- Détails du magazine
- Format
- Magazine
- eISSN
- 2083-831X
- Première publication
- 09 Nov 2012
- Période de publication
- 4 fois par an
- Langues
- Anglais

#### Chercher

- Accès libre

An assessment of how penetration curve adjustment affects the California bearing ratio (CBR)

Pages: 323 - 336

#### Résumé

With the rapidly developing road transport, there is a demand for new roads to be constructed and for the existing ones to be repaired or extended. The base of any road is its foundation, usually made of crushed or uncrushed aggregate. To be used for road foundation purposes, a material needs to meet many requirements, as imposed by relevant standards. One of the basic tests to assess the suitability of an aggregate is to determine its California bearing ratio (CBR).

This paper presents the results of CBR tests for mixed aggregate with the grading of 0–31.5 and 0–63 mm. Detailed assessments were carried out for penetration curves, which in many cases need to be adjusted to meet industry standards. The adjustment of plunger penetration curves in aggregate samples causes CBR to increase compared to the original curves.

#### Mots clés

- CBR
- pavement structure
- subbase
- roadbase

- Accès libre

Innovative Look at the ‘General Method’ of Assessing Buckling Resistance of Steel Structures

Pages: 337 - 345

#### Résumé

Stability checking is an essential element of the dimensioning of steel frame structures. One of the stability checking methods allowed by EN 1993-1-1 is the so-called general method of assessing structural stability, based on buckling curves and relative structure slenderness
_{cr}_{cr}

#### Mots clés

- steel structures
- stability
- buckling
- general method

- Accès libre

Strength of industrial sandstones modelled with the Discrete Element Method

Pages: 346 - 365

#### Résumé

Sandstone is one of the most popular building materials since the earliest times. It has various textures and colours as well as good technical parameters. Sandstones, having such wide applications, are subjected to various external factors during the period of use. So, it is of utmost importance to have a good knowledge of their strength parameters. We employed a numerical method called Discrete Element Method to examine in a non-invasive manner the mechanical strength of industrial sandstones, that are commonly used as broken stones in road construction, cladding material, paving stones, pavement tiles and so on. Various mechanical external factors were considered, such as breaking, compressional and abrasion forces or impact by external objects and vibrations. Fragmentation of the considered sandstones under compressional regime was a source of knowledge about energy storage inside the material and energy release, as well as appearance of fractures inside the matter and final sandstone fragmentation into crumbs.

#### Mots clés

- sandstone strength
- material resistance
- numerical modelling
- uniaxial compression strength
- Discrete Element Method
- ESyS-Particle

- Accès libre

Numerical analysis of the transport of brine in the Odra River downstream of a mine's discharge

Pages: 366 - 379

#### Résumé

The mining of underground deposits causes the inflow of water to workings and the necessity of pumping them to the surface. The mining plant of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. extracts copper ore in plant branches with different hydrogeological conditions. The inflowing water into the workings is characterised by variable mineralisation, which depends on the location of the branch. In the south-western part of the deposit, a low-mineralised stream with a relatively high flow rate can be observed, while the outflow of highly saline waters occurs in the north-eastern branch. Despite the activities undertaken that aim at using the pumped-off mine waters industrially, it is necessary to deposit them into the Odra River.

Reducing the environmental impact on the Odra River is one of KGHM's goals, which is being implemented by stabilising its salt concentration at a safe level. The paper presents the results of a 3D simulation of brine plume propagation based on a numerical model of advection–diffusion and turbulent flow. Bathymetric data from a section of the river approximately 500 m long and point data from an Odra water quality test were used to develop and validate the model. The paper discusses the types of factors that minimise the impact of brine discharge. The developed model will be used in the future to propose solutions that accelerate the mixing of mine waters with the waters of the Odra River.

#### Mots clés

- Water quality
- mining
- wastewater management
- brine
- dilution
- numerical modelling
- CFD

- Accès libre

Analysis of the pile skin resistance formation

Pages: 380 - 388

#### Résumé

This paper introduces a method based on a static load test which is aimed to verify the mechanism of the piles soil–skin interaction. The authors base their analysis on detailed data from static load test with extensometers on CFA piles. The main goal of the research is to determine the proper method of examining how the skin of the pile and soil interacts and apply it to practical engineering practice. As the first stage of the research is limited to the available set of piles, the authors make assumptions that will be verified on later stages of research as more data become available. The authors attempt to formulate the boundary conditions for the formation of pile skin resistance formation using mathematical physics equations to describe the phenomena. Current research proves that it is possible, with the suitable for practical engineering calculations, to describe soil–pile interaction mechanism based on static load test results. Experimental research indicated that there is possibility, for practical engineering calculations purposes, to assume that skin resistance of the pile due to depth can be presented with linear graph. The description is made upon extensometer results, but is meant to be appropriate with the standard static load test results, which provide load–settlement curve of the pile.

#### Mots clés

- load-settlement
- skin resistance
- pile bearing capacity

- Accès libre

An investigation of longwall failure using 3D numerical modelling – A case study at a copper mine

Pages: 389 - 410

#### Résumé

It is well-known that the longwall mining method (with roof caving) is widely used in underground mining extraction for bedded deposits (e.g. coal) due to its numerous advantages. Generally, this method is not commonly applied for ore deposits such as copper deposit. In Poland, the longwall mining method has been tested for thin copper deposits at the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine (KGHM). Various failure modes were observed during longwall operation in the 5A/1 panel. This paper aims to examine these occurred failures. To do so, an analysis has been conducted using 3D numerical modelling to investigate the failure mode and mechanism. Based on the 3D numerical modelling results with extensive in situ measurements, causes of failure are determined and practical recommendations for further copper longwall operations are presented.

#### Mots clés

- numerical modelling
- longwall mining
- copper deposit
- failure mechanism
- back analysis

- Accès libre

Experimental study on earth pressure reduction of waste tyre bales used as a backfill for rigid retaining structures

Pages: 411 - 424

#### Résumé

Waste tyre-derived products, including whole tyres, tyre bales, shreds, chips and crumb rubber, have been widely used in geotechnical applications. In particular, tyre bales have considerable potential for use in the construction of a lightweight embankment or road foundation over soft ground, slope stabilisation or landslide repairs and the backfilling for retaining structures. Proper design of tyre bale structures requires a reliable strength analysis to ensure an adequate factor of safety. The analysis should utilise the properties of the tyre bales and the baled structures, which must be properly determined. A laboratory test programme was developed to determine the key strength parameters of a backfill made of tyre bales supplemented with a lightweight aggregate. Full-scale direct shear tests were conducted to define the interface shear strength between the tyre bales and the filling material. Earth pressure reduction analysis based on the experimental results was performed as well to assess the effectiveness of waste tyre bales used as a backfill for rigid retaining structures.

#### Mots clés

- waste tyres
- tyre bales
- shear strength
- earth pressure
- retaining structure

- Accès libre

Bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded strip footing on spatially variable cohesive soil

Pages: 425 - 437

#### Résumé

The study considers the bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded strip footing on spatially variable, purely cohesive soil. The problem is solved using the random finite element method. The anisotropic random field of cohesion is generated using the Fourier series method, and individual problems within performed Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) are solved using the Abaqus finite element code. The analysis includes eight different variants of the fluctuation scales and six values of load eccentricity. For each of these 48 cases, 1000 MCSs are performed and the probabilistic characteristics of the obtained values are calculated. The results of the analysis indicate that the mean value of the bearing capacity decreases linearly with eccentricity, which is consistent with Meyerhof's theory. However, the decrease in standard deviation and increase in the coefficient of variation of the bearing capacity observed are non-linear, which is particularly evident for small eccentricities. For one chosen variant of fluctuation scales, a reliability analysis investigating the influence of eccentricity on reliability index is performed. The results of the analysis conducted show that the value of the reliability index can be significantly influenced even by small eccentricities. This indicates the need to consider at least random eccentricities in future studies regarding probabilistic modelling of foundation bearing capacity.

#### Mots clés

- random field
- scale of fluctuation
- eccentric load
- cohesive soil
- probabilistic analysis

- Accès libre

Identification of residual force in static load tests on instrumented screw displacement piles

Pages: 438 - 451

#### Résumé

Occurrence of the so-called residual force of an unknown value significantly disturbs interpretation of static load tests performed on piles equipped with additional measuring instruments. Screw displacement piles are the piling technology in which the residual force phenomenon is very common. Its formation mechanism is closely related to the installation method of this type of piles, which initiates generation of negative pile skin friction without any additional external factors. Knowledge of the value and distribution of a residual force (trapped in a pile shaft before starting the load test) is a necessary condition for the proper interpretation of instrumented pile test results.

In this article, a clear and easy-to-use method of residual force identification, based on the analysis of shaft deformations recorded during pile unloading is presented. The method was successfully verified on two pile examples and proved to be effective and practical.

#### Mots clés

- residual force
- pile load test
- pile instrumentation
- load distribution
- displacement pile

- Accès libre

Vibro piles performance prediction using result of CPT

Pages: 452 - 464

#### Résumé

Vibro piles belong to the group of full displacement piles with an expanded base, characterised by a very high load capacity, especially in non-cohesive soils. The problem is to adopt a reliable method for the determination of full load–settlement (Q–s) curve. A frequent difficulty is the determination of the load capacity limit based on the static load test because the course of the load–settlement curve is of a linear nature. This publication presents the empirical method. It allows direct prediction of a full axially loaded pile settlement curve based on the values of q_{c} cone resistance obtained in cone penetration test (CPT). The advantage offered by this procedure is the accuracy of the obtained limit values in relation to the actual load-bearing capacity as compared to other methods based on soil parameters obtained in in situ testing. An additional advantage is the Q–s characteristics, which enable designing for intermediate values, allowing for the criterion of minimal or equal settlements. The shape of analytical curves was compared with static pile load test (SPLT) curves. This comparison showed large convergences between the analytical and measured curves.

#### Mots clés

- Vibro Piles
- Ultimate Capacity
- Settlement Curve
- CPT Probe

- Accès libre

Stress-weighted spatial averaging of random fields in geotechnical risk assessment

Pages: 465 - 478

#### Résumé

Effects of spatial fluctuations of soil parameters are considered in a new context – considering variability of soil parameters in conjunction with non-uniform stress fields, which can locally amplify (or suppress) subsoil inhomogeneities. In this way, several design situations for the Coulomb frictional material with random tan(φ(_{a} – that is, a random variable, which is equivalent to the random field tan(φ(

#### Mots clés

- spatial variability
- effective soil parameters
- variance reduction
- the Vanmarcke averaging
- safety factor