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Special Edition: Underground Infrastructure of Urban Areas

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
ISSN
0137-6365
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 36 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
ISSN
0137-6365
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Numerical Simulation of Crater Creating Process in Dynamic Replacement Method by Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 3 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

A theoretical base of SPH method, including the governing equations, discussion of importance of the smoothing function length, contact formulation, boundary treatment and finally utilization in hydrocode simulations are presented. An application of SPH to a real case of large penetrations (crater creating) into the soil caused by falling mass in Dynamic Replacement Method is discussed. An influence of particles spacing on method accuracy is presented. An example calculated by LS-DYNA software is discussed. Chronological development of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics is presented. Theoretical basics of SPH method stability and consistency in SPH formulation, artificial viscosity and boundary treatment are discussed. Time integration techniques with stability conditions, SPH+FEM coupling, constitutive equation and equation of state (EOS) are presented as well.

Mots clés

  • dynamic replacement method
  • SPH
  • impact soil
Accès libre

Analysis of the Vibration Propagation in the Subsoil

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 9 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents in a comprehensive way issues related to propagation in a soil environment of vibrations originating during sheet piling vibratory driving. Considerations carried out comprised the FEM analysis of initial-boundary behaviour of the subsoil during impacts accompanying the works performed. The analysis has used the authors' RU+MCC constitutive model, which can realistically describe complex deformation characteristics in soils in the field of small strains, which accompany the phenomenon of shock propagation. The basis for model creation and for specification of material parameters of the presented model consisted of first-class tests performed in a triaxial apparatus using proximity detectors guaranteeing a proper measurement of strains ranging from 10-1 to 10-3% and bender elements. Results obtained from numerical analyses were confronted with results of field tests consisting in measurements of acceleration amplitudes generated on the ground surface due to technological impacts versus the distance from vibration source.

Mots clés

  • soil characteristics in small strain range
  • triaxial tests
  • dynamic analysis
Accès libre

Behaviour of Cohesive Soil Subjected to Low-Frequency Cyclic Loading in Strain-Controlled Tests

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 21 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

The subject of the paper comprises tests of cohesive soil subjected to low-frequency cyclic loading with constant strain amplitude. The main aim of the research is to define a failure criteria for cohesive soils subjected to this type of load. Tests of undrained cyclic shear were carried out in a triaxial apparatus on normally consolidated reworked soil samples made of kaolinite clay from Tułowice. Analysis of the results includes the influence of number of load cycles on the course of effective stress paths, development of excess pore water pressure and stress deviator value. Observed regularities may seem surprising. The effective stress path initially moves away from the boundary surface and only after a certain number of load-unload cycles change of its direction occurs and it starts to move consequently towards the surface. At the same time, it has been observed that pore water pressure value decreases at the beginning and after few hundred cycles increases again. It is a typical behaviour for overconsolidated soil, while test samples are normally consolidated. Additionally, a similar change in deviator stress value has been observed - at first it decreases and later, with subsequent cycles, re-increases.

Mots clés

  • cohesive soils
  • triaxial tests
  • cyclic loading
  • strain-controlled tests
Accès libre

Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 37 - 48

Résumé

Abstract

The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.

Mots clés

  • strength anisotropy
  • micromechanics
  • masonry microstructure
  • masonry
  • failure criterion
Accès libre

The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 49 - 56

Résumé

Abstract

The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

Mots clés

  • screw displacement pile
  • pile installation
  • pile auger
  • torque
  • soil resistance
Accès libre

Microstructural and Tomographic Analyses in Geotechnical Assessment of Soil Media

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 57 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

This paper discusses two different approaches to microanalysis of the soil medium. It presents testing results collected by electromicroscopy, which requires special sample preparation, and a non-destructive method, requiring no sample preparation and using a computer-assisted tomograph. The paper presents:

• Applicability of microstructure analyses and chemical microanalysis in the determination of structural damage incurred in the historical time in relation to the effect of contemporary abiotic events;

• Application of a standard medical computer-assisted tomograph in qualitative assessment of structure and observations of mechanisms of failure in the cement/peat soil composite.

Investigations concerning the applicability of computed tomography in soil micromechanics are demonstrative in character and the presented conclusions suggest further directions for research.

Mots clés

  • clay soils
  • organics soil composition
  • microstructure
  • computed tomography
Accès libre

Particle Shape Effect on Macroscopic Behaviour of Underground Structures: Numerical and Experimental Study

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 67 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

The mechanical performance of underground flexible structures such as buried pipes or culverts made of plastics depend not only on the properties of the structure, but also on the material surrounding it. Flexible drains can deflect by 30% with the joints staying tight, or even invert. Large deformations of the structure are difficult to model in the framework of Finite Element Method, but straightforward in Discrete Element Methods. Moreover, Discrete Element approach is able to provide information about the grain-grain and grain-structure interactions at the microscale. This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations of flexible buried pipe behaviour with focus placed on load transfer above the buried structure. Numerical modeling was able to reproduce the experimental results. Load repartition was observed, being affected by a number of factors such as particle shape, pipe friction and pipe stiffness.

Mots clés

  • discrete element method
  • particle shape
  • underground pipe
  • digital image correlation
Accès libre

Technical Notoe: Prediction of Static Liquefaction by Nor Sand Constitutive Model

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 75 - 83

Résumé

Abstract

The paper gives a short description of unstable behaviour of saturated sand under undrained monotonic loading. Constitutive model Nor Sand capable to describe static liquefaction is presented. The model is based on critical state soil mechanics and assumes associated flow rule. Hardening law incorporates the state parameter proposed earlier by Been and Jefferies. Results of numerical simulations of undrained element tests have been presented and discussed.

Mots clés

  • static liquefaction
  • Nor Sand
  • element test simulation
8 Articles
Accès libre

Numerical Simulation of Crater Creating Process in Dynamic Replacement Method by Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 3 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

A theoretical base of SPH method, including the governing equations, discussion of importance of the smoothing function length, contact formulation, boundary treatment and finally utilization in hydrocode simulations are presented. An application of SPH to a real case of large penetrations (crater creating) into the soil caused by falling mass in Dynamic Replacement Method is discussed. An influence of particles spacing on method accuracy is presented. An example calculated by LS-DYNA software is discussed. Chronological development of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics is presented. Theoretical basics of SPH method stability and consistency in SPH formulation, artificial viscosity and boundary treatment are discussed. Time integration techniques with stability conditions, SPH+FEM coupling, constitutive equation and equation of state (EOS) are presented as well.

Mots clés

  • dynamic replacement method
  • SPH
  • impact soil
Accès libre

Analysis of the Vibration Propagation in the Subsoil

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 9 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents in a comprehensive way issues related to propagation in a soil environment of vibrations originating during sheet piling vibratory driving. Considerations carried out comprised the FEM analysis of initial-boundary behaviour of the subsoil during impacts accompanying the works performed. The analysis has used the authors' RU+MCC constitutive model, which can realistically describe complex deformation characteristics in soils in the field of small strains, which accompany the phenomenon of shock propagation. The basis for model creation and for specification of material parameters of the presented model consisted of first-class tests performed in a triaxial apparatus using proximity detectors guaranteeing a proper measurement of strains ranging from 10-1 to 10-3% and bender elements. Results obtained from numerical analyses were confronted with results of field tests consisting in measurements of acceleration amplitudes generated on the ground surface due to technological impacts versus the distance from vibration source.

Mots clés

  • soil characteristics in small strain range
  • triaxial tests
  • dynamic analysis
Accès libre

Behaviour of Cohesive Soil Subjected to Low-Frequency Cyclic Loading in Strain-Controlled Tests

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 21 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

The subject of the paper comprises tests of cohesive soil subjected to low-frequency cyclic loading with constant strain amplitude. The main aim of the research is to define a failure criteria for cohesive soils subjected to this type of load. Tests of undrained cyclic shear were carried out in a triaxial apparatus on normally consolidated reworked soil samples made of kaolinite clay from Tułowice. Analysis of the results includes the influence of number of load cycles on the course of effective stress paths, development of excess pore water pressure and stress deviator value. Observed regularities may seem surprising. The effective stress path initially moves away from the boundary surface and only after a certain number of load-unload cycles change of its direction occurs and it starts to move consequently towards the surface. At the same time, it has been observed that pore water pressure value decreases at the beginning and after few hundred cycles increases again. It is a typical behaviour for overconsolidated soil, while test samples are normally consolidated. Additionally, a similar change in deviator stress value has been observed - at first it decreases and later, with subsequent cycles, re-increases.

Mots clés

  • cohesive soils
  • triaxial tests
  • cyclic loading
  • strain-controlled tests
Accès libre

Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 37 - 48

Résumé

Abstract

The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.

Mots clés

  • strength anisotropy
  • micromechanics
  • masonry microstructure
  • masonry
  • failure criterion
Accès libre

The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 49 - 56

Résumé

Abstract

The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

Mots clés

  • screw displacement pile
  • pile installation
  • pile auger
  • torque
  • soil resistance
Accès libre

Microstructural and Tomographic Analyses in Geotechnical Assessment of Soil Media

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 57 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

This paper discusses two different approaches to microanalysis of the soil medium. It presents testing results collected by electromicroscopy, which requires special sample preparation, and a non-destructive method, requiring no sample preparation and using a computer-assisted tomograph. The paper presents:

• Applicability of microstructure analyses and chemical microanalysis in the determination of structural damage incurred in the historical time in relation to the effect of contemporary abiotic events;

• Application of a standard medical computer-assisted tomograph in qualitative assessment of structure and observations of mechanisms of failure in the cement/peat soil composite.

Investigations concerning the applicability of computed tomography in soil micromechanics are demonstrative in character and the presented conclusions suggest further directions for research.

Mots clés

  • clay soils
  • organics soil composition
  • microstructure
  • computed tomography
Accès libre

Particle Shape Effect on Macroscopic Behaviour of Underground Structures: Numerical and Experimental Study

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 67 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

The mechanical performance of underground flexible structures such as buried pipes or culverts made of plastics depend not only on the properties of the structure, but also on the material surrounding it. Flexible drains can deflect by 30% with the joints staying tight, or even invert. Large deformations of the structure are difficult to model in the framework of Finite Element Method, but straightforward in Discrete Element Methods. Moreover, Discrete Element approach is able to provide information about the grain-grain and grain-structure interactions at the microscale. This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations of flexible buried pipe behaviour with focus placed on load transfer above the buried structure. Numerical modeling was able to reproduce the experimental results. Load repartition was observed, being affected by a number of factors such as particle shape, pipe friction and pipe stiffness.

Mots clés

  • discrete element method
  • particle shape
  • underground pipe
  • digital image correlation
Accès libre

Technical Notoe: Prediction of Static Liquefaction by Nor Sand Constitutive Model

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2015
Pages: 75 - 83

Résumé

Abstract

The paper gives a short description of unstable behaviour of saturated sand under undrained monotonic loading. Constitutive model Nor Sand capable to describe static liquefaction is presented. The model is based on critical state soil mechanics and assumes associated flow rule. Hardening law incorporates the state parameter proposed earlier by Been and Jefferies. Results of numerical simulations of undrained element tests have been presented and discussed.

Mots clés

  • static liquefaction
  • Nor Sand
  • element test simulation

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