- Journal Details
- First Published
- 08 Aug 2013
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Is Cluster Analysis the Appropriate Statistical Method for Planning the Optimal Locations for Automated External Defibrillators?
Page range: 7 - 14
The Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is an intuitive device used by witnesses of an incident without medical training in cases of sudden cardiac arrest. Its operation consists in delivering an electrical pulse to the cardiac conduction system, as a result of which normal heart rate is restored. The lack of awareness in society concerning the usefulness of the device and the inadequate deployment of AEDs result in their too infrequent application by witnesses of incidents. The aim of this paper is to verify whether cluster analysis is the appropriate statistical method to determine the appropriate deployment of AED devices on the basis of cases of sudden cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital conditions. The initial cluster analysis showed the validity of using the method in question for planning the appropriate locations of AEDs.
- Open Access
Page range: 15 - 26
Techniques of text data analysis have been known for many years and commonly used in many areas of life. Text mining enables, among others, the acquisition of information from the text, its filtering, and studying of similarities and relationships. The aim of this paper is to design a method that would make it possible to assess the health quality of dietary supplements, on the basis of text mining techniques. A fictional plant-based product was used in the study, which was compared with other products containing at least one of the tested ingredients registered in the years 2007–2019 in the register of dietary supplements kept by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS), which were given either the “consistent” or “to be clarified” status. The obtained results concern the frequency of occurrence of the individual ingredients (St John’s wort/
- Open Access
Correspondence Analysis in the Assessment of the Influence of Lifestyle on Infertility of Various Origins
Page range: 27 - 34
Approx. 60–80 million couples globally are affected by the problem of infertility. The issue is important both for the couple trying to conceive and for the whole society in which the couple lives. Lifestyle, including nutrition, may have both a positive and a negative impact on the outcomes of infertility treatment. The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between knowledge in the area of fertility diet and its actual use, and types of fertility disorders among women undergoing treatment in a fertility clinic. A group of women was analyzed statistically, divided into 3 groups according to their couple’s cause of infertility – the causes of infertility were described as: the male factor, the female factor, and the idiopathic factor. The study group answered questions that comprised a fertility diet knowledge test; the frequency of consumption of particular food products in a individual groups was also analyzed. Correspondence analysis showed differences between the groups in the number of points scored in the fertility diet knowledge test, as well as in the consumption of sweets, crisps and sticks, and nuts and seeds. Women among whom the main cause of infertility was defined as the male factor scored the highest numbers of points in the fertility diet knowledge test, women with the idiopathic cause of infertility scored slightly lower numbers of points, while women whose main cause of infertility was defined as the female factor scored the lowest numbers of points. Women from couples with idiopathic infertility consumed sweets, crisps and sticks the most often, followed by women with the cause of infertility identified on their side, with the lowest frequency of consumption of sweets identified among women whose partner was infertile. Nuts and seeds were consumed the most frequently by women whose partners were infertile, followed by women with the cause of infertility identified on their side, while women with the idiopathic cause of infertility consumed nuts and seeds the least frequently. These examples show that correspondence analysis is well suited to the assessment of the influence of lifestyle on fertility; in addition, it makes it possible to recognize certain correlations that may not be observed in standard statistical tests.
- Open Access
Page range: 35 - 58
The epidemiological situation resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused the Polish universities to fully switch to distance education in March 2020. Medical e-learning has not yet been broadly implemented into the education process. Therefore, examples of successful e-learning implementations or the organization of the process of medical e-learning offer a valuable source of knowledge today, which is needed immediately. The article presents e-learning practices at the Polish medical universities during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic during the period from March to September 2020, covering seven universities in Poland that offer medical and health studies. The organization and implementation of e-learning classes is presented, including knowledge evaluation practices, providing example decisions issued by university rectors, on which the teaching process was based. A detailed presentation of the schools’ organizational units or workgroups that played an important role in the process of coordination of measures supporting e-education is also included. The article also presents a description of the software applications, utilities, and services used at the schools in the course of the process of online education. Below are some examples of specific such implementations in selected university courses.
- Open Access
Page range: 59 - 75
The increase in suicidal behaviour among elderly people makes it necessary to take action in the field of broadly understood prevention. This includes helplines, which play an essential role in anti-suicidal measures. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the experience of Polish helpline workers in communicating with older people in suicidal crisis. The study was conducted among 106 helpline workers from various helpline centres across Poland. It proved that helpline workers in Poland have considerable experience in communicating with elderly people in suicidal crisis, albeit the majority of respondents feel they need additional training in the area of broadly understood suicidology.
- Open Access
E-learning During the Coronavirus Pandemic – Creating Educational Resources for Teaching Medical Students
Page range: 77 - 97
As a result of the epidemiological situation in Poland that occurred as a consequence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, all classroom study was suspended in March 2020 and schools were required to deliver online education. There number of teachers who create educational resources for medical e-education, also those including interactive elements, is still insufficient. Teachers’ IT skills must be continuously improved and they have to take part in e-learning course design training programmes, taking into account the characteristics of the teaching process in medical sciences and health studies. The existing examples of effective e-classes, particularly for medical training, are important sources of knowledge on how to build e-learning courses for beginners and an inspiration for others in subsequent implementations. This knowledge is needed immediately, and the time available for acquiring it is shorter than previously, as the epidemic does not allow for full-range training schemes. This paper presents such results, collected from the period from March to June 2020 at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences by teachers who had started working on e-learning resources in 2019 and are successfully implementing these in the educational offer made available to their students as part of various curricula.
- Open Access
Semantic, Logical, and Ethical Considerations of Patients’ Decisions in the Resolution of Moral Dilemmas
Page range: 99 - 123
Decision-making procedures in medical practice are often analysed by both philosophers of science and ethicists, as well as statisticians, clinicians and methodologists. The paper focuses on decisions made by patients in situations of moral dilemma. The main purpose is to analyse the strategies used in resolving such dilemmas. First, the concept of a ‘situation of moral dilemma’ is clarified. Then, two types of strategies for resolving such situations are distinguished. The first strategy requires revising the patient’s belief system or moral orientation. The second one includes a group of non-revision beliefs strategies (NRB). The authors argue in support of the thesis that NRB strategies are, in fact, the patient’s first choice when it comes to resolving moral dilemmas. The paper analyses situations where the NRB strategies may prove effective, as well as situations where they fail and where the solution of the moral dilemma must be addressed by revising the accepted belief system. The findings will help to better understand patients’ decision-making processes.