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Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 65 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 64 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 63 (2020): Issue 1 (September 2020)

Volume 62 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 61 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 60 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (September 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 57 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 56 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 55 (2018): Issue 1 (September 2018)

Volume 54 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 53 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 52 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 51 (2017): Issue 1 (September 2017)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 49 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 48 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 47 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 46 (2016): Issue 1 (September 2016)

Volume 45 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 44 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 43 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 42 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 41 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Volume 40 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 39 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 38 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 37 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)
Mechanisms and Methods of Decision Making / Ed. by Ewa Roszkowska

Volume 36 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 35 (2013): Issue 1 (December 2013)

Volume 34 (2013): Issue 1 (October 2013)

Volume 33 (2013): Issue 1 (August 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 1 (May 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
First Published
08 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 65 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
First Published
08 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Summary Strategies for Literary Texts in English

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 7 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

One of the problems when students go to university is that they are faced with insufficient skills (reading, summarizing and writing). These skills are not just an option for students – they are a necessity. One of these skills is text summarizing. Summarizing strategies may be called the gist of the literary text. Different summarization strategies may be required for different text types and lengths. The ability to summarize well means your reading comprehension and writing skill should be excellent. Summarization is a high-level comprehension strategy which is effective in improving reading achievement and text summary quality.

Several approaches have been developed to analyse summarizing skills which are required to teach and learn English at all levels especially at university level. The research was conducted among students of the second year English department at University of Vlora. The summaries reflect the major differences among the strategies used by skilled and unskilled students. The skilled students produce coherent linguistic and syntactic structures. Skilled (high-proficiency) students use semantic and prepositional phrases more than unskilled students (low-proficiency). Thus, the skilled students do not distort ideas of the original text but distort subject-verb order. When they summarize, we can easily distinguish the way in which they combine idea units across two or more paragraphs. The summaries reflect that students write very long sentences. The margin of errors is considerable due to the mother tongue influence and their level of English.

Keywords

  • summary
  • text
  • skill
  • strategy
  • student
Open Access

When Worlds Collide in Legal Discourse. The Accommodation of Indigenous Australians’ Concepts of Land Rights Into Australian Law

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 21 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The right of Australian Indigenous groups to own traditional lands has been a contentious issue in the recent history of Australia. Indeed, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders did not consider themselves as full citizens in the country they had inhabited for millennia until the late 1960s, and then only after a long campaign and a national referendum (1967) in favour of changes to the Australian Constitution to remove restrictions on the services available to Indigenous Australians. The concept of terra nullius, misapplied to Australia, was strong in the popular imagination among the descendants of settlers or recent migrants and was not definitively put to rest until the Mabo decision (1992), which also established a firm precedent for the recognition of native title.

This path to equality was fraught and made lengthy by the fact that the worldviews of the Indigenous Australians (i.e. Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) and the European (mainly British and Irish) settlers were so different, at least at a superficial level, this being the level at which prejudice is typically manifested. One area where this fact is particularly evident is in the area of the conceptualisation of property and especially the notion of land “ownership” and “use”.

In this paper, we will focus on these terms, examining the linguistic evidence of some of the Australian languages spoken traditionally by Indigenous Australians as one means (the only one in many cases) of gaining an insight into their worldview, comparing it with that underlying the English language.

We will show that the conceptualisations manifested in the two languages are contrasting but not irreconcilable, and indeed the ability of both groups of speakers (or their descendants in the case of many endangered Australian languages) to reach agreement and come to develop an understanding of the other’s perspective is reason for celebration for all Australians.

Keywords

  • possessives
  • conceptualisation
  • Indigenous rights
  • native title
Open Access

The Roles of Women in the Lexicon of the Albanian “Code of Skanderbeg” (Kanuni I Skanderbegut)

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 43 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

A lexical analysis of the so-called Kanuni i Skanderbegut, an Albanian collection of customary laws, provides an insight to understand women’s social role in traditional communities living in the northern area of Albania. In the use of specific terminology one can notice a clear separation between the two sexes which is reflected in the distribution of roles and in using a structured terminology that designates not only roles and conditions, but also other aspects of social life.

Keywords

  • Etholinguistics
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Anthropology
  • Balkan studies
Open Access

Planting the Seeds of Artistic Subversiveness in À Bout De Souffle: Godard’s Trailblazing Cinematic Language

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 57 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The following article frames a particular case study: Jean-Luc Godard’s À bout de souffle (1960), referenced in the paper with its American title, Breathless. Foraging through the dense and sophisticated thicket of narrative, visual and textual features, the present study will attempt to untangle the overall intrinsic complexity of Godard’s film, as it exceeds simple commonalities between genre conventions or traditional stylistic approaches.

The abrasive dialectical opposition that Breathless enacts against classical storytelling is indeed central to the specific cluster that can be examined under the labels of “experimental cinema”, “auteur cinema”, “art cinema”, predicated on Godard’s abundant departures from cinematic (mainstream) norms.

The methodology adopted in the article will encompass both a cultural studies approach and the visual strategies of textual analysis from the perspective of film studies. This will spur a close examination of Godard’s directorial style, paying attention to a rich plethora of technical devices inscribed within salient sequences and offset against the matrix of creative options presented by the French Nouvelle Vague.

Keywords

  • narration
  • characterization
  • textual analysis
  • language and transcreation
  • editing
  • visual discontinuities
  • jump-cuts
  • auteur cinema
  • nouvelle vague
Open Access

Interreligious Dialogue in the Renaissance: Cusanus, De Pace Fidei

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 71 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The paper examines the Dialogue De pace fidei written by Nicolaus Cusanus in 1453 to settle disputes arising from events that triggered religious unrest, such as the fall of Constantinople in May 1453, the invasion and massacre of the Turks led by Sultan Mehmed II and the defeat of the Christians. Following the disintegration of medieval Christianity, Cusanus, instead of promoting a crusade, as Cardinal Bessarione did, proposed a more suitable way to make the major exponents of different religions interact in a fruitful dialogue, hoping for the peace of a single universal faith. The arguments through which Cusanus claimed the concept of a concordance and pacification of the faith reveal the originality and topicality of the message communicated by the humanist, founded on the doctrine of peace in the faith, overcoming inter-confessional barriers and religious divergences.

The author contrasts the divergences, massacres and wars with a doctrinal comparison among different religions through dialogue. The paper invites reflection upon the religious struggles that still spread discord in the world.

Keywords

  • Cusanus
  • De pace fidei
  • Renaissance
  • interreligious dialogue
Open Access

Several Remarks on Lex Servilia Caepionis of 106 Bc in the Light of the Fragment of Cic. Pro Balbo 24. 54

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 83 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

This paper includes an analysis of a fragment of Cicero’s address in pro Balbo 24.54, which contains interesting, yet highly laconic information regarding one of the leges de repetundis – i.e. lex Servilia Caepionis. The analysis of the fragment led to the determination that the basic purpose of issuing that act was to cover the issue of changing the personal composition of judges sitting on the de reptundis tribunal. Apart from that, it seems that the genesis of the institution of divinatio can also be found in that statute.

Keywords

  • Roman law
  • quaestio perpetua
  • crimen repetundarum
  • lex Servilia Caepionis
Open Access

Interpretation of the Right to Privacy from the Perspective of the Use of New Technologies

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 93 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

Today’s reality, largely based on the development of technology, carries with it many dangers for various spheres of our lives. One of the areas most at risk is our privacyand thus our right to privacy. It is one of the fundamental human rights, but unfortunately today it is exposed to many violations. This article is an attempt to interpret the right to privacy, and it shows selected threats to this right from the perspective of the development of new technologies.

Keywords

  • privacy
  • right to privacy
  • new technologies
  • monitoring
  • Big Data
Open Access

Interpretation of the Principle of Municipality Self-Reliance in the Context of Constitutional Principles of Law

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 103 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

In the science of administrative and constitutional law, administration science and many other sciences, including political science, it is widely accepted that the basic, inherent feature of a municipality, deciding the essence of the territorial self-government unit as an entity of public administration, is the self-reliance it is entitled to. The self-reliance of territorial self-government units is even defined as a constitutional norm.

In principle, self-reliance is perceived as a fundamental attribute of a decentralised public authority and constitutes one of the fundamental systemic principles of the Republic of Poland. It was formulated expressis verbis in art. 165 par. 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which states that the self-reliance of territorial self-government units is subject to judicial protection, meaning that TSGUs can defend themselves against illegal attempts, not grounded in the law to interfere in their self-reliance. This protection seems to encompass both the private-law and public-law spheres of territorial self-government activity.

The essence and guarantees of territorial self-government units’ self-reliance also arise from other constitutional principles, including the aforementioned decentralisation principle, subsidiarity principle, separation of powers, supremacy of the nation and democratic state under rule of law.

The goal of this article is to interpret the principle of municipal self-reliance in the context of constitutional principles of law, in the light of the Polish Constitution. The studies were conducted based on analysis of normative acts, doctrinal views and case law.

Keywords

  • administrative law
  • self-government constitutional principles of law
  • municipality self-reliance
Open Access

The Non-Professional Judge as a Component of Civic Culture in Poland

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 121 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the role of the non-professional judge in Poland as an important manifestation of civic culture based on citizens’ activity in the sphere of justice among other things. The paper also highlights the importance of an appropriate selection of citizens who are to adjudicate and possibly place restrictions on access to judicial functions using the example of Polish law. The last part addresses the problem of the gradual reduction of the participation of lay judges in the Polish justice system and the controversial attempts to halt this trend, such as the introduction of lay judges to the Supreme Court and the start of discussions on the introduction of the justice of the peace to common courts.

Keywords

  • civic culture
  • courts
  • lay participation
  • non-professional judge
  • system of justice
Open Access

Implementation of New EU Directives Coordinating the Procedures for Awarding Public Contracts in European Union Member States: The Example of Poland

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 133 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

This article concerns the implementation of new EU Directives coordinating the procedures for awarding public contracts in European Union Member States. In a number of countries, including Poland, the process of their implementation (Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on public procurement; Directive 2014/25/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on procurement by entities operating in the water, energy, transport, and postal services sectors; Directive 2014/23/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the award of concession contracts) was delayed. In most cases, the modernization of EU regulations on public procurement required a thorough modification of national regulations in this respect. As a result of the introduction of the package of new Directives, the European Union public procurement market has undergone substantial changes. The need to adjust legal regulations to the changing political, social, and economic situations in a better way has resulted in the transposition of the modernized EU Directives concerning public procurement to the Polish legal system, affecting the final shape of the new Polish Public Procurement Law. The implementation of the package of new Directives has significantly affected the functioning of the Polish public procurement market. For the entities operating in this market, this means the necessity to expand their knowledge, so as to become familiar with the new legal solutions in this respect.

Keywords

  • public procurement
  • common market
  • European Union Directives
  • implementation
  • Poland
10 Articles
Open Access

Summary Strategies for Literary Texts in English

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 7 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

One of the problems when students go to university is that they are faced with insufficient skills (reading, summarizing and writing). These skills are not just an option for students – they are a necessity. One of these skills is text summarizing. Summarizing strategies may be called the gist of the literary text. Different summarization strategies may be required for different text types and lengths. The ability to summarize well means your reading comprehension and writing skill should be excellent. Summarization is a high-level comprehension strategy which is effective in improving reading achievement and text summary quality.

Several approaches have been developed to analyse summarizing skills which are required to teach and learn English at all levels especially at university level. The research was conducted among students of the second year English department at University of Vlora. The summaries reflect the major differences among the strategies used by skilled and unskilled students. The skilled students produce coherent linguistic and syntactic structures. Skilled (high-proficiency) students use semantic and prepositional phrases more than unskilled students (low-proficiency). Thus, the skilled students do not distort ideas of the original text but distort subject-verb order. When they summarize, we can easily distinguish the way in which they combine idea units across two or more paragraphs. The summaries reflect that students write very long sentences. The margin of errors is considerable due to the mother tongue influence and their level of English.

Keywords

  • summary
  • text
  • skill
  • strategy
  • student
Open Access

When Worlds Collide in Legal Discourse. The Accommodation of Indigenous Australians’ Concepts of Land Rights Into Australian Law

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 21 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The right of Australian Indigenous groups to own traditional lands has been a contentious issue in the recent history of Australia. Indeed, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders did not consider themselves as full citizens in the country they had inhabited for millennia until the late 1960s, and then only after a long campaign and a national referendum (1967) in favour of changes to the Australian Constitution to remove restrictions on the services available to Indigenous Australians. The concept of terra nullius, misapplied to Australia, was strong in the popular imagination among the descendants of settlers or recent migrants and was not definitively put to rest until the Mabo decision (1992), which also established a firm precedent for the recognition of native title.

This path to equality was fraught and made lengthy by the fact that the worldviews of the Indigenous Australians (i.e. Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) and the European (mainly British and Irish) settlers were so different, at least at a superficial level, this being the level at which prejudice is typically manifested. One area where this fact is particularly evident is in the area of the conceptualisation of property and especially the notion of land “ownership” and “use”.

In this paper, we will focus on these terms, examining the linguistic evidence of some of the Australian languages spoken traditionally by Indigenous Australians as one means (the only one in many cases) of gaining an insight into their worldview, comparing it with that underlying the English language.

We will show that the conceptualisations manifested in the two languages are contrasting but not irreconcilable, and indeed the ability of both groups of speakers (or their descendants in the case of many endangered Australian languages) to reach agreement and come to develop an understanding of the other’s perspective is reason for celebration for all Australians.

Keywords

  • possessives
  • conceptualisation
  • Indigenous rights
  • native title
Open Access

The Roles of Women in the Lexicon of the Albanian “Code of Skanderbeg” (Kanuni I Skanderbegut)

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 43 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

A lexical analysis of the so-called Kanuni i Skanderbegut, an Albanian collection of customary laws, provides an insight to understand women’s social role in traditional communities living in the northern area of Albania. In the use of specific terminology one can notice a clear separation between the two sexes which is reflected in the distribution of roles and in using a structured terminology that designates not only roles and conditions, but also other aspects of social life.

Keywords

  • Etholinguistics
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Anthropology
  • Balkan studies
Open Access

Planting the Seeds of Artistic Subversiveness in À Bout De Souffle: Godard’s Trailblazing Cinematic Language

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 57 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The following article frames a particular case study: Jean-Luc Godard’s À bout de souffle (1960), referenced in the paper with its American title, Breathless. Foraging through the dense and sophisticated thicket of narrative, visual and textual features, the present study will attempt to untangle the overall intrinsic complexity of Godard’s film, as it exceeds simple commonalities between genre conventions or traditional stylistic approaches.

The abrasive dialectical opposition that Breathless enacts against classical storytelling is indeed central to the specific cluster that can be examined under the labels of “experimental cinema”, “auteur cinema”, “art cinema”, predicated on Godard’s abundant departures from cinematic (mainstream) norms.

The methodology adopted in the article will encompass both a cultural studies approach and the visual strategies of textual analysis from the perspective of film studies. This will spur a close examination of Godard’s directorial style, paying attention to a rich plethora of technical devices inscribed within salient sequences and offset against the matrix of creative options presented by the French Nouvelle Vague.

Keywords

  • narration
  • characterization
  • textual analysis
  • language and transcreation
  • editing
  • visual discontinuities
  • jump-cuts
  • auteur cinema
  • nouvelle vague
Open Access

Interreligious Dialogue in the Renaissance: Cusanus, De Pace Fidei

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 71 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The paper examines the Dialogue De pace fidei written by Nicolaus Cusanus in 1453 to settle disputes arising from events that triggered religious unrest, such as the fall of Constantinople in May 1453, the invasion and massacre of the Turks led by Sultan Mehmed II and the defeat of the Christians. Following the disintegration of medieval Christianity, Cusanus, instead of promoting a crusade, as Cardinal Bessarione did, proposed a more suitable way to make the major exponents of different religions interact in a fruitful dialogue, hoping for the peace of a single universal faith. The arguments through which Cusanus claimed the concept of a concordance and pacification of the faith reveal the originality and topicality of the message communicated by the humanist, founded on the doctrine of peace in the faith, overcoming inter-confessional barriers and religious divergences.

The author contrasts the divergences, massacres and wars with a doctrinal comparison among different religions through dialogue. The paper invites reflection upon the religious struggles that still spread discord in the world.

Keywords

  • Cusanus
  • De pace fidei
  • Renaissance
  • interreligious dialogue
Open Access

Several Remarks on Lex Servilia Caepionis of 106 Bc in the Light of the Fragment of Cic. Pro Balbo 24. 54

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 83 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

This paper includes an analysis of a fragment of Cicero’s address in pro Balbo 24.54, which contains interesting, yet highly laconic information regarding one of the leges de repetundis – i.e. lex Servilia Caepionis. The analysis of the fragment led to the determination that the basic purpose of issuing that act was to cover the issue of changing the personal composition of judges sitting on the de reptundis tribunal. Apart from that, it seems that the genesis of the institution of divinatio can also be found in that statute.

Keywords

  • Roman law
  • quaestio perpetua
  • crimen repetundarum
  • lex Servilia Caepionis
Open Access

Interpretation of the Right to Privacy from the Perspective of the Use of New Technologies

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 93 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

Today’s reality, largely based on the development of technology, carries with it many dangers for various spheres of our lives. One of the areas most at risk is our privacyand thus our right to privacy. It is one of the fundamental human rights, but unfortunately today it is exposed to many violations. This article is an attempt to interpret the right to privacy, and it shows selected threats to this right from the perspective of the development of new technologies.

Keywords

  • privacy
  • right to privacy
  • new technologies
  • monitoring
  • Big Data
Open Access

Interpretation of the Principle of Municipality Self-Reliance in the Context of Constitutional Principles of Law

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 103 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

In the science of administrative and constitutional law, administration science and many other sciences, including political science, it is widely accepted that the basic, inherent feature of a municipality, deciding the essence of the territorial self-government unit as an entity of public administration, is the self-reliance it is entitled to. The self-reliance of territorial self-government units is even defined as a constitutional norm.

In principle, self-reliance is perceived as a fundamental attribute of a decentralised public authority and constitutes one of the fundamental systemic principles of the Republic of Poland. It was formulated expressis verbis in art. 165 par. 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which states that the self-reliance of territorial self-government units is subject to judicial protection, meaning that TSGUs can defend themselves against illegal attempts, not grounded in the law to interfere in their self-reliance. This protection seems to encompass both the private-law and public-law spheres of territorial self-government activity.

The essence and guarantees of territorial self-government units’ self-reliance also arise from other constitutional principles, including the aforementioned decentralisation principle, subsidiarity principle, separation of powers, supremacy of the nation and democratic state under rule of law.

The goal of this article is to interpret the principle of municipal self-reliance in the context of constitutional principles of law, in the light of the Polish Constitution. The studies were conducted based on analysis of normative acts, doctrinal views and case law.

Keywords

  • administrative law
  • self-government constitutional principles of law
  • municipality self-reliance
Open Access

The Non-Professional Judge as a Component of Civic Culture in Poland

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 121 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the role of the non-professional judge in Poland as an important manifestation of civic culture based on citizens’ activity in the sphere of justice among other things. The paper also highlights the importance of an appropriate selection of citizens who are to adjudicate and possibly place restrictions on access to judicial functions using the example of Polish law. The last part addresses the problem of the gradual reduction of the participation of lay judges in the Polish justice system and the controversial attempts to halt this trend, such as the introduction of lay judges to the Supreme Court and the start of discussions on the introduction of the justice of the peace to common courts.

Keywords

  • civic culture
  • courts
  • lay participation
  • non-professional judge
  • system of justice
Open Access

Implementation of New EU Directives Coordinating the Procedures for Awarding Public Contracts in European Union Member States: The Example of Poland

Published Online: 13 Mar 2021
Page range: 133 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

This article concerns the implementation of new EU Directives coordinating the procedures for awarding public contracts in European Union Member States. In a number of countries, including Poland, the process of their implementation (Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on public procurement; Directive 2014/25/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on procurement by entities operating in the water, energy, transport, and postal services sectors; Directive 2014/23/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the award of concession contracts) was delayed. In most cases, the modernization of EU regulations on public procurement required a thorough modification of national regulations in this respect. As a result of the introduction of the package of new Directives, the European Union public procurement market has undergone substantial changes. The need to adjust legal regulations to the changing political, social, and economic situations in a better way has resulted in the transposition of the modernized EU Directives concerning public procurement to the Polish legal system, affecting the final shape of the new Polish Public Procurement Law. The implementation of the package of new Directives has significantly affected the functioning of the Polish public procurement market. For the entities operating in this market, this means the necessity to expand their knowledge, so as to become familiar with the new legal solutions in this respect.

Keywords

  • public procurement
  • common market
  • European Union Directives
  • implementation
  • Poland

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