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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 41 (2019): Edition 4 (December 2019)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

9 Articles

Research Articles

Accès libre

Effect of using insert on the flow pressure in cylindrical silo

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 177 - 183

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the discharge flow pressure in the vertical silo and the hopper due to the use of insert (top cone with trunk cone bottom). Using the Insert inside the silos is one of the proposed solutions to avoid the problems of having funnel flow pattern, which has a significant effect on the distribution of flow pressure exerted on the silo wall and the hopper. The experiments were performed on a metal cylinder prototype; corn was used as a granular material, and the wall and hopper pressure distribution was measured by a special pressure transducer. The experiments revealed an important result in the flow pressure due to the change in the location of the insert. The experiments were conducted in Damascus University laboratories.

Mots clés

  • Silo model
  • flow pressure
  • insert
  • wall pressure
Accès libre

Construction and Monitoring of Cement/Bentonite Cutoff Walls: Case Study of Karkheh Dam, Iran

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 184 - 199

Résumé

Abstract

Water seepage is one of the most important features of embankment dams. To prevent and reduce seepage, it is necessary to seal the dam. Plastic concrete cutoff walls are one of the most efficient methods in waterproofing the foundation of embankment dams on permeable alluvial substrates. Sufficient resistance to loads, low permeability to maintain dam sealing, high ductility compatible with the foundation and deformation under load without cracking are the main requirements in plastic concrete cutoff walls. In this paper, the construction and implementation of the cutoff wall of Karkheh Dam, which is one the world’s largest water sealing projects, was studied. In addition, a numerical model using Seep-3D software was developed to evaluate the efficiency of the cut-off wall to decrease the seepage over the dam’s foundation. The numerical results validated by instrumentation statistics resulted from 17-years dam operation. According to the results, after the drainage of the reservoir, the cutoff wall optimally reduced the hydraulic gradient by 0.08 from 2.35 and the water leakage by 3.1 m/s from 18.3 m/s.

Mots clés

  • Cutoff wall
  • permeation
  • Karkheh Dam
  • sealing
  • hydrofraise
Accès libre

Shear Strength Enhancement of Cemented Reinforced Sand: Role of Cement Content on the Macro-Mechanical Behavior

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 200 - 211

Résumé

Abstract

Sands reinforced by hydraulic binders (cement) have constituted in recent decades a major asset for the expansion of several areas of engineering. The mechanical behavior of sand-cement mixtures has undergone some controversies studied on the Chlef sand. In this paper, we present an experimental study to investigate the mechanical behavior of a sandy soil reinforced by a hydraulic binder (cement), using the direct shear apparatus emphasizing on the shear strength characteristics and the vertical deformation variation of cemented reinforced sand. The parameters used in this study are mainly: relative density (Dr = 80%), normal stress (σn = 100, 200, 400 kPa), water content (3, 7 and 10%), cement content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %) and cure time (7, 14 and 28 days). The experimental results show that the mechanical characteristics in terms of internal cohesion (C) and internal frication angle (φ) give a better mechanical performance with the binder inclusion, and the cure conditions play an effective role on the improvement of the shear strength. This result also showed that 10% of the cement content gave us a maximum value of shear strength and an optimal influence on the mechanical characteristics. The addition of cement not only improves the shear strength of soil, but also provides diversity in the resistance against the deformations imposed load, which can be established by a dilatant character.

Mots clés

  • Cemented reinforced sand
  • direct shear test
  • water content
  • curing time
  • dilatant character
Accès libre

A New Method for the Estimation of Hydraulic Permeability, Coefficient of Consolidation, and Soil Fraction Based on the Dilatometer Tests (DMT)

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 212 - 222

Résumé

Abstract

The main issue of the paper is the estimation of soil hydraulic permeability based on the DMT test. DMTA, DMTC and SASK methods performed in the Nielisz dam, Stegny and the SGGW Campus of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences sites are described. The article presents the implementation of the dilatometer Marchetti test (DMT) in the determination of soil fraction and effects of its occurrence in the subsoil, tested in the Nielisz dam located in the Wieprz river valley in the Lublin province, and in various sites in Warsaw (Stegny site and SGGW Campus of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences). In order to acquire the needed data, the flat dilatometer test (DMT) method was used. A direct and indirect pressure methodology of interpreting soil swelling was characterized in the article. The paper shows the possibilities of determining sand, silt and clay soil fractions based on po and p1 pressures from dilatometer tests (DMT) and the effective (σvo) and total (σvo) vertical in situ overburden stress. Additionally, the main advantage of this paper is the proposal of use of a new chart to determine hydraulic permeability and soil fraction, based on DMT tests.

Mots clés

  • DMT
  • mineral and organic soils
  • classification chart
  • hydraulic permeability
  • soil fraction
Accès libre

Influence of Humidity on the Energy of Specific Strain in the Process of Loading Sedimentary Rocks

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 223 - 230

Résumé

Abstract

This article presents the results of tests on the energy properties of sedimentary rocks in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The rocks were tested both in an air-dry state and in a water saturation state. Samples of sedimentary rocks were collected from boreholes drilled in the underground workings of coal mines located within the area of the city of Jastrzębie, in the areas of the Chwałowice Trough and Rybnik Trough (south-western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and in the Main Trough. Influence of saturation condition on the values of the tested energy parameters was observed. The values of elastic energy and dissipated energy obtained for the samples tested in water saturation were lower compared to the values obtained for samples tested in air-dry state. As observed, an increase in the values of the given types of specific energy corresponds to an increase in the uniaxial compression strength in air-dry state and in water saturation state. Results of the tests are original and they can be applied while analysing the possibility of the occurrence of some dynamic phenomena and hazards in mine workings in Carboniferous rock mass in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, caused by mining operations.

Mots clés

  • Elastic energy
  • dissipated energy
  • sedimentary rocks
  • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
Accès libre

Experimental and statistical analysis of blast-induced ground vibrations (BIGV) prediction in Senegal’s quarry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 231 - 246

Résumé

Abstract

Extractive industries often use explosives to destroy rocks, and productivity requirements tend to increase the charges of the explosives. The blasts induce vibrations, which result in a potential damage of the surrounding structures. Therefore, the prediction of vibrations should be described with accuracy, in order to ensure the safety of engineered structures. However, the prediction of vibrations’ levels remain a complicated issue, because it involves numerous parameters correlated to the quarry site.

In this paper, statistical analysis based on the peak particle velocity (PPV) and the attenuation law has been carried out to assess the safety charges (Q) for different distances (R) between the blast and the considered structure to secure. Moreover, the experimental investigations were conducted on the quarry site of “Sococim”, which is located on the south coast of Senegal. To ensure the safety of the “Conveyor belt” and “Panel 1 (Upper exploitation level)” sites, the PPV should be less than 10 mm/s. In fact, the attenuation model has been used to assess the safe charge weights of the explosive (Q) to be used at the “Conveyor belt” site and at the “Panel 1 (Upper exploitation level)” site. Therefore, the safe charge weights per delay (Q) were respectively 116 kg and 13.75 kg.

Mots clés

  • attenuation law
  • blast
  • charge per delay
  • statistical analysis
  • safety
Accès libre

Critical state constitutive models and shear loading of overconsolidated clays with deviatoric hardening

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 247 - 262

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents an enhanced constitutive model integrating deviatoric hardening with a modified yield surface for overconsolidated clayey soils in a general framework of Cam-clay type models. Its performance was assessed with the simulation of drained and undrained triaxial tests on three clays at different consolidation states in comparison to two critical state models. The proposed model satisfactorily estimates the shear resistance, while capturing the smooth nonlinearity of the soil response.

Shear triaxial tests at constant mean pressure were performed on an overconsolidated marl to study the shear response. Their simulation attests the importance of deviatoric hardening integration.

Mots clés

  • constitutive models
  • critical state
  • overconsolidated clay
  • shear loading
  • deviatoric hardening
Accès libre

The Consequences of Non-Uniform Founding of Concrete Tank in Weak Wet Subsoil

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 263 - 271

Résumé

Abstract

The article presents problem of non-uniform foundation of structures in weak wet subsoil. The problem is illustrated with the case study of two-chamber-reinforced concrete water tank constructed in 1920s of 20th century, which cracked during construction. Under part of foundation, where the peat was found, the concrete piles were introduced.

The results of five-year measurement of crack widths with crack gauges and geodesic measurements of vertical displacement of tank were presented. These results indicate that the tank is not stable and part of broken tank supported on piles is movable.

On the basis of the presented data, the general conclusions concerning the non-uniform founding of tanks are formulated.

Mots clés

  • concrete tank
  • stability
  • differential settlement
  • cracks
  • levelling
Accès libre

Geotechnical Problems Of The Foundation Of Road Embankments By The Bridge Structures

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 272 - 281

Résumé

Abstract

This work presents the geotechnical problems occurring in the interaction area between road embankments and the bridge structures in case a subsoil characterised by complex and complicated geological and engineering conditions. These significant problems that occur during the design, performance and exploitation of the abutment structures, are illustrated on the example of engineering practice in Lower Silesia, concerning a road embankment that constitutes access to the bridge. The results of numerical analyses concerning the process of consolidation of low-strength soils and their impact on the settlements of road embankment indicate the need to carry out such analyses also in the cases, when the soft soils occur in the direct geotechnical layer under the designed embankment. The Authors included in this article a discussion regarding other effective actions and solutions that can be used in the design and performance phase, leading to the elimination or reduction of problems concerning the connection of engineering structures with road embankments, which have been recurring for years, ultimately resulting in the improvement of quality, comfort and safety of road exploitation.

Mots clés

  • transport engineering
  • road embankments
  • bridge abutments
  • differential settlements
9 Articles

Research Articles

Accès libre

Effect of using insert on the flow pressure in cylindrical silo

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 177 - 183

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the discharge flow pressure in the vertical silo and the hopper due to the use of insert (top cone with trunk cone bottom). Using the Insert inside the silos is one of the proposed solutions to avoid the problems of having funnel flow pattern, which has a significant effect on the distribution of flow pressure exerted on the silo wall and the hopper. The experiments were performed on a metal cylinder prototype; corn was used as a granular material, and the wall and hopper pressure distribution was measured by a special pressure transducer. The experiments revealed an important result in the flow pressure due to the change in the location of the insert. The experiments were conducted in Damascus University laboratories.

Mots clés

  • Silo model
  • flow pressure
  • insert
  • wall pressure
Accès libre

Construction and Monitoring of Cement/Bentonite Cutoff Walls: Case Study of Karkheh Dam, Iran

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 184 - 199

Résumé

Abstract

Water seepage is one of the most important features of embankment dams. To prevent and reduce seepage, it is necessary to seal the dam. Plastic concrete cutoff walls are one of the most efficient methods in waterproofing the foundation of embankment dams on permeable alluvial substrates. Sufficient resistance to loads, low permeability to maintain dam sealing, high ductility compatible with the foundation and deformation under load without cracking are the main requirements in plastic concrete cutoff walls. In this paper, the construction and implementation of the cutoff wall of Karkheh Dam, which is one the world’s largest water sealing projects, was studied. In addition, a numerical model using Seep-3D software was developed to evaluate the efficiency of the cut-off wall to decrease the seepage over the dam’s foundation. The numerical results validated by instrumentation statistics resulted from 17-years dam operation. According to the results, after the drainage of the reservoir, the cutoff wall optimally reduced the hydraulic gradient by 0.08 from 2.35 and the water leakage by 3.1 m/s from 18.3 m/s.

Mots clés

  • Cutoff wall
  • permeation
  • Karkheh Dam
  • sealing
  • hydrofraise
Accès libre

Shear Strength Enhancement of Cemented Reinforced Sand: Role of Cement Content on the Macro-Mechanical Behavior

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 200 - 211

Résumé

Abstract

Sands reinforced by hydraulic binders (cement) have constituted in recent decades a major asset for the expansion of several areas of engineering. The mechanical behavior of sand-cement mixtures has undergone some controversies studied on the Chlef sand. In this paper, we present an experimental study to investigate the mechanical behavior of a sandy soil reinforced by a hydraulic binder (cement), using the direct shear apparatus emphasizing on the shear strength characteristics and the vertical deformation variation of cemented reinforced sand. The parameters used in this study are mainly: relative density (Dr = 80%), normal stress (σn = 100, 200, 400 kPa), water content (3, 7 and 10%), cement content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %) and cure time (7, 14 and 28 days). The experimental results show that the mechanical characteristics in terms of internal cohesion (C) and internal frication angle (φ) give a better mechanical performance with the binder inclusion, and the cure conditions play an effective role on the improvement of the shear strength. This result also showed that 10% of the cement content gave us a maximum value of shear strength and an optimal influence on the mechanical characteristics. The addition of cement not only improves the shear strength of soil, but also provides diversity in the resistance against the deformations imposed load, which can be established by a dilatant character.

Mots clés

  • Cemented reinforced sand
  • direct shear test
  • water content
  • curing time
  • dilatant character
Accès libre

A New Method for the Estimation of Hydraulic Permeability, Coefficient of Consolidation, and Soil Fraction Based on the Dilatometer Tests (DMT)

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 212 - 222

Résumé

Abstract

The main issue of the paper is the estimation of soil hydraulic permeability based on the DMT test. DMTA, DMTC and SASK methods performed in the Nielisz dam, Stegny and the SGGW Campus of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences sites are described. The article presents the implementation of the dilatometer Marchetti test (DMT) in the determination of soil fraction and effects of its occurrence in the subsoil, tested in the Nielisz dam located in the Wieprz river valley in the Lublin province, and in various sites in Warsaw (Stegny site and SGGW Campus of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences). In order to acquire the needed data, the flat dilatometer test (DMT) method was used. A direct and indirect pressure methodology of interpreting soil swelling was characterized in the article. The paper shows the possibilities of determining sand, silt and clay soil fractions based on po and p1 pressures from dilatometer tests (DMT) and the effective (σvo) and total (σvo) vertical in situ overburden stress. Additionally, the main advantage of this paper is the proposal of use of a new chart to determine hydraulic permeability and soil fraction, based on DMT tests.

Mots clés

  • DMT
  • mineral and organic soils
  • classification chart
  • hydraulic permeability
  • soil fraction
Accès libre

Influence of Humidity on the Energy of Specific Strain in the Process of Loading Sedimentary Rocks

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 223 - 230

Résumé

Abstract

This article presents the results of tests on the energy properties of sedimentary rocks in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The rocks were tested both in an air-dry state and in a water saturation state. Samples of sedimentary rocks were collected from boreholes drilled in the underground workings of coal mines located within the area of the city of Jastrzębie, in the areas of the Chwałowice Trough and Rybnik Trough (south-western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and in the Main Trough. Influence of saturation condition on the values of the tested energy parameters was observed. The values of elastic energy and dissipated energy obtained for the samples tested in water saturation were lower compared to the values obtained for samples tested in air-dry state. As observed, an increase in the values of the given types of specific energy corresponds to an increase in the uniaxial compression strength in air-dry state and in water saturation state. Results of the tests are original and they can be applied while analysing the possibility of the occurrence of some dynamic phenomena and hazards in mine workings in Carboniferous rock mass in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, caused by mining operations.

Mots clés

  • Elastic energy
  • dissipated energy
  • sedimentary rocks
  • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
Accès libre

Experimental and statistical analysis of blast-induced ground vibrations (BIGV) prediction in Senegal’s quarry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 231 - 246

Résumé

Abstract

Extractive industries often use explosives to destroy rocks, and productivity requirements tend to increase the charges of the explosives. The blasts induce vibrations, which result in a potential damage of the surrounding structures. Therefore, the prediction of vibrations should be described with accuracy, in order to ensure the safety of engineered structures. However, the prediction of vibrations’ levels remain a complicated issue, because it involves numerous parameters correlated to the quarry site.

In this paper, statistical analysis based on the peak particle velocity (PPV) and the attenuation law has been carried out to assess the safety charges (Q) for different distances (R) between the blast and the considered structure to secure. Moreover, the experimental investigations were conducted on the quarry site of “Sococim”, which is located on the south coast of Senegal. To ensure the safety of the “Conveyor belt” and “Panel 1 (Upper exploitation level)” sites, the PPV should be less than 10 mm/s. In fact, the attenuation model has been used to assess the safe charge weights of the explosive (Q) to be used at the “Conveyor belt” site and at the “Panel 1 (Upper exploitation level)” site. Therefore, the safe charge weights per delay (Q) were respectively 116 kg and 13.75 kg.

Mots clés

  • attenuation law
  • blast
  • charge per delay
  • statistical analysis
  • safety
Accès libre

Critical state constitutive models and shear loading of overconsolidated clays with deviatoric hardening

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 247 - 262

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents an enhanced constitutive model integrating deviatoric hardening with a modified yield surface for overconsolidated clayey soils in a general framework of Cam-clay type models. Its performance was assessed with the simulation of drained and undrained triaxial tests on three clays at different consolidation states in comparison to two critical state models. The proposed model satisfactorily estimates the shear resistance, while capturing the smooth nonlinearity of the soil response.

Shear triaxial tests at constant mean pressure were performed on an overconsolidated marl to study the shear response. Their simulation attests the importance of deviatoric hardening integration.

Mots clés

  • constitutive models
  • critical state
  • overconsolidated clay
  • shear loading
  • deviatoric hardening
Accès libre

The Consequences of Non-Uniform Founding of Concrete Tank in Weak Wet Subsoil

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 263 - 271

Résumé

Abstract

The article presents problem of non-uniform foundation of structures in weak wet subsoil. The problem is illustrated with the case study of two-chamber-reinforced concrete water tank constructed in 1920s of 20th century, which cracked during construction. Under part of foundation, where the peat was found, the concrete piles were introduced.

The results of five-year measurement of crack widths with crack gauges and geodesic measurements of vertical displacement of tank were presented. These results indicate that the tank is not stable and part of broken tank supported on piles is movable.

On the basis of the presented data, the general conclusions concerning the non-uniform founding of tanks are formulated.

Mots clés

  • concrete tank
  • stability
  • differential settlement
  • cracks
  • levelling
Accès libre

Geotechnical Problems Of The Foundation Of Road Embankments By The Bridge Structures

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2019
Pages: 272 - 281

Résumé

Abstract

This work presents the geotechnical problems occurring in the interaction area between road embankments and the bridge structures in case a subsoil characterised by complex and complicated geological and engineering conditions. These significant problems that occur during the design, performance and exploitation of the abutment structures, are illustrated on the example of engineering practice in Lower Silesia, concerning a road embankment that constitutes access to the bridge. The results of numerical analyses concerning the process of consolidation of low-strength soils and their impact on the settlements of road embankment indicate the need to carry out such analyses also in the cases, when the soft soils occur in the direct geotechnical layer under the designed embankment. The Authors included in this article a discussion regarding other effective actions and solutions that can be used in the design and performance phase, leading to the elimination or reduction of problems concerning the connection of engineering structures with road embankments, which have been recurring for years, ultimately resulting in the improvement of quality, comfort and safety of road exploitation.

Mots clés

  • transport engineering
  • road embankments
  • bridge abutments
  • differential settlements

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