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Special Edition: Underground Infrastructure of Urban Areas

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 40 (2018): Edition 3 (November 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

7 Articles

Research Article

Accès libre

A note on the differences between Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb shear strength criteria

Publié en ligne: 20 Oct 2018
Pages: 163 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

A systematic approach to measure the differences between Mohr-Coulomb (MC) and Drucker-Prager (DP) shear strength criteria used commonly in soil and rock mechanics is presented. It is shown that the DP criterion generates a shear strength between 0.6 and 3 times the MC strength, for the same friction angle and cohesion parameters. The appropriate conditions for obtaining equal shear strengths are given. Moreover, some new DP failure surfaces are proposed which minimize the differences relative to the MC predictions. The equivalence of the DP and MC criteria under plane strain conditions is also examined.

Mots clés

  • Mohr-Coulomb
  • Drucker-Prager
  • elasto-plasticity
  • shear strength
  • plane strain conditions
Accès libre

Soil–steel structure shell displacement functions based on tensometric measurements

Publié en ligne: 20 Oct 2018
Pages: 170 - 179

Résumé

Abstract

This paper analyses the effects of loads that change their location, i.e. moving but quasi-static loads. Displacements defining the deformation of the soil–steel structure’s shell buried in soil are calculated from the results of measurements performed using a dense grid of points located on the circumferential section of the corrugated plate. In this way, all the components of the structure, namely the corrugated plate, the backfill and the pavement with its foundation, as well as the natural (real) principles of their interaction, are taken into account in the solution. In the proposed algorithm, unit strains are converted into displacements, whereby results as accurate as the ones obtained by direct experimental measurements are obtained. The algorithm’s main advantages are that the number of points is limitless, they are regularly distributed on the circumferential section of the shell and any displacement directions can be obtained. Consequently, the deformations of the shell can be faithfully reproduced. The algorithm’s convenient feature is that one can use a simplified computational diagram of the shell in the form of a beam having the shape of the shell in 2D space (without the other components of the soil–steel structure). The advantage of this measuring method (electric resistance tensometry) is that there is no need to build the solid scaffold used for displacement measurements. The research focuses on the analysis of the displacements and the unit strains arising during the primary and secondary (return) travel of the load.

Mots clés

  • soil–steel structure
  • moving loads
  • studies of shell deformations
  • displacement functions
Accès libre

Stability Assessment of Mining Excavations: the Impact of Large Depths

Publié en ligne: 24 Oct 2018
Pages: 180 - 187

Résumé

Abstract

Back in the early 1980s, coal deposits occurring at depths of ~700 m below surface were already regarded as large-depth deposits. Meanwhile, today the borderline depth of large-depth mining has extended to >1,000 m. Design, excavation and maintenance of mining roadways at the depth of >1,000 m have, therefore, become crucial issues in a practical perspective in recent years. Hence, it is now extremely important to intensify research studies on the influence of large depths on the behaviour of rock mass and deformation of support in underground excavations. The paper presents the results of the study carried out in five mining excavations at depths ranging from 950 to 1,290 m, where monitoring stations with measurement equipment were built. The analysis of data from laboratory and coal mine tests, as well as in situ monitoring, helped to formulate a set of criteria for stability assessment of underground excavations situated at large depths. The proposed methodology of load and deformation prediction in support systems of the excavations unaffected by exploitation is based on the criteria referring to the depth of excavation and the quality of rock mass. The depth parameter is determined by checking whether the analysed excavation lies below the critical depth, whereas the rock mass quality is determined on the basis of the roof lithology index (WL) and the crack intensity factor (n)

Mots clés

  • great depth
  • coal mine roadway stability
  • underground in situ monitoring
Accès libre

Analysis and settlement evaluation of an end-bearing granular pile with non-linear deformation modulus

Publié en ligne: 03 Oct 2018
Pages: 188 - 201

Résumé

Abstract

Ground improvement with granular piles increases the load-carrying capacity, reduces the settlement of foundations built on the reinforced ground and is also a good alternative to concrete pile. Granular piles or stone columns are composed of granular material, such as crushed stone or coarse dense sand. An analytical approach based on the continuum approach is presented for the non-linear behaviour of the granular pile. The formulation for pile element displacement is done considering the non-homogeneity of the granular pile as it reflects the true behaviour and also accounts for the changes in the state of the granular pile due to installation, stiffening and improvement effects. The present study shows that the settlement influence factor for an end-bearing granular pile decreases with increase in the relative stiffness of the bearing stratum. The settlement influence factor decreases with increase in linear and non-linear non-homogeneity parameters for all values of relative length. For a shorter pile, the rate of decrease of the settlement influence factor is greater in comparison to that for a longer pile. Shear stress at the soil–granular pile interface reduces in the upper compressible portion of the granular pile and increases in the lower stiffer portion of the granular pile due to the non-homogeneity of an end-bearing granular pile.

Mots clés

  • end-bearing granular pile
  • relative stiffness of bearing stratum
  • relative stiffness of granular pile
  • deformation modulus
  • settlement influence factor
Accès libre

Endurance of the wooden bridge reinforced by the dowel plates

Publié en ligne: 20 Oct 2018
Pages: 202 - 207

Résumé

Abstract

The most important piece of road infrastructure is bridges. Wooden bridges have advanced constantly during the past decades. The trend began in Scandinavian countries but has also now gained significant ground in Russia. This research studies experimental endurance potential of the joints of the wooden beam while considering the coefficient of asymmetry of the cycle, which corresponds to the actual operating conditions. Performance analysis of the composite bars is carried out based on the experiment; the development of a special methodology for calculating the joints of wooden elements with the dowel plates for their better endurance is also introduced in this paper. The results of experimental studies on the performance of bending composite wooden bridge bars based on dowel plates operating under cyclic influences thus determine the endurance limit of wood for composite wooden bridge beams based on dowel plates. The calculation technique and interdependence of the endurance coefficient affecting the asymmetry coefficient of the bent composite wooden bridge bars on the dowel plates under cyclic loading are considered. The experimental data on the endurance of composite wooden bridge beams have been obtained, and separate analysis has been made of the compounds under cyclic loading performance; a method has been developed for calculating the bent composite wooden bridge bars reinforced by the dowel plates under cyclic influences.

Mots clés

  • road infrastructure
  • railway
  • fatigue
  • number of loads
Accès libre

Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in Constantine Region (NE Algeria) By Means of Statistical Models

Publié en ligne: 21 Dec 2018
Pages: 208 - 219

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to compare the prediction performances of three statistical methods, namely, information value (IV), weight of evidence (WoE) and frequency ratio (FR), for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) at the east of Constantine region. A detailed landslide inventory of the study area with a total of 81 landslide locations was compiled from aerial photographs, satellite images and field surveys. This landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset (70%) for training the models, and the remaining (30%) was used for validation purpose. Nine landslide-related factors such as slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, distance to streams, lithology, distance to lineaments, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and stream density were used in the landslide susceptibility analyses. The inventory was adopted to analyse the spatial relationship between these landslide factors and landslide occurrences. Based on IV, WoE and FR approaches, three landslide susceptibility zonation maps were categorized, namely, “very high, high, moderate, low, and very low”. The results were compared and validated by computing area under Road the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). From the statistics, it is noted that prediction scores of the FR, IV and WoE models are relatively similar with 73.32%, 73.95% and 79.07%, respectively. However, the map, obtained using the WoE technique, was experienced to be more suitable for the study area. Based on the results, the produced LSM can serve as a reference for planning and decision-making regarding the general use of the land.

Mots clés

  • geographic information system
  • probabilistic methods
  • information value
  • weight of evidence
  • frequency ratio
Accès libre

Thermally Treated Clay as a Stabilizing Agent for Expansive Clayey Soil: Some Engineering Properties

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2018
Pages: 220 - 232

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of adding thermally treated clay on some engineering properties of the untreated expansive clayey soil. Three expansive clayey soil samples obtained from three different sites in the south of Syria have been investigated. They were thermally treated up to three different levels (450°C, 650°C and 850°C) for 3 hours. Three replacement levels of thermally treated clay were used, i.e. 0%, 10% and 20%. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) technique has been used to detect the crystalline and glassy phase in the clayey samples before and after the thermal treatment. Pozzolanic activity of the thermally treated clayey soil has been studied using the modified Chapelle test and the mechanical strength test at each of the temperature levels. Atterberg limits, compaction, free swell, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage have particularly been investigated. Test results revealed the positive effect of thermally treated clay when added to the natural soil. Plasticity index (PI) was reduced by about 60% when 20% thermally treated clay was added to the natural soil. In addition, 6% lime was added to further investigate the combined effect of lime and calcined clay on the properties of the clayey expansive soil. All investigated properties were significantly improved when 20% thermally treated soil and 6% lime were added together. For instance, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage values were reduced to less than 15% or even much less when compared with those of the natural soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were employed as well.

Mots clés

  • thermally treated clay
  • soil improvement
  • plasticity index
  • linear shrinkage
7 Articles

Research Article

Accès libre

A note on the differences between Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb shear strength criteria

Publié en ligne: 20 Oct 2018
Pages: 163 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

A systematic approach to measure the differences between Mohr-Coulomb (MC) and Drucker-Prager (DP) shear strength criteria used commonly in soil and rock mechanics is presented. It is shown that the DP criterion generates a shear strength between 0.6 and 3 times the MC strength, for the same friction angle and cohesion parameters. The appropriate conditions for obtaining equal shear strengths are given. Moreover, some new DP failure surfaces are proposed which minimize the differences relative to the MC predictions. The equivalence of the DP and MC criteria under plane strain conditions is also examined.

Mots clés

  • Mohr-Coulomb
  • Drucker-Prager
  • elasto-plasticity
  • shear strength
  • plane strain conditions
Accès libre

Soil–steel structure shell displacement functions based on tensometric measurements

Publié en ligne: 20 Oct 2018
Pages: 170 - 179

Résumé

Abstract

This paper analyses the effects of loads that change their location, i.e. moving but quasi-static loads. Displacements defining the deformation of the soil–steel structure’s shell buried in soil are calculated from the results of measurements performed using a dense grid of points located on the circumferential section of the corrugated plate. In this way, all the components of the structure, namely the corrugated plate, the backfill and the pavement with its foundation, as well as the natural (real) principles of their interaction, are taken into account in the solution. In the proposed algorithm, unit strains are converted into displacements, whereby results as accurate as the ones obtained by direct experimental measurements are obtained. The algorithm’s main advantages are that the number of points is limitless, they are regularly distributed on the circumferential section of the shell and any displacement directions can be obtained. Consequently, the deformations of the shell can be faithfully reproduced. The algorithm’s convenient feature is that one can use a simplified computational diagram of the shell in the form of a beam having the shape of the shell in 2D space (without the other components of the soil–steel structure). The advantage of this measuring method (electric resistance tensometry) is that there is no need to build the solid scaffold used for displacement measurements. The research focuses on the analysis of the displacements and the unit strains arising during the primary and secondary (return) travel of the load.

Mots clés

  • soil–steel structure
  • moving loads
  • studies of shell deformations
  • displacement functions
Accès libre

Stability Assessment of Mining Excavations: the Impact of Large Depths

Publié en ligne: 24 Oct 2018
Pages: 180 - 187

Résumé

Abstract

Back in the early 1980s, coal deposits occurring at depths of ~700 m below surface were already regarded as large-depth deposits. Meanwhile, today the borderline depth of large-depth mining has extended to >1,000 m. Design, excavation and maintenance of mining roadways at the depth of >1,000 m have, therefore, become crucial issues in a practical perspective in recent years. Hence, it is now extremely important to intensify research studies on the influence of large depths on the behaviour of rock mass and deformation of support in underground excavations. The paper presents the results of the study carried out in five mining excavations at depths ranging from 950 to 1,290 m, where monitoring stations with measurement equipment were built. The analysis of data from laboratory and coal mine tests, as well as in situ monitoring, helped to formulate a set of criteria for stability assessment of underground excavations situated at large depths. The proposed methodology of load and deformation prediction in support systems of the excavations unaffected by exploitation is based on the criteria referring to the depth of excavation and the quality of rock mass. The depth parameter is determined by checking whether the analysed excavation lies below the critical depth, whereas the rock mass quality is determined on the basis of the roof lithology index (WL) and the crack intensity factor (n)

Mots clés

  • great depth
  • coal mine roadway stability
  • underground in situ monitoring
Accès libre

Analysis and settlement evaluation of an end-bearing granular pile with non-linear deformation modulus

Publié en ligne: 03 Oct 2018
Pages: 188 - 201

Résumé

Abstract

Ground improvement with granular piles increases the load-carrying capacity, reduces the settlement of foundations built on the reinforced ground and is also a good alternative to concrete pile. Granular piles or stone columns are composed of granular material, such as crushed stone or coarse dense sand. An analytical approach based on the continuum approach is presented for the non-linear behaviour of the granular pile. The formulation for pile element displacement is done considering the non-homogeneity of the granular pile as it reflects the true behaviour and also accounts for the changes in the state of the granular pile due to installation, stiffening and improvement effects. The present study shows that the settlement influence factor for an end-bearing granular pile decreases with increase in the relative stiffness of the bearing stratum. The settlement influence factor decreases with increase in linear and non-linear non-homogeneity parameters for all values of relative length. For a shorter pile, the rate of decrease of the settlement influence factor is greater in comparison to that for a longer pile. Shear stress at the soil–granular pile interface reduces in the upper compressible portion of the granular pile and increases in the lower stiffer portion of the granular pile due to the non-homogeneity of an end-bearing granular pile.

Mots clés

  • end-bearing granular pile
  • relative stiffness of bearing stratum
  • relative stiffness of granular pile
  • deformation modulus
  • settlement influence factor
Accès libre

Endurance of the wooden bridge reinforced by the dowel plates

Publié en ligne: 20 Oct 2018
Pages: 202 - 207

Résumé

Abstract

The most important piece of road infrastructure is bridges. Wooden bridges have advanced constantly during the past decades. The trend began in Scandinavian countries but has also now gained significant ground in Russia. This research studies experimental endurance potential of the joints of the wooden beam while considering the coefficient of asymmetry of the cycle, which corresponds to the actual operating conditions. Performance analysis of the composite bars is carried out based on the experiment; the development of a special methodology for calculating the joints of wooden elements with the dowel plates for their better endurance is also introduced in this paper. The results of experimental studies on the performance of bending composite wooden bridge bars based on dowel plates operating under cyclic influences thus determine the endurance limit of wood for composite wooden bridge beams based on dowel plates. The calculation technique and interdependence of the endurance coefficient affecting the asymmetry coefficient of the bent composite wooden bridge bars on the dowel plates under cyclic loading are considered. The experimental data on the endurance of composite wooden bridge beams have been obtained, and separate analysis has been made of the compounds under cyclic loading performance; a method has been developed for calculating the bent composite wooden bridge bars reinforced by the dowel plates under cyclic influences.

Mots clés

  • road infrastructure
  • railway
  • fatigue
  • number of loads
Accès libre

Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in Constantine Region (NE Algeria) By Means of Statistical Models

Publié en ligne: 21 Dec 2018
Pages: 208 - 219

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to compare the prediction performances of three statistical methods, namely, information value (IV), weight of evidence (WoE) and frequency ratio (FR), for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) at the east of Constantine region. A detailed landslide inventory of the study area with a total of 81 landslide locations was compiled from aerial photographs, satellite images and field surveys. This landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset (70%) for training the models, and the remaining (30%) was used for validation purpose. Nine landslide-related factors such as slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, distance to streams, lithology, distance to lineaments, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and stream density were used in the landslide susceptibility analyses. The inventory was adopted to analyse the spatial relationship between these landslide factors and landslide occurrences. Based on IV, WoE and FR approaches, three landslide susceptibility zonation maps were categorized, namely, “very high, high, moderate, low, and very low”. The results were compared and validated by computing area under Road the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). From the statistics, it is noted that prediction scores of the FR, IV and WoE models are relatively similar with 73.32%, 73.95% and 79.07%, respectively. However, the map, obtained using the WoE technique, was experienced to be more suitable for the study area. Based on the results, the produced LSM can serve as a reference for planning and decision-making regarding the general use of the land.

Mots clés

  • geographic information system
  • probabilistic methods
  • information value
  • weight of evidence
  • frequency ratio
Accès libre

Thermally Treated Clay as a Stabilizing Agent for Expansive Clayey Soil: Some Engineering Properties

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2018
Pages: 220 - 232

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of adding thermally treated clay on some engineering properties of the untreated expansive clayey soil. Three expansive clayey soil samples obtained from three different sites in the south of Syria have been investigated. They were thermally treated up to three different levels (450°C, 650°C and 850°C) for 3 hours. Three replacement levels of thermally treated clay were used, i.e. 0%, 10% and 20%. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) technique has been used to detect the crystalline and glassy phase in the clayey samples before and after the thermal treatment. Pozzolanic activity of the thermally treated clayey soil has been studied using the modified Chapelle test and the mechanical strength test at each of the temperature levels. Atterberg limits, compaction, free swell, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage have particularly been investigated. Test results revealed the positive effect of thermally treated clay when added to the natural soil. Plasticity index (PI) was reduced by about 60% when 20% thermally treated clay was added to the natural soil. In addition, 6% lime was added to further investigate the combined effect of lime and calcined clay on the properties of the clayey expansive soil. All investigated properties were significantly improved when 20% thermally treated soil and 6% lime were added together. For instance, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage values were reduced to less than 15% or even much less when compared with those of the natural soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were employed as well.

Mots clés

  • thermally treated clay
  • soil improvement
  • plasticity index
  • linear shrinkage

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