Issues

Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 65 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 64 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 63 (2020): Issue 1 (September 2020)

Volume 62 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 61 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 60 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (September 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 57 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 56 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 55 (2018): Issue 1 (September 2018)

Volume 54 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 53 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 52 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 51 (2017): Issue 1 (September 2017)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 49 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 48 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 47 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 46 (2016): Issue 1 (September 2016)

Volume 45 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 44 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 43 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 42 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 41 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Volume 40 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 39 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 38 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 37 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)
Mechanisms and Methods of Decision Making / Ed. by Ewa Roszkowska

Volume 36 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 35 (2013): Issue 1 (December 2013)

Volume 34 (2013): Issue 1 (October 2013)

Volume 33 (2013): Issue 1 (August 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 1 (May 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6059
First Published
08 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6059
First Published
08 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Using Selected Data-Mining Methods in the Analysis of Data Concerning the Attitudes of Students towards the Issue of Vaccination

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 549 - 559

Abstract

Abstract

Preventive vaccination is one of the greatest successes of modern medicine. The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, during which vaccination is the main method of prevention against death and severe disease, gave rise to a resurgence of anti-vaccine (anti-vax) movements. The aim of this study was to analyse the attitudes of students towards vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical analysis was performed with the use of the following data-mining methods: correspondence analysis and basket analysis. The obtained results show that students of medicine are characterized with the highest level of knowledge. Students of other medical faculties, on the other hand, have a significantly less uniform views, as do students of non-medical faculties.

Open Access

How the COVID-19 Pandemic Affected the Accessibility and Quality of Health Services in Poland

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 561 - 572

Abstract

Abstract

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the global economy, including the provision of health services, with medical facilities and patients cancelling or postponing medical appointments. An alternative to in-person appointments was through the available forms of telemedicine. Scientific reports around the world have suggested that the accessibility and quality of health services declined. The aim of this study was to investigate the accessibility and quality of health services in Poland and to verify whether there were differences between men and women in this respect. The study was based on the authors’ own survey questionnaire filled in by 265 respondents, including 181 women, 82 men, and 2 persons without a defined gender. The study revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the accessibility and quality of health services declined. Additionally, women were more likely to use general and specialist health services than men, but a comparison of changes in the assessment of accessibility and quality of services by gender revealed no differences in the assessment of accessibility and quality.

Open Access

The Use of the Kohonen Neural Network for Comparing the Declared and Actual State of Knowledge Regarding Reproductive Health and the Impact of Selected Lifestyle Components on Reproductive Health

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 573 - 586

Abstract

Abstract

Infertility is a global problem affecting 48 to 186 million couples of reproductive age. In Poland, it concerns approx. 1.5 million couples, which amounts to 20% of the population capable of reproducing. One of the factors influencing the incidence of fertility disorders may be lifestyle, understood as a multi-disciplinary accumulation of everyday behaviours and habits. In the study, a group of 201 young adults, students of medical and related faculties, were surveyed in order to check the actual level of knowledge about the impact of lifestyle on reproductive health. The Kohonen network, which is an example of a self-learning neural network, was used to find non-obvious connections between the data. The trained Kohonen neural network formed 4 clusters with different characteristics. Based on analyses of the structure of each cluster, it was found that 2nd year students of Medicine are internally divided into 3 fractions. The first fraction declared a high level of knowledge, but did not have real knowledge. The second fraction was aware of their ignorance, as confirmed by the knowledge test. The last fraction was characterized by a high level of self-confidence regarding their knowledge about reproductive health and obtained a high result in the knowledge test. It was confirmed that people studying at the Medical faculty know more than students of the same year at faculties other than Medicine. Interesting results were obtained for a group of 3rd year students of first-cycle studies in Dietetics. They did not obtain a significantly better result in the knowledge test concerning the influence of diet and lifestyle on reproductive health. It would seem that one could expect at least a few highly knowledgeable students in a group of 3rd year students, but this was not confirmed by the study. In view of the obtained results, it was concluded that the Kohonen neural network is applicable to the analysis of data on the actual state of knowledge about the impact of lifestyle on reproductive health.

Open Access

Analysis of Indications for Electrotherapy Using Classification Trees

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 587 - 596

Abstract

Abstract

Electrotherapy is a dynamically developing method of treatment of sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular conduction disturbances. It is an extremely important method used in the treatment of heart failure. The aim of this paper was to use classification trees for the differentiation between patients implanted with one of the three electrotherapy devices, i.e. SC-VVI/AAI, DC-DDD, ICD/CRT. The analysed data concerned 2071 patients who underwent implantation or device replacement procedures in the years 2010–2018, hospitalized in a coronary care unit. CART-type classification trees with 5-fold cross-validation were used for the analysis. The decision concerning the choice of a particular electrotherapy device is always made based on the latest guidelines and the patient’s clinical condition. The used classification trees may enable verification of the state of implementation of guidelines in real-life therapeutic decisions.

Open Access

Using Regression Trees to Find the Factors Influencing the Level of Knowledge about Fertility and the Diet That Supports It among People Dancing in Max Dance Studio in Białystok

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 597 - 608

Abstract

Abstract

Many studies confirm the fact that women do not have sufficient knowledge about reproductive health, which is a significant problem nowadays due to the large percentage of people who suffer from infertility. A sources of knowledge from which information about health, including reproductive health, is obtained have various levels of reliability. The aim of the study was to use regression trees to find which of the analysed parameters had the greatest impact on the level of respondents’ knowledge about fertility and the impact of diet on fertility. The study was conducted among women who practice dance in Max Dance studio in Białystok. The group consisted of 42 women with an average age of 26.3 years, dancing in various dance styles at various levels of proficiency. A questionnaire on lifestyle and a sources of information on fertility was used; the questionnaire also contained a knowledge test focused on reproductive health and the impact of diet on fertility, in which the questions were based on information from the latest research. Three regression trees were created for three indicators determining the level of respondents’ knowledge. The obtained results revealed certain areas that have a significant impact on the level of knowledge about reproductive health, which may require additional education. The use of the regression trees method made it possible to determine the relationships between the analysed data that were not fully visible after standard biostatistical analyses had been performed. The created trees can be useful in improving the process of disseminating knowledge about reproductive health among women of childbearing age.

Open Access

Analysis of Learning Outcomes in Medical Education with the Use of Fuzzy Logic

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 609 - 616

Abstract

Abstract

The national curricula of the EU member states are structured around learning outcomes, selected according to Bloom’s Taxonomy. The authors of this paper claim that using Bloom’s Taxonomy to phrase learning outcomes in medical education in terms of students’ achievements is difficult and unclear. This paper presents an efficient method of assessing course learning outcomes using Fuzzy Logic.

Open Access

The Place of e-learning in ALS Teaching

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 617 - 624

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the place of e-learning methods in the teaching of Advanced Life Support (ALS) to second year medical students. The described course lasts 30 hours and consists of lectures, seminars, and classes. Numerous modifications of the course were introduced in the past and at the moment electronic learning methods are being improved with new ones being added as well. The following have been implemented: 1. e-learning presentations instead of lectures; 2. recording own instructional movie demonstrating advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 3. a change in the method of conducting practical classes consisting in recording the medical procedures performed by students with a camera. Although e-learning plays an important role in ALS teaching, it cannot completely replace on-site classes. Thus, ALS without any practice to acquire resuscitation skills is impossible.

Open Access

Design of a System Supporting the Collection of Information on the Completed Didactic Classes at Medical University of Białystok as an Attempt at Improving the Quality of Education

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 625 - 633

Abstract

Abstract

Obtaining a sufficient amount of measurable and reliable results of student surveys has always posed a challenge for university teams tasked with the provision of the quality of education. This is especially visible at faculties where education is based on the classic classroom-based model, which then transfers to clinical units, hospital wards, and specialist laboratories. The highly unpredictable pandemic situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus raises the bar for the evaluation of didactics. Fortunately, the continuous technological progress in the area of Artificial Intelligence makes it possible to design the implementation of tools that would improve the position of systems for the management of courses of studies. The evaluation survey for didactic classes, as one of the last output data obtained during the process, may finally become a fully recognized source of information about the conducted classes and the teachers themselves. On the other hand, it may become a tool for those surveyed to influence the quality of classes, express their opinion, present suggestions and propositions generally pertaining to changes in the process of education. New information technologies not only make it possible to improve the effectiveness of reaching the recipients, but also provide completely new, very reliable methods of acquisition of credible behaviour, used as integration data in solutions based on machine communication. Using Artificial Intelligence coupled with data may make it possible to use intelligent communication for effective management of the process of surveying – a solution that has so far been used in business, in the form of the so-called bots. As a result, this would lead to an ongoing, fully quantitative and qualitative, assessment of classes.

Open Access

The Comparison of Three Assessment Scales in a Neonatal Unit in Poland

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 635 - 646

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the following three assessments: the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), and the General Movement Assessment (GMA). 29 patients from the neonatal unit of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital were examined. The study was conducted between feedings by a person properly trained in the use of the NBAS, the AIMS, and the GMA. The average postmenstrual age of the examined newborns was 35.6 weeks. The average week of gestation was the 29th, the average birth weight was 1469 g, and the Median Apgar score in the fifth minute of life was 7. A relationship was found between the AIMS and the NBAS. It was concluded that the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale may be used to determine the motor development of preterm infants. Moreover, it is advisable to use more than one assessment method in order to adjust the intervention.

Open Access

Internet System Supporting the Work of Nurses in Long-Term Geriatric Care

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 647 - 661

Abstract

Abstract

The development of health sciences along with the continuous technological progress contribute to the emergence of web applications. There exist many applications supporting the work of doctors, whereas the market definitely lacks solutions supporting the work of nurses. This is particularly evident in long-term geriatric home care, in which the nursing specialization is developing rapidly. Care of elderly patients requires the nurse to collect medical documents from each visit. Considering the large number of diseases affecting elderly people and the number of required visits – which should exceed 4 a week – a decision was made to develop an Internet application supporting the work of nurses in long-term geriatric care. The application facilitates the process of geriatric patient description in order to eliminate the need for filling in paper medical records. This study presents the method of developing an Internet application supporting the work of nurses in long-term geriatric care. The software was developed based on an analysis of conclusions from a social study carried out in a group of 42 nurses providing geriatric long-term home medical care services in the district of Białystok, Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the features, functionality, and declarative interest in using the software. Conclusions from the analysis indicated that the attempt to develop the application had been justified. Moreover, conclusions from the social survey formed the basis for formulating the design assumptions. The web application was developed in the following technologies: HTML 5, CSS3, JavaScript, PHP 7, and MySQL. First, a prototype of the solution was tested in a XAMPP environment. After successful tests, the app was tested in a nursing practice. The obtained test results raise high hopes for potential commercialization of the application.

Open Access

Cooperation Between a Doctor and a Podiatrist to Improve the Quality of Life of Patients with Ingrown Toenails

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 663 - 670

Abstract

Abstract

Cooperation between doctors of various specialties and other medical specialists is the standard of care in the treatment of patients. Due to the variety of diseases and the dynamic development of medicine in general, it is difficult to be an expert in every field and know all the recommended treatments. An example of such cooperation is the joint treatment of patients with the problem of ingrown toenails. The article contains an analysis of patients who received treatment in a doctor’s office in cooperation with podiatrists. A conservative approach towards the treatment of this condition sees the patient being initially diagnosed and treated by a podiatrist and then later, if necessary, being referred to a doctor for surgical treatment. The exchange of experiences and information on patients treated by interdisciplinary teams allows doctors and podiatrists to find the best possible treatment and improve the quality of life of patients. The follow-up of patients after surgery can be performed later in podiatry offices. Owing to modern electronic communication, it is possible for a doctor to constantly monitor the patient’s condition without the need for direct visits to the doctor’s office.

Open Access

“Mathematics is the Logic of the Infinite”: Zermelo’s Project of Infinitary Logic

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 673 - 708

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper I discuss Ernst Zermelo’s ideas concerning the possibility of developing a system of infinitary logic that, in his opinion, should be suitable for mathematical inferences. The presentation of Zermelo’s ideas is accompanied with some remarks concerning the development of infinitary logic. I also stress the fact that the second axiomatization of set theory provided by Zermelo in 1930 involved the use of extremal axioms of a very specific sort.1

Keywords

  • infinitary logic
  • axiomatic set theory
  • extremal axiom
Open Access

Domestication of Mathematical Pathologies

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 709 - 720

Abstract

Abstract

Certain mathematical objects bear the name “pathological” (or “paradoxical”). They either occur as unexpected and (temporarily) unwilling in mathematical research practice, or are constructed deliberately, for instance in order to delimit the scope of application of a theorem. I discuss examples of mathematical pathologies and the circumstances of their emergence. I focus my attention on the creative role of pathologies in the development of mathematics. Finally, I propose a few reflections concerning the degree of cognitive accessibility of mathematical objects. I believe that the problems discussed in the paper may attract the attention of philosophers interested in concept formation and the development of mathematical ideas.

Keywords

  • paradox
  • mathematical pathology
  • concept formation
  • mathematical intuition
Open Access

Logical Reasoning for Forecasting in Mesopotamia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 721 - 746

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, I show that a kind of perfect logical competence is observed in the Babylonian tablets used for forecasting. In these documents, we see an intuition of some algebraic structures that are used for inferring prognoses as logical conclusions. The paper is based mainly on the omen series reconstructed by N. De Zorzi. It is shown that in composing these divination lists there was implicitly used the Boolean algebra.

Keywords

  • symbolic logic
  • omens
  • divination
  • Judaic logic
  • Akkadian
  • modus pones
  • modus tollens
Open Access

Nouns in the Be of N-Construction: A Corpus-Based Investigation

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 747 - 768

Abstract

Abstract

This paper employs a usage-based approach to grammar, the theory of frame semantics, and the corpus-based method referred to as the attraction-reliance measure, for the purpose of examining the mutual association between a noun and the be of N-pattern: in other words, to determine nouns that are strongly associated with this construction. On the basis of the data gleaned from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), the paper aims to indicate that there are specific categories of nouns occurring in the construction under scrutiny, and that this construction performs specific functions in discourse.

Keywords

  • construction grammar
  • COCA
  • frame semantics
  • attraction-reliance method
15 Articles
Open Access

Using Selected Data-Mining Methods in the Analysis of Data Concerning the Attitudes of Students towards the Issue of Vaccination

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 549 - 559

Abstract

Abstract

Preventive vaccination is one of the greatest successes of modern medicine. The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, during which vaccination is the main method of prevention against death and severe disease, gave rise to a resurgence of anti-vaccine (anti-vax) movements. The aim of this study was to analyse the attitudes of students towards vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical analysis was performed with the use of the following data-mining methods: correspondence analysis and basket analysis. The obtained results show that students of medicine are characterized with the highest level of knowledge. Students of other medical faculties, on the other hand, have a significantly less uniform views, as do students of non-medical faculties.

Open Access

How the COVID-19 Pandemic Affected the Accessibility and Quality of Health Services in Poland

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 561 - 572

Abstract

Abstract

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the global economy, including the provision of health services, with medical facilities and patients cancelling or postponing medical appointments. An alternative to in-person appointments was through the available forms of telemedicine. Scientific reports around the world have suggested that the accessibility and quality of health services declined. The aim of this study was to investigate the accessibility and quality of health services in Poland and to verify whether there were differences between men and women in this respect. The study was based on the authors’ own survey questionnaire filled in by 265 respondents, including 181 women, 82 men, and 2 persons without a defined gender. The study revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the accessibility and quality of health services declined. Additionally, women were more likely to use general and specialist health services than men, but a comparison of changes in the assessment of accessibility and quality of services by gender revealed no differences in the assessment of accessibility and quality.

Open Access

The Use of the Kohonen Neural Network for Comparing the Declared and Actual State of Knowledge Regarding Reproductive Health and the Impact of Selected Lifestyle Components on Reproductive Health

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 573 - 586

Abstract

Abstract

Infertility is a global problem affecting 48 to 186 million couples of reproductive age. In Poland, it concerns approx. 1.5 million couples, which amounts to 20% of the population capable of reproducing. One of the factors influencing the incidence of fertility disorders may be lifestyle, understood as a multi-disciplinary accumulation of everyday behaviours and habits. In the study, a group of 201 young adults, students of medical and related faculties, were surveyed in order to check the actual level of knowledge about the impact of lifestyle on reproductive health. The Kohonen network, which is an example of a self-learning neural network, was used to find non-obvious connections between the data. The trained Kohonen neural network formed 4 clusters with different characteristics. Based on analyses of the structure of each cluster, it was found that 2nd year students of Medicine are internally divided into 3 fractions. The first fraction declared a high level of knowledge, but did not have real knowledge. The second fraction was aware of their ignorance, as confirmed by the knowledge test. The last fraction was characterized by a high level of self-confidence regarding their knowledge about reproductive health and obtained a high result in the knowledge test. It was confirmed that people studying at the Medical faculty know more than students of the same year at faculties other than Medicine. Interesting results were obtained for a group of 3rd year students of first-cycle studies in Dietetics. They did not obtain a significantly better result in the knowledge test concerning the influence of diet and lifestyle on reproductive health. It would seem that one could expect at least a few highly knowledgeable students in a group of 3rd year students, but this was not confirmed by the study. In view of the obtained results, it was concluded that the Kohonen neural network is applicable to the analysis of data on the actual state of knowledge about the impact of lifestyle on reproductive health.

Open Access

Analysis of Indications for Electrotherapy Using Classification Trees

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 587 - 596

Abstract

Abstract

Electrotherapy is a dynamically developing method of treatment of sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular conduction disturbances. It is an extremely important method used in the treatment of heart failure. The aim of this paper was to use classification trees for the differentiation between patients implanted with one of the three electrotherapy devices, i.e. SC-VVI/AAI, DC-DDD, ICD/CRT. The analysed data concerned 2071 patients who underwent implantation or device replacement procedures in the years 2010–2018, hospitalized in a coronary care unit. CART-type classification trees with 5-fold cross-validation were used for the analysis. The decision concerning the choice of a particular electrotherapy device is always made based on the latest guidelines and the patient’s clinical condition. The used classification trees may enable verification of the state of implementation of guidelines in real-life therapeutic decisions.

Open Access

Using Regression Trees to Find the Factors Influencing the Level of Knowledge about Fertility and the Diet That Supports It among People Dancing in Max Dance Studio in Białystok

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 597 - 608

Abstract

Abstract

Many studies confirm the fact that women do not have sufficient knowledge about reproductive health, which is a significant problem nowadays due to the large percentage of people who suffer from infertility. A sources of knowledge from which information about health, including reproductive health, is obtained have various levels of reliability. The aim of the study was to use regression trees to find which of the analysed parameters had the greatest impact on the level of respondents’ knowledge about fertility and the impact of diet on fertility. The study was conducted among women who practice dance in Max Dance studio in Białystok. The group consisted of 42 women with an average age of 26.3 years, dancing in various dance styles at various levels of proficiency. A questionnaire on lifestyle and a sources of information on fertility was used; the questionnaire also contained a knowledge test focused on reproductive health and the impact of diet on fertility, in which the questions were based on information from the latest research. Three regression trees were created for three indicators determining the level of respondents’ knowledge. The obtained results revealed certain areas that have a significant impact on the level of knowledge about reproductive health, which may require additional education. The use of the regression trees method made it possible to determine the relationships between the analysed data that were not fully visible after standard biostatistical analyses had been performed. The created trees can be useful in improving the process of disseminating knowledge about reproductive health among women of childbearing age.

Open Access

Analysis of Learning Outcomes in Medical Education with the Use of Fuzzy Logic

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 609 - 616

Abstract

Abstract

The national curricula of the EU member states are structured around learning outcomes, selected according to Bloom’s Taxonomy. The authors of this paper claim that using Bloom’s Taxonomy to phrase learning outcomes in medical education in terms of students’ achievements is difficult and unclear. This paper presents an efficient method of assessing course learning outcomes using Fuzzy Logic.

Open Access

The Place of e-learning in ALS Teaching

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 617 - 624

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the place of e-learning methods in the teaching of Advanced Life Support (ALS) to second year medical students. The described course lasts 30 hours and consists of lectures, seminars, and classes. Numerous modifications of the course were introduced in the past and at the moment electronic learning methods are being improved with new ones being added as well. The following have been implemented: 1. e-learning presentations instead of lectures; 2. recording own instructional movie demonstrating advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 3. a change in the method of conducting practical classes consisting in recording the medical procedures performed by students with a camera. Although e-learning plays an important role in ALS teaching, it cannot completely replace on-site classes. Thus, ALS without any practice to acquire resuscitation skills is impossible.

Open Access

Design of a System Supporting the Collection of Information on the Completed Didactic Classes at Medical University of Białystok as an Attempt at Improving the Quality of Education

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 625 - 633

Abstract

Abstract

Obtaining a sufficient amount of measurable and reliable results of student surveys has always posed a challenge for university teams tasked with the provision of the quality of education. This is especially visible at faculties where education is based on the classic classroom-based model, which then transfers to clinical units, hospital wards, and specialist laboratories. The highly unpredictable pandemic situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus raises the bar for the evaluation of didactics. Fortunately, the continuous technological progress in the area of Artificial Intelligence makes it possible to design the implementation of tools that would improve the position of systems for the management of courses of studies. The evaluation survey for didactic classes, as one of the last output data obtained during the process, may finally become a fully recognized source of information about the conducted classes and the teachers themselves. On the other hand, it may become a tool for those surveyed to influence the quality of classes, express their opinion, present suggestions and propositions generally pertaining to changes in the process of education. New information technologies not only make it possible to improve the effectiveness of reaching the recipients, but also provide completely new, very reliable methods of acquisition of credible behaviour, used as integration data in solutions based on machine communication. Using Artificial Intelligence coupled with data may make it possible to use intelligent communication for effective management of the process of surveying – a solution that has so far been used in business, in the form of the so-called bots. As a result, this would lead to an ongoing, fully quantitative and qualitative, assessment of classes.

Open Access

The Comparison of Three Assessment Scales in a Neonatal Unit in Poland

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 635 - 646

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the following three assessments: the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), and the General Movement Assessment (GMA). 29 patients from the neonatal unit of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital were examined. The study was conducted between feedings by a person properly trained in the use of the NBAS, the AIMS, and the GMA. The average postmenstrual age of the examined newborns was 35.6 weeks. The average week of gestation was the 29th, the average birth weight was 1469 g, and the Median Apgar score in the fifth minute of life was 7. A relationship was found between the AIMS and the NBAS. It was concluded that the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale may be used to determine the motor development of preterm infants. Moreover, it is advisable to use more than one assessment method in order to adjust the intervention.

Open Access

Internet System Supporting the Work of Nurses in Long-Term Geriatric Care

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 647 - 661

Abstract

Abstract

The development of health sciences along with the continuous technological progress contribute to the emergence of web applications. There exist many applications supporting the work of doctors, whereas the market definitely lacks solutions supporting the work of nurses. This is particularly evident in long-term geriatric home care, in which the nursing specialization is developing rapidly. Care of elderly patients requires the nurse to collect medical documents from each visit. Considering the large number of diseases affecting elderly people and the number of required visits – which should exceed 4 a week – a decision was made to develop an Internet application supporting the work of nurses in long-term geriatric care. The application facilitates the process of geriatric patient description in order to eliminate the need for filling in paper medical records. This study presents the method of developing an Internet application supporting the work of nurses in long-term geriatric care. The software was developed based on an analysis of conclusions from a social study carried out in a group of 42 nurses providing geriatric long-term home medical care services in the district of Białystok, Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the features, functionality, and declarative interest in using the software. Conclusions from the analysis indicated that the attempt to develop the application had been justified. Moreover, conclusions from the social survey formed the basis for formulating the design assumptions. The web application was developed in the following technologies: HTML 5, CSS3, JavaScript, PHP 7, and MySQL. First, a prototype of the solution was tested in a XAMPP environment. After successful tests, the app was tested in a nursing practice. The obtained test results raise high hopes for potential commercialization of the application.

Open Access

Cooperation Between a Doctor and a Podiatrist to Improve the Quality of Life of Patients with Ingrown Toenails

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 663 - 670

Abstract

Abstract

Cooperation between doctors of various specialties and other medical specialists is the standard of care in the treatment of patients. Due to the variety of diseases and the dynamic development of medicine in general, it is difficult to be an expert in every field and know all the recommended treatments. An example of such cooperation is the joint treatment of patients with the problem of ingrown toenails. The article contains an analysis of patients who received treatment in a doctor’s office in cooperation with podiatrists. A conservative approach towards the treatment of this condition sees the patient being initially diagnosed and treated by a podiatrist and then later, if necessary, being referred to a doctor for surgical treatment. The exchange of experiences and information on patients treated by interdisciplinary teams allows doctors and podiatrists to find the best possible treatment and improve the quality of life of patients. The follow-up of patients after surgery can be performed later in podiatry offices. Owing to modern electronic communication, it is possible for a doctor to constantly monitor the patient’s condition without the need for direct visits to the doctor’s office.

Open Access

“Mathematics is the Logic of the Infinite”: Zermelo’s Project of Infinitary Logic

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 673 - 708

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper I discuss Ernst Zermelo’s ideas concerning the possibility of developing a system of infinitary logic that, in his opinion, should be suitable for mathematical inferences. The presentation of Zermelo’s ideas is accompanied with some remarks concerning the development of infinitary logic. I also stress the fact that the second axiomatization of set theory provided by Zermelo in 1930 involved the use of extremal axioms of a very specific sort.1

Keywords

  • infinitary logic
  • axiomatic set theory
  • extremal axiom
Open Access

Domestication of Mathematical Pathologies

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 709 - 720

Abstract

Abstract

Certain mathematical objects bear the name “pathological” (or “paradoxical”). They either occur as unexpected and (temporarily) unwilling in mathematical research practice, or are constructed deliberately, for instance in order to delimit the scope of application of a theorem. I discuss examples of mathematical pathologies and the circumstances of their emergence. I focus my attention on the creative role of pathologies in the development of mathematics. Finally, I propose a few reflections concerning the degree of cognitive accessibility of mathematical objects. I believe that the problems discussed in the paper may attract the attention of philosophers interested in concept formation and the development of mathematical ideas.

Keywords

  • paradox
  • mathematical pathology
  • concept formation
  • mathematical intuition
Open Access

Logical Reasoning for Forecasting in Mesopotamia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 721 - 746

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, I show that a kind of perfect logical competence is observed in the Babylonian tablets used for forecasting. In these documents, we see an intuition of some algebraic structures that are used for inferring prognoses as logical conclusions. The paper is based mainly on the omen series reconstructed by N. De Zorzi. It is shown that in composing these divination lists there was implicitly used the Boolean algebra.

Keywords

  • symbolic logic
  • omens
  • divination
  • Judaic logic
  • Akkadian
  • modus pones
  • modus tollens
Open Access

Nouns in the Be of N-Construction: A Corpus-Based Investigation

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 747 - 768

Abstract

Abstract

This paper employs a usage-based approach to grammar, the theory of frame semantics, and the corpus-based method referred to as the attraction-reliance measure, for the purpose of examining the mutual association between a noun and the be of N-pattern: in other words, to determine nouns that are strongly associated with this construction. On the basis of the data gleaned from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), the paper aims to indicate that there are specific categories of nouns occurring in the construction under scrutiny, and that this construction performs specific functions in discourse.

Keywords

  • construction grammar
  • COCA
  • frame semantics
  • attraction-reliance method

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