microorganisms, which live in different kinds of environment, but they preferably occupy places with high methane production, such as swamps, peat bogs, rice fields, or widely understood geological deposits. Methanotrophic bacteria are an important object of research for specialists of environmental biotechnology, are increasingly identified in environmental samples. Methanotrophs are Gram-negative microorganisms, they belonging to the group of Proteobacteria and classified as methylotrophs. In their metabolic cycle, they use methane as the main source of coal and energy. PHB is a linear polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, PHB is accumulated in microorganisms during physiological stress, triggered by the deficit of biogenic elements, such as nitrogen or phosphorus and when the concentration of carbon source is high. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate belongs to a large group of biodegradable polymers known as polyhydroxyalkanoates. PHB has a similar physico-chemical properties as conventional polymers. PHB is environmentally friendly due to the fast biodegradation and production non-toxic waste during degradation. For this reason poli-3-hydroxybutyrate is an interesting alternative to petrochemical polymers. PHB found a lot of applications in industry, medicine and pharmacy.

1. Introduction. 2. General characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria. 3. Biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by methanotrophic bacteria. 4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate characteristic. 5. Application of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. 6. Biodegradation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in the environment. 7. Summary

Key words

  • methanotrophic bacteria
  • biopolymers
  • poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
  • polyhydroxyalkanoates

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie metanotroficzne
  • biopolimery
  • poli-3-hydroksymaślan
  • polihydroksyalkanolany
access type Open Access

Biosynthesis And The Possibility Of Using Ectoine And Hydroxyectoine In Health Care

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 339 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

The global production of L-amino acids is largely based on microbiological synthesis. The largest bioproduction concerns L-glutamic acid (1.5 million tons per year), and L-lysine (850,000 tons per year). Among other amino acids, ectoine and hydroxyectoine are mentioned in the growing demand. Currently, the main producer of ectoine based on the biotechnology process is the German company Bitop. The organism used in the ectoine production is Halomonas elongata isolated from a solar salt facility on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. The production of ectoine described in the literature is based on the so-called “milking” process. The great demand for amino acids is related to their properties and potential use. Ectoine, as a kosmotropic substance, has the property of stabilizing the structure of water molecules. Just like other osmolytes in aqueous solutions, ectoine increases the hydration of macromolecules, preventing them from denaturation. The industrial use of ectoine is based mainly on the ability to protect the skin and alleviate its inflammation but also applies to other, broad possibilities of its application in biotechnology, cosmetology, medicine and pharmacy.

1. Introduction. 2. Properties of ectoine. 3. The use of ectoine. 4. Chemical and biotechnological production of ectoine 5. Microorganisms synthesizing ectoine. 5.1. Methanotrophic bacteria. 6. Summary

Słowa kluczowe

  • ektoina
  • halofile
  • hydroksyektoina
  • metanotrofy

Key words

  • ectoine
  • halophile
  • hydroxyectoine
  • methanotrophs
access type Open Access

Antibiotic Resistance Of Bacteria A Growing Threat For Animals And Public Health

Published Online: 05 Oct 2019
Page range: 259 - 270

Abstract

Abstract

The major aspect of the consequences of antibiotic resistance usually concerns people. The animals are often seen as a source of pathogens or resistance genes implying a potential risk of their transmission to humans and thereby a potential hazard on public health. Despite the fact that transmission of resistant pathogens from animals to humans is possible we must also recognize that the animals for veterinarians are patients, which suffer from different bacterial infections, and require antibiotic treatment. Similarly to human infections, loss of effective therapy causes suffering for the affected animals, negative emotional and social effects on their owners, economic losses, and subsequently contributes to social costs. Infections in humans and animals with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), as well as with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have rapidly emerged worldwide. Most of these bacteria, usually in a high density, inhabit the respective body compartments of animal and human hosts and are in close contact with each other. In such conditions genetic material can be transmitted between different bacteria, often belonging to phylogenetically distant taxons. Staphylococci harbor a wide variety of resistance genes and resistance-mediating mutations. Many of them are located on the same plasmid or SCCmec cassette. MRSP originates from animal reservoirs. It is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. However, the transmission of this species is limited. The population of MRSP is highly diverse and include several clonal complexes (CCs) usually exhibiting specific antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative rods is also a grooving issue in veterinary medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a common problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and many others. ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli strains are found both in companion and food-producing animals as well as in food of animal origin. Reports of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals include E. coli Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In a single case, the carbapenemase VIM-1 producing strains of Salmonella Infantis and E. coli were recovered from diseased piglet and fattening pigs, respectively.

1. Introduction. 2. Problems of antibiotic therapy in animals. 3. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci. 4. Antibiotic resistance of selected Gram-negative rods. 5. Data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 6. Concluding remarks

Key words

  • antibiotic resistance of bacteria pathogenic to animals
  • antibiotic resistance of staphylococci
  • antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative rods
  • spread of antibiotic resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • antybiotykooporność bakterii chorobotwórczych dla zwierząt
  • antybiotykooporność gronkowców
  • antybiotykooporność Gram-ujemnych pałeczek
  • szerzenie się antybiotykooporności

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