Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Bacteria and Efflux Pump Inhibitors

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 105 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a paramount health concern nowadays. The increasing drug resistance in microbes is due to improper medications or over usage of drugs. Bacteria develop many mechanisms to extrude the antibiotics entering the cell. The most prominent are the efflux pumps (EPs). EPs play a significant role in intrinsic and acquired bacterial resistance, mainly in Gram-negative bacteria. EPs may be unique to one substrate or transport several structurally different compounds (including multi-class antibiotics). These pumps are generally associated with multiple drug resistance (MDR). EPs are energized by a proton motive force and can pump a vast range of detergents, drugs, antibiotics and also β-lactams, which are impermeable to the cytoplasmic membrane. There are five leading efflux transporter families in the prokaryotic kingdom: MF (Major Facilitator), MATE (Multidrug And Toxic Efflux), RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division), SMR (Small Multidrug Resistance) and ABC (ATP Binding Cassette). Apart from the ABC family, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to drive the export of substrates, all other systems use the proton motive force as an energy source. Some molecules known as Efflux Pump Inhibitors (EPI) can inhibit EPs in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EPIs can interfere with the efflux of antimicrobial agents, leading to an increase in the concentration of antibiotics inside the bacterium, thus killing it. Therefore, identifying new EPIs appears to be a promising strategy for countering antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR). This mini-review focuses on the major efflux transporters of the bacteria and the progress in identifying Efflux Pump Inhibitors.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • MDR
  • Multidrug efflux pumps
  • Biofilm
  • Efflux Pump Inhibtor (EPI)
Open Access

A Review of Probiotic Applications in Poultry: Improving Immunity and Having Beneficial Effects on Production and Health

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 115 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

A new class of feed additives and nutritional supplements, known as probiotics, include bacterial, fungal, and yeast cultures from various sources. Overall, probiotics are believed to promote the health and well-being of animals, birds, and humans in a variety of settings. Incorporating probiotics into the diets of cattle and poultry has been demonstrated to improve growth, feed conversion efficiency, immunological responses, and the animal's ability to manage enteric infections. The use of probiotic-enriched chicken feed has been shown to enhance egg production by as much as 30% among laying chickens. Probiotics may be used to fight off harmful microorganisms, create antibacterial compounds (such as bacteriocins or colicins), and alter the immunological response of the host, according to the National Institutes of Health. Pathogenic microbial strains such as Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Aspergillus, and Saccharomyces are employed in the making of chicken products. The use of subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics, to combat or remove harmful bacteria and promote animal growth and feed efficiency has resulted in the accumulation of antibiotic residues in animal feed as well as the emergence of drug-resistant microbes in the feed supply chain. As a result of public health concerns, there has been a renewed emphasis on the use of probiotics in chicken production rather than antibiotics in recent years. This research examines the effects of probiotics and direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) on chicken health and performance, with a particular emphasis on the favourable effects they have on poultry health and performance.

Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Poultry
  • Production
  • Health
  • Immunity
Open Access

Covid-19 Transmission, Risks Factors and Disease Characteristics in Asthmatics Patients

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 125 - 132

Abstract

Abstract Background

The World Health Organizations (WHO) scientific brief on the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and asthma from 2021, states individuals with asthma to be at a higher risk of respiratory infections as recorded in the annual influenza season. However, existing data from the COVID-19 pandemic does not till date establish an association of the disease with asthma. The disease burden of COVID-19 among asthmatic patients has not been very evident. This paucity of information forms the main rationale of our literature review, which is focused on collecting scattered literature around transmission, risks, as well as disease characteristics of COVID-19 among asthmatics world over including Saudi Arabia.

Methodology

This study report has been generated after detailed literature survey using keywords “asthma”, “coronavirus”, “COVID-19” and SARS-CoV-2 including quality high impact publications on relevant focus area through Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed. Publication between year 2019 and 2021 were selected in specific to ensure the focus of the current literature review does not lose relevance in space of time.

Results

Our literature review identified elderly to have been reported to have high susceptibility to COVID-19; the risk being exacerbated among those with comorbidities. Further, no specific directives on asthma being one of the risk factors was found to be reported, especially with the current disease management strategy for COVID-19. The severely diseased COVID-19 patients also have been reported to exhibit increase in multiple cytokines, which may increase airway inflammation and exacerbate asthma attacks. However, contrary literature reports indicate an increase in T cells to reduce the disease impact of COVID-19.

Conclusion

There is paucity in significant evidence as of writing this review article to highlight exclusive negative impact of COVID-19 on asthmatics. Asthma patients however need to be recommended care pertaining to having their controller medication as new data continue to emerge on the clinic-pathological factors of the novel coronavirus.

Keywords

  • asthma
  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • review
  • Saudi Arabia
Open Access

Pertussis and the Red Queen Effect

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 133 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Whooping cough is a contagious and typically childhood disease transmitted via droplets. Pertussis is especially dangerous for infants, but adults have become more susceptible. A pathognomonic symptom of pertussis is a severe spasmodic and unproductive cough that worsens at night and is accompanied by vomiting, apnea and cyanosis. The symptoms among vaccinated children, adolescents and adults, are milder, less characteristic, and therefore more difficult to diagnose. Whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) has been highly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. However, in many countries DTwP vaccines, due to their reactogenicity, have been completely or partly replaced, by acellular pertussis vaccines (DTaP) that contain several purified bacterial protein antigens. In spite of the sustained high coverage of vaccinations, there is an increase of whooping cough cases in all age groups. The main cause of the increase is the lack of full protection from acellular vaccine in preventing transmission of Bordetella pertussis, which is the main etiological factor of whooping cough. Moreover, new diagnostic methods allow to identify other Bordetella species that cause pertussis-like symptoms, i.e. B. parapertussis and B. holmesii. The currently used vaccines do not provide a cross-protection against B. holmesii that has now become the second etiological factor of pertussis. Imperfections of existing vaccines are the reason for an intense development of improved anti-pertussis vaccines. Several research directions can be distinguished, such as identifying new components, designing an acellular vaccine based on the outer membrane vesicles or the renewed interest in whole cell vaccines.

Keywords

  • pertussis
  • whooping cough
  • vaccines

Słowa kluczowe

  • krztusiec
  • szczepionki
5 Articles
Open Access

Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Bacteria and Efflux Pump Inhibitors

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 105 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a paramount health concern nowadays. The increasing drug resistance in microbes is due to improper medications or over usage of drugs. Bacteria develop many mechanisms to extrude the antibiotics entering the cell. The most prominent are the efflux pumps (EPs). EPs play a significant role in intrinsic and acquired bacterial resistance, mainly in Gram-negative bacteria. EPs may be unique to one substrate or transport several structurally different compounds (including multi-class antibiotics). These pumps are generally associated with multiple drug resistance (MDR). EPs are energized by a proton motive force and can pump a vast range of detergents, drugs, antibiotics and also β-lactams, which are impermeable to the cytoplasmic membrane. There are five leading efflux transporter families in the prokaryotic kingdom: MF (Major Facilitator), MATE (Multidrug And Toxic Efflux), RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division), SMR (Small Multidrug Resistance) and ABC (ATP Binding Cassette). Apart from the ABC family, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to drive the export of substrates, all other systems use the proton motive force as an energy source. Some molecules known as Efflux Pump Inhibitors (EPI) can inhibit EPs in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EPIs can interfere with the efflux of antimicrobial agents, leading to an increase in the concentration of antibiotics inside the bacterium, thus killing it. Therefore, identifying new EPIs appears to be a promising strategy for countering antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR). This mini-review focuses on the major efflux transporters of the bacteria and the progress in identifying Efflux Pump Inhibitors.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • MDR
  • Multidrug efflux pumps
  • Biofilm
  • Efflux Pump Inhibtor (EPI)
Open Access

A Review of Probiotic Applications in Poultry: Improving Immunity and Having Beneficial Effects on Production and Health

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 115 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

A new class of feed additives and nutritional supplements, known as probiotics, include bacterial, fungal, and yeast cultures from various sources. Overall, probiotics are believed to promote the health and well-being of animals, birds, and humans in a variety of settings. Incorporating probiotics into the diets of cattle and poultry has been demonstrated to improve growth, feed conversion efficiency, immunological responses, and the animal's ability to manage enteric infections. The use of probiotic-enriched chicken feed has been shown to enhance egg production by as much as 30% among laying chickens. Probiotics may be used to fight off harmful microorganisms, create antibacterial compounds (such as bacteriocins or colicins), and alter the immunological response of the host, according to the National Institutes of Health. Pathogenic microbial strains such as Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Aspergillus, and Saccharomyces are employed in the making of chicken products. The use of subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics, to combat or remove harmful bacteria and promote animal growth and feed efficiency has resulted in the accumulation of antibiotic residues in animal feed as well as the emergence of drug-resistant microbes in the feed supply chain. As a result of public health concerns, there has been a renewed emphasis on the use of probiotics in chicken production rather than antibiotics in recent years. This research examines the effects of probiotics and direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) on chicken health and performance, with a particular emphasis on the favourable effects they have on poultry health and performance.

Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Poultry
  • Production
  • Health
  • Immunity
Open Access

Covid-19 Transmission, Risks Factors and Disease Characteristics in Asthmatics Patients

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 125 - 132

Abstract

Abstract Background

The World Health Organizations (WHO) scientific brief on the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and asthma from 2021, states individuals with asthma to be at a higher risk of respiratory infections as recorded in the annual influenza season. However, existing data from the COVID-19 pandemic does not till date establish an association of the disease with asthma. The disease burden of COVID-19 among asthmatic patients has not been very evident. This paucity of information forms the main rationale of our literature review, which is focused on collecting scattered literature around transmission, risks, as well as disease characteristics of COVID-19 among asthmatics world over including Saudi Arabia.

Methodology

This study report has been generated after detailed literature survey using keywords “asthma”, “coronavirus”, “COVID-19” and SARS-CoV-2 including quality high impact publications on relevant focus area through Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed. Publication between year 2019 and 2021 were selected in specific to ensure the focus of the current literature review does not lose relevance in space of time.

Results

Our literature review identified elderly to have been reported to have high susceptibility to COVID-19; the risk being exacerbated among those with comorbidities. Further, no specific directives on asthma being one of the risk factors was found to be reported, especially with the current disease management strategy for COVID-19. The severely diseased COVID-19 patients also have been reported to exhibit increase in multiple cytokines, which may increase airway inflammation and exacerbate asthma attacks. However, contrary literature reports indicate an increase in T cells to reduce the disease impact of COVID-19.

Conclusion

There is paucity in significant evidence as of writing this review article to highlight exclusive negative impact of COVID-19 on asthmatics. Asthma patients however need to be recommended care pertaining to having their controller medication as new data continue to emerge on the clinic-pathological factors of the novel coronavirus.

Keywords

  • asthma
  • COVID-19
  • pandemic
  • review
  • Saudi Arabia
Open Access

Pertussis and the Red Queen Effect

Published Online: 04 Oct 2022
Page range: 133 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Whooping cough is a contagious and typically childhood disease transmitted via droplets. Pertussis is especially dangerous for infants, but adults have become more susceptible. A pathognomonic symptom of pertussis is a severe spasmodic and unproductive cough that worsens at night and is accompanied by vomiting, apnea and cyanosis. The symptoms among vaccinated children, adolescents and adults, are milder, less characteristic, and therefore more difficult to diagnose. Whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) has been highly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. However, in many countries DTwP vaccines, due to their reactogenicity, have been completely or partly replaced, by acellular pertussis vaccines (DTaP) that contain several purified bacterial protein antigens. In spite of the sustained high coverage of vaccinations, there is an increase of whooping cough cases in all age groups. The main cause of the increase is the lack of full protection from acellular vaccine in preventing transmission of Bordetella pertussis, which is the main etiological factor of whooping cough. Moreover, new diagnostic methods allow to identify other Bordetella species that cause pertussis-like symptoms, i.e. B. parapertussis and B. holmesii. The currently used vaccines do not provide a cross-protection against B. holmesii that has now become the second etiological factor of pertussis. Imperfections of existing vaccines are the reason for an intense development of improved anti-pertussis vaccines. Several research directions can be distinguished, such as identifying new components, designing an acellular vaccine based on the outer membrane vesicles or the renewed interest in whole cell vaccines.

Keywords

  • pertussis
  • whooping cough
  • vaccines

Słowa kluczowe

  • krztusiec
  • szczepionki

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