Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

Volume 60 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

The European Medicines Agency Approved the New Antibacterial Drugs – Response to the 2017 Who Report on the Global Problem of Multi-Drug Resistance

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 249 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance has been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the top ten threats to mankind. In a special report published in 2017, the WHO presented a list of microorganisms for which the search for new therapeutic options is a priority. The highest (critical) priority was given to the search for new antibiotics active against carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as against carbapenem- and third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales strains (so-called critical priority pathogens). Whereas the second (high) priority was given among others to the search for new antibiotics active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Since the publication of the WHO report the European Medicines Agency has approved 6 novel, broad-spectrum antibiotics, from 6 different groups, addressing the priority pathogens to a different extent. Two of them are new combinations of carbapenems with non-β-lactam inhibitors of β-lactamases (active also against carbapenemases), belonging to two novel groups of inhibitors: diazabicyclooctanes (relebactam, combined with imipenem) and boronates (vaborbactam, combined with meropenem). The third new drug is a siderophore cephalosporin (cefiderocol) with an innovative mechanism of penetration into the bacterial cell. The next two antibiotics are the new fluoroquinolone (delafloxacin) and the new tetracycline (eravacycline), designed and synthesized to be more active than older members of these groups. The last innovative antibiotic is lefamulin – the first pleuromutilin approved for systemic use in humans. New approvals have expanded the number of available therapeutic options in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (meropenem/vaborbactam, cefiderocol), complicated intra-abdominal infections (meropenem/vaborbactam, eravacycline), nosocomial pneumonia (meropenem/vaborbactam, imipenem/relebactam), acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (delafloxacin) and community-acquired pneumonia (lefamulin).

Keywords

  • delafloxacin
  • eravacycline
  • β-lactamases inhibitors
  • siderophores
  • vaborbactam

Słowa kluczowe

  • delafloksacyna
  • erawacyklina
  • inhibitory β-laktamaz
  • siderofory
  • waborbaktam
Open Access

Acinetobacter Baumannii – Virulence Factors and Epidemiology of Infections

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 267 - 279

Abstract

Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative saprophytic rod inhabiting both moist niches and dry surfaces. The wide spread of the microbe in the environment by means of minimal nutritional requirements and exceptional survival capabilities give the opportunities to occupy hospital niches, and thus to create threats for hospitalized patients. This bacterium may be a part of the human microbiota as an opportunistic pathogen which upon the host’s weakening, causes less or more serious diseases. A. baumannii is an etiological factor of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is especially dangerous for patients in intensive care units (in Poland every fifth patient suffers from such infection). Due to the increasing multidrug resistance of A. baumannii, this bacterium belongs to the group of priority pathogens. Fighting such dangerous bacteria is difficult due to their natural resistance as well as acquired resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The unique ability of A. baumannii to cause diseases and acquire resistance to numerous antibiotics, make it necessary to control and prevent these infections.

Keywords

  • ESKAPEE
  • VAP

Słowa kluczowe

  • ESKAPEE
  • VAP
Open Access

Burn Wound – The Processes of its Development and Selected Etiological Factors of Infection

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 281 - 298

Abstract

Abstract

Although the topic of burns appears to be relatively well understood in the literature, there is still an apparent discontinuity in the understanding of the correlation of the pathomechanism of thermal injury with the key issue of infection within it. From the analysis of the literature, an intriguing picture emerges for both clinicians and microbiologists. Microbiological diagnosis is extremely important in burn wound infections. The correct sampling and performance of microbiological cultures allows for the identification of the etiological agent of infection and the appropriate choice of targeted antibiotic therapy based on the results of microbiological tests. This is particularly important in the era of increasing resistance of microorganisms and frequent isolation of multi-drug resistant strains. A burn, especially extensive, is a unique environment which, together with ill-considered or ineffective therapy, determines the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. The consequence of physiological defense of the body against injury leads to a situation where in the center of the burn wound antimicrobials may not reach MIC/MBC, which drastically reduces the chances of therapeutic success.

Keywords

  • microorganisms
  • drug resistance
  • pathomechanism
  • burn injury
  • infection

Słowa kluczowe

  • drobnoustroje
  • oporność
  • patomechanizm
  • rana oparzeniowa
  • zakażenie
Open Access

Systematyka i Analizy Genomiczne Bakterii z Rodzaju Azotobacter

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 299 - 308

Abstract

Abstract

Bacteria belonging to the genus Azotobacter are the subject of many studies conducted both in Poland and around the world. The interest in this group of bacteria is largely related to their properties being very useful for agriculture. Recent studies are based on advanced molecular methods and genomic sequence of the two species: Azotobacter vinelandii and Azotobacter chroococcum. In 2009, Setubal et al. published the complete genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii DJ, while the full sequence of Azotobacter chroococcum 8003 genome was published by Robson et al. in publication from 2015. Both bacteria have a single, circular chromosome of 5,355,318 bp and 5,192,291 bp respectively. Understanding and comparing the genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii DJ and Azotobacter chroococcum 8003 answered many questions about the evolution, diversity and location of these bacteria in the environment. The sequencing of a larger number of genomes of other A. chroococcum and A. vinelandii strains would bring many benefits and would help to organize the existing knowledge about them.

Keywords

  • spp.
  • taxonomy
  • genetic identification
  • genome sequence

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp.
  • taksonomia
  • identyfikacja genetyczna
  • sekwencja genomu
Open Access

The Impact of Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Professionals on the Transmission of Etiological Agents of Healthcare Associated Infections – HAI

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 309 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

Appropriate hand washing and disinfection procedures among medical employees are one of the basic principles of preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAI), which can significantly extend hospitalization and generate higher costs. The aim of the study was to review the available literature on the sources and transmission of HAI in the context of medical staff hand hygiene, to evaluate, whether these procedures are performed correctly and whether the hands and nails contribute to the transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Medical literature was searched in PubMed and Google Schoolar databases by entering appropriate keywords. The collected literature clearly show how important is the correct hand washing procedure, short and unpainted nails and no jewellry on the hands of hospital staff in breaking the chain of nosocomial infections.

Keywords

  • jewellery and artificial fingernails in a hospital environment
  • hand disinfection
  • hand hygiene
  • healthcare-associated infections

Słowa kluczowe

  • biżuteria i sztuczne paznokcie w środowisku szpitalnym
  • dezynfekcja rąk
  • higiena rąk
  • zakażenia związane z opieką szpitalną
5 Articles
Open Access

The European Medicines Agency Approved the New Antibacterial Drugs – Response to the 2017 Who Report on the Global Problem of Multi-Drug Resistance

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 249 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance has been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the top ten threats to mankind. In a special report published in 2017, the WHO presented a list of microorganisms for which the search for new therapeutic options is a priority. The highest (critical) priority was given to the search for new antibiotics active against carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as against carbapenem- and third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales strains (so-called critical priority pathogens). Whereas the second (high) priority was given among others to the search for new antibiotics active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Since the publication of the WHO report the European Medicines Agency has approved 6 novel, broad-spectrum antibiotics, from 6 different groups, addressing the priority pathogens to a different extent. Two of them are new combinations of carbapenems with non-β-lactam inhibitors of β-lactamases (active also against carbapenemases), belonging to two novel groups of inhibitors: diazabicyclooctanes (relebactam, combined with imipenem) and boronates (vaborbactam, combined with meropenem). The third new drug is a siderophore cephalosporin (cefiderocol) with an innovative mechanism of penetration into the bacterial cell. The next two antibiotics are the new fluoroquinolone (delafloxacin) and the new tetracycline (eravacycline), designed and synthesized to be more active than older members of these groups. The last innovative antibiotic is lefamulin – the first pleuromutilin approved for systemic use in humans. New approvals have expanded the number of available therapeutic options in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (meropenem/vaborbactam, cefiderocol), complicated intra-abdominal infections (meropenem/vaborbactam, eravacycline), nosocomial pneumonia (meropenem/vaborbactam, imipenem/relebactam), acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (delafloxacin) and community-acquired pneumonia (lefamulin).

Keywords

  • delafloxacin
  • eravacycline
  • β-lactamases inhibitors
  • siderophores
  • vaborbactam

Słowa kluczowe

  • delafloksacyna
  • erawacyklina
  • inhibitory β-laktamaz
  • siderofory
  • waborbaktam
Open Access

Acinetobacter Baumannii – Virulence Factors and Epidemiology of Infections

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 267 - 279

Abstract

Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative saprophytic rod inhabiting both moist niches and dry surfaces. The wide spread of the microbe in the environment by means of minimal nutritional requirements and exceptional survival capabilities give the opportunities to occupy hospital niches, and thus to create threats for hospitalized patients. This bacterium may be a part of the human microbiota as an opportunistic pathogen which upon the host’s weakening, causes less or more serious diseases. A. baumannii is an etiological factor of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is especially dangerous for patients in intensive care units (in Poland every fifth patient suffers from such infection). Due to the increasing multidrug resistance of A. baumannii, this bacterium belongs to the group of priority pathogens. Fighting such dangerous bacteria is difficult due to their natural resistance as well as acquired resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The unique ability of A. baumannii to cause diseases and acquire resistance to numerous antibiotics, make it necessary to control and prevent these infections.

Keywords

  • ESKAPEE
  • VAP

Słowa kluczowe

  • ESKAPEE
  • VAP
Open Access

Burn Wound – The Processes of its Development and Selected Etiological Factors of Infection

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 281 - 298

Abstract

Abstract

Although the topic of burns appears to be relatively well understood in the literature, there is still an apparent discontinuity in the understanding of the correlation of the pathomechanism of thermal injury with the key issue of infection within it. From the analysis of the literature, an intriguing picture emerges for both clinicians and microbiologists. Microbiological diagnosis is extremely important in burn wound infections. The correct sampling and performance of microbiological cultures allows for the identification of the etiological agent of infection and the appropriate choice of targeted antibiotic therapy based on the results of microbiological tests. This is particularly important in the era of increasing resistance of microorganisms and frequent isolation of multi-drug resistant strains. A burn, especially extensive, is a unique environment which, together with ill-considered or ineffective therapy, determines the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. The consequence of physiological defense of the body against injury leads to a situation where in the center of the burn wound antimicrobials may not reach MIC/MBC, which drastically reduces the chances of therapeutic success.

Keywords

  • microorganisms
  • drug resistance
  • pathomechanism
  • burn injury
  • infection

Słowa kluczowe

  • drobnoustroje
  • oporność
  • patomechanizm
  • rana oparzeniowa
  • zakażenie
Open Access

Systematyka i Analizy Genomiczne Bakterii z Rodzaju Azotobacter

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 299 - 308

Abstract

Abstract

Bacteria belonging to the genus Azotobacter are the subject of many studies conducted both in Poland and around the world. The interest in this group of bacteria is largely related to their properties being very useful for agriculture. Recent studies are based on advanced molecular methods and genomic sequence of the two species: Azotobacter vinelandii and Azotobacter chroococcum. In 2009, Setubal et al. published the complete genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii DJ, while the full sequence of Azotobacter chroococcum 8003 genome was published by Robson et al. in publication from 2015. Both bacteria have a single, circular chromosome of 5,355,318 bp and 5,192,291 bp respectively. Understanding and comparing the genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii DJ and Azotobacter chroococcum 8003 answered many questions about the evolution, diversity and location of these bacteria in the environment. The sequencing of a larger number of genomes of other A. chroococcum and A. vinelandii strains would bring many benefits and would help to organize the existing knowledge about them.

Keywords

  • spp.
  • taxonomy
  • genetic identification
  • genome sequence

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp.
  • taksonomia
  • identyfikacja genetyczna
  • sekwencja genomu
Open Access

The Impact of Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Professionals on the Transmission of Etiological Agents of Healthcare Associated Infections – HAI

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 309 - 315

Abstract

Abstract

Appropriate hand washing and disinfection procedures among medical employees are one of the basic principles of preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAI), which can significantly extend hospitalization and generate higher costs. The aim of the study was to review the available literature on the sources and transmission of HAI in the context of medical staff hand hygiene, to evaluate, whether these procedures are performed correctly and whether the hands and nails contribute to the transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Medical literature was searched in PubMed and Google Schoolar databases by entering appropriate keywords. The collected literature clearly show how important is the correct hand washing procedure, short and unpainted nails and no jewellry on the hands of hospital staff in breaking the chain of nosocomial infections.

Keywords

  • jewellery and artificial fingernails in a hospital environment
  • hand disinfection
  • hand hygiene
  • healthcare-associated infections

Słowa kluczowe

  • biżuteria i sztuczne paznokcie w środowisku szpitalnym
  • dezynfekcja rąk
  • higiena rąk
  • zakażenia związane z opieką szpitalną

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