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Special Edition: Underground Infrastructure of Urban Areas

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 42 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2083-831X
Première publication
09 Nov 2012
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

9 Articles
Accès libre

Dynamic Tests in Bridge Health Monitoring

Publié en ligne: 06 Jun 2020
Pages: 291 - 296

Résumé

Abstract

Dynamic tests are one of the most significant diagnostic procedures applied in Bridge Health Monitoring in many countries. The paper presents a proposal of unified classification of the bridge dynamic tests together with review of the testing methods, including tests under designed and controlled loads, arranged short-term tests under normal traffic loads as well as permanent dynamic monitoring by means of built-in gauges mounted on a structure. Classification of bridge dynamic tests is proposed taking into account various types of vibration excitation methods, measured parameters and possible applications of obtained results in the Bridge Health Monitoring. General rules and procedures of bridge dynamic tests are described and discussed.

Mots clés

  • Bridge
  • dynamic tests
  • bridge condition
  • Bridge Health Monitoring
Accès libre

Numerical Comparison of Thermal Behaviour Between Ventilated Facades

Publié en ligne: 20 May 2020
Pages: 297 - 305

Résumé

Abstract

Increasingly high demands on environmental protection are intensifying the development of sustainable construction. Ventilated facades can provide an energy-efficient alternative to standard facades, that is, external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). The article compares standard facades, which was a reference, to ventilated facades in two variants: closed joints and open joints. The comparison was made by means of numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamic (CFD), under conditions of high outside temperature and high sunshine. The results showed great benefits of using ventilated facades in such external climate conditions. It was also observed that the selection of the variant of ventilated facade in the system of close or open joints has minimal influence on thermal efficiency of the whole partition.

Mots clés

  • ventilated facade
  • heat transfer
  • CFD
  • numerical simulation
  • Energy-efficient facade
Accès libre

Vibrations of the Euler–Bernoulli Beam Under a Moving Force based on Various Versions of Gradient Nonlocal Elasticity Theory: Application in Nanomechanics

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2020
Pages: 306 - 318

Résumé

Abstract

Two models of vibrations of the Euler–Bernoulli beam under a moving force, based on two different versions of the nonlocal gradient theory of elasticity, namely, the Eringen model, in which the strain is a function of stress gradient, and the nonlocal model, in which the stress is a function of strains gradient, were studied and compared. A dynamic response of a finite, simply supported beam under a moving force was evaluated. The force is moving along the beam with a constant velocity. Particular solutions in the form of an infinite series and some solutions in a closed form as well as the numerical results were presented.

Mots clés

  • vibration
  • beam
  • moving force
  • nonlocal elasticity
Accès libre

The Use of the Collocation Algorithm for Estimating the Deformations of Soil-Shell Objects Made of Corrugated Sheets

Publié en ligne: 26 Jun 2020
Pages: 319 - 329

Résumé

Abstract

The algorithm presented in this paper is intended for the analysis of deformations of shells in the construction phase of soil-shell objects when strain gauges and geodetic measurements are used. During the construction of such an object, large displacement values occur and the impact of axial forces on the displacement of a corrugated metal sheet is small. Internal forces (strain gauges), as well as the displacements of a selected circumferential band of the shell are determined directly from such observations.

The paper presents two examples of the analysis of large span shell structures of constructed objects, as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of the finite difference method (FDM) in beam schemes. Good deformation mapping was indicated using the collocation algorithm and the differential approach to the solution when there is a dense mesh and regular distribution of measuring points. In the analysed examples, a significant divergence between the support conditions adopted in the FEM calculation models and the actual static conditions in the objects was indicated. The collocation algorithm is especially designed for such situations. Collocation points in such a solution are used to consider a beam – separated from a structure and without boundary constraints, but with specific changes in curvature – as a reference system, which is determined from the geodetic measurements of two collocation points.

Mots clés

  • Monitoring
  • soil-steel objects
  • corrugated sheets
  • collocation
Accès libre

Empirical and theoretical models for prediction of soil thermal conductivity: a review and critical assessment

Publié en ligne: 09 Jul 2020
Pages: 330 - 340

Résumé

Abstract

The paper discusses existing models used to estimate the thermal conductivity of the soil medium. The considerations are divided into three general sections. In the first section of the paper, we focus on the presentation of empirical models. Here, in the case of Johansen method, different relations for Kersten number are also presented. In the next part, theoretical models are considered. In the following part, selected models were used to predict measured thermal conductivities of coarse- and fine-grained soils, at different water contents. Based on these predictions as well as on the authors’ experience, a critical assessment of the existing models is provided. The remarks as well as advantages and disadvantages of those models are summarized in a tabular form. The latter is important from a practical point of view; based on the table content, one can simply choose a model that is suitable for the particular problem.

Mots clés

  • Heat flow
  • thermal conductivity
  • soil
  • Kersten number
Accès libre

Using Triaxial Tests to Determine the Shearing Strength of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand

Publié en ligne: 25 Sep 2020
Pages: 341 - 354

Résumé

Abstract

Geogrids are widely used in civil engineering projects to reinforce road and railway structures. This paper presents research on the shearing strength of soil samples that have been reinforced with geogrids. The relationship between soil and geogrids is explored and evaluated by modeling the mechanical behavior of heterogeneous materials. For the purposes of this research, data obtained from tests of unreinforced sand samples with triaxial cells were compared with the data obtained from tests of reinforced sand samples. It was found that the shearing strength for reinforced samples was higher (from 9% to 49%) compared to unreinforced samples. Some damage to the geogrid was detected during the experiment, and for this reason, the same tests were numerically simulated for both unreinforced samples and samples reinforced with geogrids. Numerical simulations revealed the main reasons for damage to the geogrids during triaxial testing.

Mots clés

  • geogrid
  • sand
  • shearing strength
  • angle of internal friction
  • cohesion
Accès libre

Analysis of underground stratification based on CPTu profiles using high-pass spatial filter

Publié en ligne: 22 Sep 2020
Pages: 355 - 365

Résumé

Abstract

The issue of the stratification of the underground subsoil is one of the principal geotechnical challenges. The development of the Cone Penetration Tests (CPTu) has resulted in the possibility to record parameters in a quasi-continuous way, which provides a very detailed description of the soil response. Such accurate measurements may therefore be treated as a signal or image and be analysed as such. This paper presents the application of high-pass spatial filters to perform soil stratification on the basis of the static penetration test. The presented algorithm has been tested on the test data set provided by the Organizers of TC304 Student Contest on Spatial Data Analysis (September 22, 2019, Hannover, Germany). It provides reasonable results at negligible computational cost and is applicable to most soils, especially if the contrast between the parameters of the adjacent layers is significant.

Mots clés

  • Cone Penetration Test (CPTu)
  • soil stratification
  • convolutional filter
  • high-pass spatial filter
Accès libre

Statistical analysis of mechanical properties on the example of aggregates of Carpathian sandstones

Publié en ligne: 24 Sep 2020
Pages: 366 - 375

Résumé

Abstract

The constantly growing, broadly understood, construction industry requires the use of a large amount of aggregates. The construction of roads, motorways, railway lines and hydrotechnical structures requires the use of aggregates of high quality, which is primarily determined by mechanical properties. The basic parameters describing mechanical properties of aggregates are the Los Angeles (LA) fragmentation resistance coefficient and the Micro-Deval (MDE) abrasion resistance coefficient. The LA and MDE coefficients depend mainly on the type of rock and its physical and mechanical properties. This has been thoroughly researched and documented as evidenced by the abundant literature in the field. However, the correlation between LA and MDE coefficients still gives rise to extensive discussions and some concerns. A number of publications demonstrate dependencies for various types of aggregates. Therefore, research was undertaken to present statistical analysis for one type of aggregate and one geological area.

This article presents the results of the fragmentation resistance test in the Los Angeles drum and the abrasion resistance test in the Micro-Deval drum of aggregates from Carpathian sandstone deposits. Aggregate samples were divided into three groups according to the location of the deposits and the tectonic unit from which they originated. The obtained results were subjected to static analysis to fit the best mathematical function describing the relationship between the two parameters.

Mots clés

  • aggregates
  • Los Angeles coefficient
  • Micro-Deval coefficient
Accès libre

Risk Reduction of a Terrorist Attack on a Critical Infrastructure Facility of LGOM Based on the Example of the Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (OUOW Żelazny Most)

Publié en ligne: 25 Sep 2020
Pages: 376 - 387

Résumé

Abstract

This paper identifies the threats and risks of a terrorist attack on a critical infrastructure facility based on the example of Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (OUOW). The threat analysis primarily took into account the threats of deliberate human actions. Identification of potential threats concerning the infrastructure surrounding the facility was conducted based on information that is readily available on the Internet. The reasons why it may be a potential target were also justified. Numerical calculations of the stress–deformation scale of the initial state of the reservoir, based on the Biot model with the Kelvin–Voight rheological skeleton, were presented as a starting point for in-depth research on the scale of threats and risks to the reservoir. The presented numerical model can be a starting point for calculating the stability of a reservoir subjected to explosives. The facility constitutes a major element of Lubińsko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). OUOW Żelazny Most is the biggest such facility in Europe and is utilized to collect tailing waist. When expanded in its southern quarter, the facility will be the biggest in the world.

Mots clés

  • Tailings Storage Facility
  • threats
  • terrorist attack
9 Articles
Accès libre

Dynamic Tests in Bridge Health Monitoring

Publié en ligne: 06 Jun 2020
Pages: 291 - 296

Résumé

Abstract

Dynamic tests are one of the most significant diagnostic procedures applied in Bridge Health Monitoring in many countries. The paper presents a proposal of unified classification of the bridge dynamic tests together with review of the testing methods, including tests under designed and controlled loads, arranged short-term tests under normal traffic loads as well as permanent dynamic monitoring by means of built-in gauges mounted on a structure. Classification of bridge dynamic tests is proposed taking into account various types of vibration excitation methods, measured parameters and possible applications of obtained results in the Bridge Health Monitoring. General rules and procedures of bridge dynamic tests are described and discussed.

Mots clés

  • Bridge
  • dynamic tests
  • bridge condition
  • Bridge Health Monitoring
Accès libre

Numerical Comparison of Thermal Behaviour Between Ventilated Facades

Publié en ligne: 20 May 2020
Pages: 297 - 305

Résumé

Abstract

Increasingly high demands on environmental protection are intensifying the development of sustainable construction. Ventilated facades can provide an energy-efficient alternative to standard facades, that is, external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). The article compares standard facades, which was a reference, to ventilated facades in two variants: closed joints and open joints. The comparison was made by means of numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamic (CFD), under conditions of high outside temperature and high sunshine. The results showed great benefits of using ventilated facades in such external climate conditions. It was also observed that the selection of the variant of ventilated facade in the system of close or open joints has minimal influence on thermal efficiency of the whole partition.

Mots clés

  • ventilated facade
  • heat transfer
  • CFD
  • numerical simulation
  • Energy-efficient facade
Accès libre

Vibrations of the Euler–Bernoulli Beam Under a Moving Force based on Various Versions of Gradient Nonlocal Elasticity Theory: Application in Nanomechanics

Publié en ligne: 29 Jun 2020
Pages: 306 - 318

Résumé

Abstract

Two models of vibrations of the Euler–Bernoulli beam under a moving force, based on two different versions of the nonlocal gradient theory of elasticity, namely, the Eringen model, in which the strain is a function of stress gradient, and the nonlocal model, in which the stress is a function of strains gradient, were studied and compared. A dynamic response of a finite, simply supported beam under a moving force was evaluated. The force is moving along the beam with a constant velocity. Particular solutions in the form of an infinite series and some solutions in a closed form as well as the numerical results were presented.

Mots clés

  • vibration
  • beam
  • moving force
  • nonlocal elasticity
Accès libre

The Use of the Collocation Algorithm for Estimating the Deformations of Soil-Shell Objects Made of Corrugated Sheets

Publié en ligne: 26 Jun 2020
Pages: 319 - 329

Résumé

Abstract

The algorithm presented in this paper is intended for the analysis of deformations of shells in the construction phase of soil-shell objects when strain gauges and geodetic measurements are used. During the construction of such an object, large displacement values occur and the impact of axial forces on the displacement of a corrugated metal sheet is small. Internal forces (strain gauges), as well as the displacements of a selected circumferential band of the shell are determined directly from such observations.

The paper presents two examples of the analysis of large span shell structures of constructed objects, as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of the finite difference method (FDM) in beam schemes. Good deformation mapping was indicated using the collocation algorithm and the differential approach to the solution when there is a dense mesh and regular distribution of measuring points. In the analysed examples, a significant divergence between the support conditions adopted in the FEM calculation models and the actual static conditions in the objects was indicated. The collocation algorithm is especially designed for such situations. Collocation points in such a solution are used to consider a beam – separated from a structure and without boundary constraints, but with specific changes in curvature – as a reference system, which is determined from the geodetic measurements of two collocation points.

Mots clés

  • Monitoring
  • soil-steel objects
  • corrugated sheets
  • collocation
Accès libre

Empirical and theoretical models for prediction of soil thermal conductivity: a review and critical assessment

Publié en ligne: 09 Jul 2020
Pages: 330 - 340

Résumé

Abstract

The paper discusses existing models used to estimate the thermal conductivity of the soil medium. The considerations are divided into three general sections. In the first section of the paper, we focus on the presentation of empirical models. Here, in the case of Johansen method, different relations for Kersten number are also presented. In the next part, theoretical models are considered. In the following part, selected models were used to predict measured thermal conductivities of coarse- and fine-grained soils, at different water contents. Based on these predictions as well as on the authors’ experience, a critical assessment of the existing models is provided. The remarks as well as advantages and disadvantages of those models are summarized in a tabular form. The latter is important from a practical point of view; based on the table content, one can simply choose a model that is suitable for the particular problem.

Mots clés

  • Heat flow
  • thermal conductivity
  • soil
  • Kersten number
Accès libre

Using Triaxial Tests to Determine the Shearing Strength of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand

Publié en ligne: 25 Sep 2020
Pages: 341 - 354

Résumé

Abstract

Geogrids are widely used in civil engineering projects to reinforce road and railway structures. This paper presents research on the shearing strength of soil samples that have been reinforced with geogrids. The relationship between soil and geogrids is explored and evaluated by modeling the mechanical behavior of heterogeneous materials. For the purposes of this research, data obtained from tests of unreinforced sand samples with triaxial cells were compared with the data obtained from tests of reinforced sand samples. It was found that the shearing strength for reinforced samples was higher (from 9% to 49%) compared to unreinforced samples. Some damage to the geogrid was detected during the experiment, and for this reason, the same tests were numerically simulated for both unreinforced samples and samples reinforced with geogrids. Numerical simulations revealed the main reasons for damage to the geogrids during triaxial testing.

Mots clés

  • geogrid
  • sand
  • shearing strength
  • angle of internal friction
  • cohesion
Accès libre

Analysis of underground stratification based on CPTu profiles using high-pass spatial filter

Publié en ligne: 22 Sep 2020
Pages: 355 - 365

Résumé

Abstract

The issue of the stratification of the underground subsoil is one of the principal geotechnical challenges. The development of the Cone Penetration Tests (CPTu) has resulted in the possibility to record parameters in a quasi-continuous way, which provides a very detailed description of the soil response. Such accurate measurements may therefore be treated as a signal or image and be analysed as such. This paper presents the application of high-pass spatial filters to perform soil stratification on the basis of the static penetration test. The presented algorithm has been tested on the test data set provided by the Organizers of TC304 Student Contest on Spatial Data Analysis (September 22, 2019, Hannover, Germany). It provides reasonable results at negligible computational cost and is applicable to most soils, especially if the contrast between the parameters of the adjacent layers is significant.

Mots clés

  • Cone Penetration Test (CPTu)
  • soil stratification
  • convolutional filter
  • high-pass spatial filter
Accès libre

Statistical analysis of mechanical properties on the example of aggregates of Carpathian sandstones

Publié en ligne: 24 Sep 2020
Pages: 366 - 375

Résumé

Abstract

The constantly growing, broadly understood, construction industry requires the use of a large amount of aggregates. The construction of roads, motorways, railway lines and hydrotechnical structures requires the use of aggregates of high quality, which is primarily determined by mechanical properties. The basic parameters describing mechanical properties of aggregates are the Los Angeles (LA) fragmentation resistance coefficient and the Micro-Deval (MDE) abrasion resistance coefficient. The LA and MDE coefficients depend mainly on the type of rock and its physical and mechanical properties. This has been thoroughly researched and documented as evidenced by the abundant literature in the field. However, the correlation between LA and MDE coefficients still gives rise to extensive discussions and some concerns. A number of publications demonstrate dependencies for various types of aggregates. Therefore, research was undertaken to present statistical analysis for one type of aggregate and one geological area.

This article presents the results of the fragmentation resistance test in the Los Angeles drum and the abrasion resistance test in the Micro-Deval drum of aggregates from Carpathian sandstone deposits. Aggregate samples were divided into three groups according to the location of the deposits and the tectonic unit from which they originated. The obtained results were subjected to static analysis to fit the best mathematical function describing the relationship between the two parameters.

Mots clés

  • aggregates
  • Los Angeles coefficient
  • Micro-Deval coefficient
Accès libre

Risk Reduction of a Terrorist Attack on a Critical Infrastructure Facility of LGOM Based on the Example of the Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (OUOW Żelazny Most)

Publié en ligne: 25 Sep 2020
Pages: 376 - 387

Résumé

Abstract

This paper identifies the threats and risks of a terrorist attack on a critical infrastructure facility based on the example of Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (OUOW). The threat analysis primarily took into account the threats of deliberate human actions. Identification of potential threats concerning the infrastructure surrounding the facility was conducted based on information that is readily available on the Internet. The reasons why it may be a potential target were also justified. Numerical calculations of the stress–deformation scale of the initial state of the reservoir, based on the Biot model with the Kelvin–Voight rheological skeleton, were presented as a starting point for in-depth research on the scale of threats and risks to the reservoir. The presented numerical model can be a starting point for calculating the stability of a reservoir subjected to explosives. The facility constitutes a major element of Lubińsko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). OUOW Żelazny Most is the biggest such facility in Europe and is utilized to collect tailing waist. When expanded in its southern quarter, the facility will be the biggest in the world.

Mots clés

  • Tailings Storage Facility
  • threats
  • terrorist attack

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