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Volumen 26 (2022): Edición 1 (June 2022)

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2344-150X
Publicado por primera vez
30 Jul 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 26 (2022): Edición 1 (June 2022)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2344-150X
Publicado por primera vez
30 Jul 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

11 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Biotransformation of Hops-Derived Compounds in Beer – A Review

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 1 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

Besides providing bitterness to beer, hops also impart a whole range of aromas, such as herbal, spice, floral, citrus, fruity and pine to this beverage. Although hops are usually added in relatively small amounts, they have a significant impact on the sensory characteristics of the product. Raw hop aroma significantly differs from the aroma resulting from its addition to the beer. The final aroma of the beer arises from substances in the malt, hops, other additives, and yeast metabolism. The biochemical transformation of hop compounds by yeast has become more and more popular in recent years. Knowledge of this process may allow more precise control over the final sensory characteristics of the beverage. The article describes the chemical composition of hops and discusses the influence of the hopping regime on the concentration of volatile compounds in the finished product. Moreover, the article describes the biotransformation of hop-derived compounds by traditionally used Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, as well as less commonly used non-Saccharomyces yeast. The paper outlines the current state of knowledge on biotransformation of hop-derived hydrocarbons, terpenoids, esters, sulfur compounds and glycosidically bound aroma precursors.

Palabras clave

  • yeast
  • beer
  • hop
  • biotransformation
  • terpenoids
  • esters
Acceso abierto

Suitability of Selected Winter Cultivars of Wheat from Production of Wheat Beer

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 19 - 32

Resumen

Abstract

The study investigated the feasibility of three winter cultivars of wheat – Elixer, Rockefeller and Gimantis, for production of wheat beer. Reference samples were produced from commercially available wheat malt. The findings showed the beer produced from commercially available wheat malt presented the best sensory and physicochemical parameters, including real final fermentation of 70.11%. The results related to the investigated wheat cultivars showed good quality properties in the beer produced from malts obtained from Gimantis cultivar (content of CO2 – 0.58%), and from Rockefeller cultivar (alcohol content - 4.62% v/v). A similar relationship was observed in the sensory assessment. The findings related to beer produced from malt of Elixer wheat cultivar showed relatively low effectiveness of the production process (69.7%) and final beer fermentation (65.52%), and at the same time high contents of polyphenols (210 mg/dm3) and antioxidant activity. Wheat malts produced from Gimantis and Rockefeller cultivars can effectively be used as a raw material in beer production; on the other hand, malt from Elixer cultivar, found with higher antioxidant contents, may be used as an additive to be applied in a small quantity in the mashing process in order to enhance the beer in terms of its potential health benefits.

Palabras clave

  • wheat beer
  • sensory assessment
  • antioxidant potential
  • beer quality determinants
Acceso abierto

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Flour as Functional Ingredient for Chorizo: Effect Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Functional Meat Products

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 33 - 42

Resumen

Abstract

Functional meat products are necessary to improve the health of consumers without detrimental effects on high biological value protein consumption. The incorporation of natural antioxidants and dietary fibre from agro-industrial coproducts is a good alternative to improve the nutritional characteristics of meat products. Pomegranate peel flour was employed as a functional ingredient to replace part of the fat, in a raw meat product like chorizo, determining changes in instrumental colour and texture, sensory acceptation, and neophobia. Pomegranate peel flour presented high content of polyphenols with considerable antioxidant activity, and high content of dietary fibre as well. Fibre retained moisture, decreasing water activity of the chorizos, decreasing pH during storage. Pomegranate peel flour increased the colour tone of the chorizos and decreased colour intensity, with a tough but easy to crumble texture. Sensory acceptation of chorizos with pomegranate peel flour was higher than control, although taste and texture were scored lower than the control sample. Results show that incorporation of pomegranate peel flour decreased Aw and pH, besides increased the samples luminosity and tone. Chorizo with pomegranate peel flour were harder than control. Nonetheless, as a functional ingredient improved health benefits with a positive consumers’ acceptance, non-neophobic, particularly in older consumers (40-50 years old). Pomegranate peel flour is a viable ingredient in the formulation of functional meat products.

Palabras clave

  • pomegranate
  • chorizo
  • antioxidants
  • fibre
  • sensory acceptation
  • food neophobia
Acceso abierto

Quality and Technological Properties of Flour with the Addition of Aesculus Hippocastanum and Castanea Sativa

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 43 - 54

Resumen

Abstract

The study of alternative food sources or ingredients that can partially replace or enrich today’s food is a perspective direction. The possibility of using horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) fruits in the baking industry as an admixture to wheat flour has been determined. The addition of flours from these fruits at a level of 10% increases the number of minerals in the flour mixture and also enriches the mixture in saponins, coumarins, and tannins. However, it is necessary to remove excess saponins from horse chestnut. The amylograph has shown that flour from horse chestnut fruit has optimal parameters for baking mixed bread. Farinograph tests showed that a 10% addition of ground horse chestnut to wheat flour had the best baking properties. Mixtures with 10 and 15% chestnut addition showed the best baking characteristic.

Palabras clave

  • baking characteristic
  • flour
  • horse chestnut
  • sweet chestnut
Acceso abierto

Microbiological Quality and Organoleptic Property of Meat and Fish Preserved with Oil from Dacryodes Edulis Seed

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 55 - 68

Resumen

Abstract

The bioactive compounds contributing to aroma and natural antimicrobial potential of oil from Dacryodes edulis seed can be harnessed in food industries as food preservatives. This study therefore, reveals the preservative effect and organoleptic property of meat and fish preserved with oil from D. edulis seed. Proximate and mineral analysis of oil were carried out using standard methods. Preservative quality of oil on fish and meat was investigated at 4°C and 37°C. Organoleptic property of preserved fish and meat was determined using trained panellists. Fat, protein, carbohydrates, crude fibre, ash and moisture content of oil from D. edulis seed are 55.7%, 18.7%, 10.8%, 7.1%, 4.6% and 3.1%, respectively. Potassium (106.5 µg/g) and phosphorous (102.5 µg/g) have the relatively highest values compared (p<0.05) to other minerals like zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Better preservative property of oil was observed on fried fish and meat kept at 4°C with no microbial growth. The highest microbial load (3.95 × 106 cfu/g) occurred in fresh chicken coated with oil from D. edulis seed after 7 days of preservation. Fish and meat fried with oil from D. edulis seed were well accepted (9.00) than those fried with groundnut oil (3.50). Oil from D. edulis seed is an edible oil that can be utilized as alternative vegetable oil with natural preservatives and embedded nutrients.

Palabras clave

  • meat
  • fish
  • preservation
  • microbial count and seeds
Acceso abierto

Mineral Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Urease, and Antibiofilm Potential of Juglans Regia Leaves and Unripe Fruits

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 69 - 82

Resumen

Abstract

The leaves and unripe fruits from 5 walnut clones were tested in terms of mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and the inhibitory effect on model urease. It has been shown that the leaves are richer in minerals and also have higher antioxidant potential than unripe fruits. HPTLC polyphenolic profiles of leaves extract were found more abundant in flavonoids regardless of the sample origin. Only green walnut extracts showed an effect as urease inhibitors. Higher antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus in comparison with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Both leaf and fruit extracts showed antibiofilm activity, up to 95% of biofilm inhibition. It was shown that all tested Juglans regia extracts can serve as a valuable antibacterial agent against staphylococci infections.

Palabras clave

  • green walnut
  • antioxidant potential
  • antibiofilm activity
  • HPTLC
  • urease
Acceso abierto

Convection Drying Influence on Thermo-Physical Properties, Bioactive Substances, Color and Texture Profile of Red Pepper (Capsicum Spp)

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 83 - 98

Resumen

Abstract

This work aimed to study the effect of convection drying on bioactive substances and on the texture profile of red pepper. Four mathematical models were used to model the drying kinetics, as a function of the temperature and the thickness of slices. These models are largely in agreement with experimental data. Effective diffusivity, Arrhenius constant, activation energy and thermal properties changed with temperature of dry process. The two varieties of pepper used in this work demonstrated a very high degree of spiciness (144799.37-160899.37 SU). This property is related to the high contents of capsaicin (39.60-44.01 mg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (32.33-35.95 mg/g). Our results revealed that brittleness, hardness 1 and 2, firmness, chewiness, gumminess appearance and Young’s modulus are very important attributes in determining the textural profile of dried red pepper. Also, drying causes a strong degradation of natural pigments of red pepper and consequently decreases attractiveness of the texture profile. To avoid that, red pepper should be pretreated before the application of hot air drying.

Palabras clave

  • Red pepper
  • Modelling
  • Thermophysical properties
  • Pigments
  • Texture Profile analysis (TPA)
Acceso abierto

The Analysis of Correlations Between Terpene Transformations and Fermentation Type of Apple Musts

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 99 - 108

Resumen

Abstract

We measured the concentration of 13 terpenes in musts of 3 different apple cultivars fermented spontaneously, with Ethanol RED yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Cider Yeast (Saccharomyces bayanus). Then we analysed obtained data with PCA with various packages in R to assess how different types of fermentation and apple cultivars affected terpene profile. The most informative results of PCA were obtained in ‘psych’ package and they indicated that there were groups of terpenes which concentrations increased simultaneously, while for some other groups the content of particular compounds was negatively correlated. This suggests that the first group of terpenes originated from different substrates while the latter group could be obtained from the same compound. Our findings indicated new possible pathways of terpene transformation, e.g. linalool, citral and geraniol could transform into one another. Moreover, the role of S. bayanus in those processes remains unclear and it requires further consideration.

Palabras clave

  • fermented apple must
  • terpenes
  • PCA
  • fermentation
  • GC-FID
Acceso abierto

Differences in the Pollen Content of Varieties of Polish Honey from Urban and Rural Apiaries

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 109 - 122

Resumen

Abstract

The value of honey as a natural food product is influenced by its pollen content, with the dominant type of pollen conferring specific medicinal properties. The present study examines the pollen spectra of 31 honeys from urban (linden, acacia, polyfloral, honeydew) and rural (rape, acacia, polyfloral, honeydew) apiaries in Poland. The pollen in content in honey ranged from 0.2 to 88 %. In total, 76 plant taxa were identified, 21 of which were assigned to forms A, B and C. Higher pollen grain content and a greater diversity of honey plant taxa were found in the urban honey, particularly polyfloral honey; this could be attributed to the rich variety of plants found in urban green areas compared to rural areas ones.

Palabras clave

  • bee product
  • pollen classification
  • honey plants
  • urban and rural areas
Acceso abierto

Influence of Bacillus Subtilis Fermentation on Content of Selected Macronutrients in Seeds and Beans

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 123 - 138

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, five plant matrices (pea, mung bean, lentils, soy and sunflower) were fermented using Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Then the process influence on the content of fatty acids and proteins was evaluated, depending on the fermentation length. Fermentation was conducted for 144 hours in controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity (37°C, 75%). Samples for tests were collected every 24 hours. Gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate fatty acids content in fermented seeds. Their composition was expressed as a percentage of the total quantity of fatty acids. The protein content in plant matrices was analysed with the modified Bradford protein assay, using the TECAN apparatus with the i-Control software, of the wave length of ʎ=595 nm. Studies showed that the prolonged fermentation time influenced an increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content in all studied seeds. Promising results were obtained for soy, sunflower, and lentil seeds, amounting to 3.6%; 68.7% and 67.7%, respectively. This proves that the process of seed fermentation can be effectively used to increase their nutritional value.

Palabras clave

  • (natto)
  • bacterial fermentation
  • seeds/beans
  • fatty acids
  • proteins
Acceso abierto

Biochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Different Preparations from Microbial Waste of the Beer Industry

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 139 - 146

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of different natural preparations obtained from the yeast biomass of beer industry waste. It was found that the preparations had a valuable biochemical composition, high antioxidant activities, a broad spectrum of immunoactive and essential amino acids, and that their protein and carbohydrate contents varied depending on the extraction stage and solvent. In conclusion, the varied biochemical composition, significant antioxidant and enzymatic activities, the innocuousness of Saccharomyces yeasts for living organisms, suggest that the obtained preparations can be an excellent source of biologically active substances and that their high biological activity presents a considerable potential for animal husbandry, food industry and cosmetics.

Palabras clave

  • yeasts
  • waste
  • biologically active preparations
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • antioxidant and enzymatic activity
11 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Biotransformation of Hops-Derived Compounds in Beer – A Review

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 1 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

Besides providing bitterness to beer, hops also impart a whole range of aromas, such as herbal, spice, floral, citrus, fruity and pine to this beverage. Although hops are usually added in relatively small amounts, they have a significant impact on the sensory characteristics of the product. Raw hop aroma significantly differs from the aroma resulting from its addition to the beer. The final aroma of the beer arises from substances in the malt, hops, other additives, and yeast metabolism. The biochemical transformation of hop compounds by yeast has become more and more popular in recent years. Knowledge of this process may allow more precise control over the final sensory characteristics of the beverage. The article describes the chemical composition of hops and discusses the influence of the hopping regime on the concentration of volatile compounds in the finished product. Moreover, the article describes the biotransformation of hop-derived compounds by traditionally used Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, as well as less commonly used non-Saccharomyces yeast. The paper outlines the current state of knowledge on biotransformation of hop-derived hydrocarbons, terpenoids, esters, sulfur compounds and glycosidically bound aroma precursors.

Palabras clave

  • yeast
  • beer
  • hop
  • biotransformation
  • terpenoids
  • esters
Acceso abierto

Suitability of Selected Winter Cultivars of Wheat from Production of Wheat Beer

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 19 - 32

Resumen

Abstract

The study investigated the feasibility of three winter cultivars of wheat – Elixer, Rockefeller and Gimantis, for production of wheat beer. Reference samples were produced from commercially available wheat malt. The findings showed the beer produced from commercially available wheat malt presented the best sensory and physicochemical parameters, including real final fermentation of 70.11%. The results related to the investigated wheat cultivars showed good quality properties in the beer produced from malts obtained from Gimantis cultivar (content of CO2 – 0.58%), and from Rockefeller cultivar (alcohol content - 4.62% v/v). A similar relationship was observed in the sensory assessment. The findings related to beer produced from malt of Elixer wheat cultivar showed relatively low effectiveness of the production process (69.7%) and final beer fermentation (65.52%), and at the same time high contents of polyphenols (210 mg/dm3) and antioxidant activity. Wheat malts produced from Gimantis and Rockefeller cultivars can effectively be used as a raw material in beer production; on the other hand, malt from Elixer cultivar, found with higher antioxidant contents, may be used as an additive to be applied in a small quantity in the mashing process in order to enhance the beer in terms of its potential health benefits.

Palabras clave

  • wheat beer
  • sensory assessment
  • antioxidant potential
  • beer quality determinants
Acceso abierto

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Flour as Functional Ingredient for Chorizo: Effect Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Functional Meat Products

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 33 - 42

Resumen

Abstract

Functional meat products are necessary to improve the health of consumers without detrimental effects on high biological value protein consumption. The incorporation of natural antioxidants and dietary fibre from agro-industrial coproducts is a good alternative to improve the nutritional characteristics of meat products. Pomegranate peel flour was employed as a functional ingredient to replace part of the fat, in a raw meat product like chorizo, determining changes in instrumental colour and texture, sensory acceptation, and neophobia. Pomegranate peel flour presented high content of polyphenols with considerable antioxidant activity, and high content of dietary fibre as well. Fibre retained moisture, decreasing water activity of the chorizos, decreasing pH during storage. Pomegranate peel flour increased the colour tone of the chorizos and decreased colour intensity, with a tough but easy to crumble texture. Sensory acceptation of chorizos with pomegranate peel flour was higher than control, although taste and texture were scored lower than the control sample. Results show that incorporation of pomegranate peel flour decreased Aw and pH, besides increased the samples luminosity and tone. Chorizo with pomegranate peel flour were harder than control. Nonetheless, as a functional ingredient improved health benefits with a positive consumers’ acceptance, non-neophobic, particularly in older consumers (40-50 years old). Pomegranate peel flour is a viable ingredient in the formulation of functional meat products.

Palabras clave

  • pomegranate
  • chorizo
  • antioxidants
  • fibre
  • sensory acceptation
  • food neophobia
Acceso abierto

Quality and Technological Properties of Flour with the Addition of Aesculus Hippocastanum and Castanea Sativa

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 43 - 54

Resumen

Abstract

The study of alternative food sources or ingredients that can partially replace or enrich today’s food is a perspective direction. The possibility of using horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) fruits in the baking industry as an admixture to wheat flour has been determined. The addition of flours from these fruits at a level of 10% increases the number of minerals in the flour mixture and also enriches the mixture in saponins, coumarins, and tannins. However, it is necessary to remove excess saponins from horse chestnut. The amylograph has shown that flour from horse chestnut fruit has optimal parameters for baking mixed bread. Farinograph tests showed that a 10% addition of ground horse chestnut to wheat flour had the best baking properties. Mixtures with 10 and 15% chestnut addition showed the best baking characteristic.

Palabras clave

  • baking characteristic
  • flour
  • horse chestnut
  • sweet chestnut
Acceso abierto

Microbiological Quality and Organoleptic Property of Meat and Fish Preserved with Oil from Dacryodes Edulis Seed

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 55 - 68

Resumen

Abstract

The bioactive compounds contributing to aroma and natural antimicrobial potential of oil from Dacryodes edulis seed can be harnessed in food industries as food preservatives. This study therefore, reveals the preservative effect and organoleptic property of meat and fish preserved with oil from D. edulis seed. Proximate and mineral analysis of oil were carried out using standard methods. Preservative quality of oil on fish and meat was investigated at 4°C and 37°C. Organoleptic property of preserved fish and meat was determined using trained panellists. Fat, protein, carbohydrates, crude fibre, ash and moisture content of oil from D. edulis seed are 55.7%, 18.7%, 10.8%, 7.1%, 4.6% and 3.1%, respectively. Potassium (106.5 µg/g) and phosphorous (102.5 µg/g) have the relatively highest values compared (p<0.05) to other minerals like zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Better preservative property of oil was observed on fried fish and meat kept at 4°C with no microbial growth. The highest microbial load (3.95 × 106 cfu/g) occurred in fresh chicken coated with oil from D. edulis seed after 7 days of preservation. Fish and meat fried with oil from D. edulis seed were well accepted (9.00) than those fried with groundnut oil (3.50). Oil from D. edulis seed is an edible oil that can be utilized as alternative vegetable oil with natural preservatives and embedded nutrients.

Palabras clave

  • meat
  • fish
  • preservation
  • microbial count and seeds
Acceso abierto

Mineral Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Urease, and Antibiofilm Potential of Juglans Regia Leaves and Unripe Fruits

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 69 - 82

Resumen

Abstract

The leaves and unripe fruits from 5 walnut clones were tested in terms of mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and the inhibitory effect on model urease. It has been shown that the leaves are richer in minerals and also have higher antioxidant potential than unripe fruits. HPTLC polyphenolic profiles of leaves extract were found more abundant in flavonoids regardless of the sample origin. Only green walnut extracts showed an effect as urease inhibitors. Higher antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus in comparison with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Both leaf and fruit extracts showed antibiofilm activity, up to 95% of biofilm inhibition. It was shown that all tested Juglans regia extracts can serve as a valuable antibacterial agent against staphylococci infections.

Palabras clave

  • green walnut
  • antioxidant potential
  • antibiofilm activity
  • HPTLC
  • urease
Acceso abierto

Convection Drying Influence on Thermo-Physical Properties, Bioactive Substances, Color and Texture Profile of Red Pepper (Capsicum Spp)

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 83 - 98

Resumen

Abstract

This work aimed to study the effect of convection drying on bioactive substances and on the texture profile of red pepper. Four mathematical models were used to model the drying kinetics, as a function of the temperature and the thickness of slices. These models are largely in agreement with experimental data. Effective diffusivity, Arrhenius constant, activation energy and thermal properties changed with temperature of dry process. The two varieties of pepper used in this work demonstrated a very high degree of spiciness (144799.37-160899.37 SU). This property is related to the high contents of capsaicin (39.60-44.01 mg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (32.33-35.95 mg/g). Our results revealed that brittleness, hardness 1 and 2, firmness, chewiness, gumminess appearance and Young’s modulus are very important attributes in determining the textural profile of dried red pepper. Also, drying causes a strong degradation of natural pigments of red pepper and consequently decreases attractiveness of the texture profile. To avoid that, red pepper should be pretreated before the application of hot air drying.

Palabras clave

  • Red pepper
  • Modelling
  • Thermophysical properties
  • Pigments
  • Texture Profile analysis (TPA)
Acceso abierto

The Analysis of Correlations Between Terpene Transformations and Fermentation Type of Apple Musts

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 99 - 108

Resumen

Abstract

We measured the concentration of 13 terpenes in musts of 3 different apple cultivars fermented spontaneously, with Ethanol RED yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Cider Yeast (Saccharomyces bayanus). Then we analysed obtained data with PCA with various packages in R to assess how different types of fermentation and apple cultivars affected terpene profile. The most informative results of PCA were obtained in ‘psych’ package and they indicated that there were groups of terpenes which concentrations increased simultaneously, while for some other groups the content of particular compounds was negatively correlated. This suggests that the first group of terpenes originated from different substrates while the latter group could be obtained from the same compound. Our findings indicated new possible pathways of terpene transformation, e.g. linalool, citral and geraniol could transform into one another. Moreover, the role of S. bayanus in those processes remains unclear and it requires further consideration.

Palabras clave

  • fermented apple must
  • terpenes
  • PCA
  • fermentation
  • GC-FID
Acceso abierto

Differences in the Pollen Content of Varieties of Polish Honey from Urban and Rural Apiaries

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 109 - 122

Resumen

Abstract

The value of honey as a natural food product is influenced by its pollen content, with the dominant type of pollen conferring specific medicinal properties. The present study examines the pollen spectra of 31 honeys from urban (linden, acacia, polyfloral, honeydew) and rural (rape, acacia, polyfloral, honeydew) apiaries in Poland. The pollen in content in honey ranged from 0.2 to 88 %. In total, 76 plant taxa were identified, 21 of which were assigned to forms A, B and C. Higher pollen grain content and a greater diversity of honey plant taxa were found in the urban honey, particularly polyfloral honey; this could be attributed to the rich variety of plants found in urban green areas compared to rural areas ones.

Palabras clave

  • bee product
  • pollen classification
  • honey plants
  • urban and rural areas
Acceso abierto

Influence of Bacillus Subtilis Fermentation on Content of Selected Macronutrients in Seeds and Beans

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 123 - 138

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, five plant matrices (pea, mung bean, lentils, soy and sunflower) were fermented using Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Then the process influence on the content of fatty acids and proteins was evaluated, depending on the fermentation length. Fermentation was conducted for 144 hours in controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity (37°C, 75%). Samples for tests were collected every 24 hours. Gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate fatty acids content in fermented seeds. Their composition was expressed as a percentage of the total quantity of fatty acids. The protein content in plant matrices was analysed with the modified Bradford protein assay, using the TECAN apparatus with the i-Control software, of the wave length of ʎ=595 nm. Studies showed that the prolonged fermentation time influenced an increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content in all studied seeds. Promising results were obtained for soy, sunflower, and lentil seeds, amounting to 3.6%; 68.7% and 67.7%, respectively. This proves that the process of seed fermentation can be effectively used to increase their nutritional value.

Palabras clave

  • (natto)
  • bacterial fermentation
  • seeds/beans
  • fatty acids
  • proteins
Acceso abierto

Biochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Different Preparations from Microbial Waste of the Beer Industry

Publicado en línea: 09 Jul 2022
Páginas: 139 - 146

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of different natural preparations obtained from the yeast biomass of beer industry waste. It was found that the preparations had a valuable biochemical composition, high antioxidant activities, a broad spectrum of immunoactive and essential amino acids, and that their protein and carbohydrate contents varied depending on the extraction stage and solvent. In conclusion, the varied biochemical composition, significant antioxidant and enzymatic activities, the innocuousness of Saccharomyces yeasts for living organisms, suggest that the obtained preparations can be an excellent source of biologically active substances and that their high biological activity presents a considerable potential for animal husbandry, food industry and cosmetics.

Palabras clave

  • yeasts
  • waste
  • biologically active preparations
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • antioxidant and enzymatic activity

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