Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 67 (2022): Issue 1 (December 2022)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 3 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 66 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 65 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 64 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 63 (2020): Issue 1 (September 2020)

Volume 62 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 61 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 60 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (September 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 57 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 56 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 55 (2018): Issue 1 (September 2018)

Volume 54 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 53 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 52 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 51 (2017): Issue 1 (September 2017)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 49 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 48 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 47 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 46 (2016): Issue 1 (September 2016)

Volume 45 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)

Volume 44 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 43 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 42 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 41 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Volume 40 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 39 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 38 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 37 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)
Mechanisms and Methods of Decision Making / Ed. by Ewa Roszkowska

Volume 36 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 35 (2013): Issue 1 (December 2013)

Volume 34 (2013): Issue 1 (October 2013)

Volume 33 (2013): Issue 1 (August 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 1 (May 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
First Published
08 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
First Published
08 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

14 Articles
Open Access

BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 9 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Backward induction (BI) was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

Keywords

  • backward induction
  • Nash equilibrium
  • subgame perfect equilibrium
  • sequential game
  • extensive form game
  • Centipede
Open Access

TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 25 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

Keywords

  • decision theory
  • individual preferential ordering (ranking)
  • group (social) preferential ordering (ranking)
  • Kemeny distance
  • Hamming distance
  • generalized regression
  • measure of the intensity of a dependence
  • computational complexity
Open Access

AXIOMATIC DETERMINATION OF A CLASS OF ORDINAL VARIATION MEASURES

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 45 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of the dispersion of ordinal variables. At first, it specifies the very concept of dispersion for this type of scale. Then some of the most known measures that fit to the concept of ordinal variation are recalled. They are constructed with two different types of statistical models: using loss functions and using distance functions. Finally, a new approach, which is the use of an axiomatic method for the construction of a dispersion measure, is proposed. Some relations and comparisons between different measures and between different approaches are shown.

Keywords

  • descriptive statistics
  • ordinal variables
  • ordinal variation
  • dispersion measures
  • axiomatic method
Open Access

THE CONCEPT OF DEGRESSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE PROPORTIONALITY AND ITS NORMATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE APPLICATIONS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 67 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

The article discusses the concept of progressive and degressive proportionality of the distribution of parliamentary seats. In the first part are presented axiological sources of the principles of proportionality and progressive and degressive proportionality and the history of degressively proportional apportionments of seats in the European Parliament. The main part of the article is devoted to the formulation of proposals for strict formal definition of degressive and progressive proportionality, and a description of the method of apportionment of seats in the European Parliament based on the strict definition of degressive proportionality and maintaining maximum compatibility with former apportionments adopted in multilateral negotiations. The last part of the article consists of a discussion of the possibilities of adopting the concept of progressive proportionality in the analysis of the functioning of parliamentary electoral systems.

Keywords

  • proportionality
  • degressive proportionality
  • electoral systems
  • proportional elections
  • fair decisions
Open Access

DECISION STRATEGIES AND COGNITIVE ADAPTATIONS TO ECOLOGY

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 93 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, I discuss the concept of adaptive rationality. I present a simple model of ecology and the set of decision rules. The basic structure of the process of cognitive adaptation to ecology is described as a structure comprising (1) perceptual space, (2) a function valuating perceived items, (3) a set of available decision rules and (4) the adaptation process - identification and selection of the best strategies in given ecological conditions. The presented model of ecosystem allows a conclusion that completely opposite strategies may be compatible with the assumption of adaptive rationality.

Keywords

  • rationality
  • ecology
  • adaptation
  • decision rule
  • risk
Open Access

THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 109 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

Keywords

  • game theory
  • third-party sanctions
  • social norms
  • social control
  • private information
  • communication
  • lies detection
Open Access

BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 139 - 163

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm), but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph). The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

Keywords

  • rational choice theory
  • game theory
  • social network analysis
  • bystander behaviour
  • diffusion
  • conformity
Open Access

APPLICATION OF TOPSIS METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN OECD COUNTRIES

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 165 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

Growing economic stratification each year in many countries is such a pressing issue that even the World Economic Forum, organized in 2014 in the luxury resort of Davos, recognized it as one of the most dangerous threats to social order. The problem of economic inequality, pushed by the apologists of economic liberalism to the margins of media discourse, once again became a “hot” topic with the World Economic Crisis in 2008, the effects of which are still felt in various countries today, and which contribute to the expansion of global social stratification. The aim of the article is to describe the sample indicators typically used by organizations, i.e. OECD, theWorld Bank to measure economic inequality in the world, and then, on the basis of these indicators, create a synthetic instrument based on TOPSIS methodology, which will allow for preparing a multi-criteria ranking of OECD countries in terms of economic inequality.

Keywords

  • economic inequality
  • income inequality
  • TOPSIS method
Open Access

ADAPTING LEGISLATIVE AGENDA SETTINGMODELS TO PARLIAMENTARY REGIMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE POLISH PARLIAMENT

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 181 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

This paper draws on Cox and McCubbins’ comparison of floor and cartel agenda models and adapts it to the context of multi-party parliamentary regimes with the goal of clarifying some important differences between the legislative consequences of cohesion and discipline, on the one hand, and the effects of agenda setting, on the other. Internal party discipline and/or preference cohesion receives the bulk of emphasis in comparative studies of empirical patterns of legislative behavior, generally without considering the role of the agenda. In a series of stylized models, this paper highlights important differences between having more unified parties and/or coalitions as a result of discipline and/or cohesion and the successful use of agenda control. We show that cohesion or discipline - understood as the ability to achieve voting unity - does not produce the same patterns of legislative behavior as negative agenda control. Data on legislative voting in the Polish Sejm are used to illustrate some points.

Keywords

  • agenda-setting
  • party cohesion
  • party discipline
  • Sejm
Open Access

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN HIGH-STAKES MATHS TESTING. FINDINGS FROM POLAND

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 205 - 226

Abstract

Abstract

The present research investigates gender gaps in the results of secondary school exit exams (Matura) in mathematics in Poland in 2015. The analysis shows that, in the basic level exam, males are highly overrepresented at the upper end of the score distribution. The same pattern did not exist in the extended-level Matura. Two explanations are offered here. The differences are driven by gender self-selection in high school programs. Students who decide on maths-related tracks have more maths lessons than other students. Secondly, a student who takes the extended Matura also has to take the basic Matura exam. As a result, the population of students taking the basic Matura is highly differentiated in terms of maths competence and motivation. Additionally, the analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) shows that only a few items were flagged as having DIF.

Keywords

  • maths
  • gender
  • Poland
  • Matura
  • DIF
  • Mantel-Haenszel
Open Access

THE BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF IDENTITY IN THE WORKS OF ANTONIO DAMASIO. THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 227 - 238

Abstract

Abstract

This paper confronts the modern findings of neuroscience presented in the works of Antonio Damasio with classic and contemporary concepts regarding the phenomenon of self / identity developed on the basis of the social sciences. In my view, both types of consideration involve illegitimate reduction of presented phenomena either by inadequate analysis of social entities, or by underestimating their biological basis.

Keywords

  • self
  • identity
  • neuroscience
  • sociology
  • emergence
Open Access

INTERNET SECURITY – TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 239 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes selected issues related to user safety on the Internet. This safety consists of a number of factors such as the technology that we use to communicate and to browse the Internet, and habits and behaviors that we have acquired and through which we can identify at least some typical hazards encountered on the Web. Knowledge of software and the ability to use it and to configure it properly as well as checking regularly for security updates reduces the risk of data loss or identity theft. Public awareness of threats continues to grow, but there are also new, previously unknown threats; that is why it is so important to inform of the dangers by all available channels of communication.

Keywords

  • security
  • privacy
  • threats
  • social networks
  • communication
Open Access

MODUS PONENS AND MODUS TOLLENS: THEIR VALIDITY/INVALIDITY IN NATURAL LANGUAGE ARGUMENTS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 253 - 267

Abstract

Abstract

The precedent studies on the validity of Modus ponens and Modus tollens have been carried out with most regard to a major type of conditionals in which the conditional clause is a sufficient condition for the main clause. But we sometimes, in natural language arguments, find other types of conditionals in which the conditional clause is a necessary or necessary and sufficient condition for the main clause. In this paper I reappraise, on the basis of new definitions of Modus ponens and Modus tollens, their validity/invalidity in natural language arguments in consideration of all types of conditionals.

Keywords

  • affirming the antecedent
  • affirming the consequent
  • argumentation
  • denying the antecedent
  • denying the consequent
  • modus ponens
  • modus tollens
  • validity
Open Access

TERRITORIAL TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE IN TERMS OF CREATIVE DESTRUCTION

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 269 - 287

Abstract

Abstract

‘Creative destruction’ is one of the most important analytical tools, taking into consideration both the economic and sociological characteristics of capitalist society. According to Schumpeter, in the long term, evolution gives rise to economic development resulting from batches of innovative solutions, leading to improvements in the standard of living. The innovation activity of firms is based on supply-side factors, hence it is large enterprises that excel in innovation since they strive to achieve a monopoly market position and above-average profits. Schumpeter attempts to combine two elements: the spread of monopolies and the continuation of economic development, both occurring through innovation, which is far more important than price competition. The Schumpeterian ‘creative destruction’ permeates the main aspects of macroeconomic activity, not only in the long term, but also in the area of economic fluctuations, structural changes, or the functioning of markets. As a result, it becomes a factor determining changes in the economic order. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of territories in the process of creating and using knowledge and its impact on the economic efficiency of the companies which function within their boundaries. Regional cooperation increases the involvement of business entities in innovation activities, which translates into higher competitiveness of firms. Moreover, the awareness of the necessity of cooperation and use of innovation capital tends to grow.

Keywords

  • creative destruction
  • innovation
  • economic development
14 Articles
Open Access

BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 9 - 24

Abstract

Abstract

Backward induction (BI) was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

Keywords

  • backward induction
  • Nash equilibrium
  • subgame perfect equilibrium
  • sequential game
  • extensive form game
  • Centipede
Open Access

TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 25 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

Keywords

  • decision theory
  • individual preferential ordering (ranking)
  • group (social) preferential ordering (ranking)
  • Kemeny distance
  • Hamming distance
  • generalized regression
  • measure of the intensity of a dependence
  • computational complexity
Open Access

AXIOMATIC DETERMINATION OF A CLASS OF ORDINAL VARIATION MEASURES

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 45 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of the dispersion of ordinal variables. At first, it specifies the very concept of dispersion for this type of scale. Then some of the most known measures that fit to the concept of ordinal variation are recalled. They are constructed with two different types of statistical models: using loss functions and using distance functions. Finally, a new approach, which is the use of an axiomatic method for the construction of a dispersion measure, is proposed. Some relations and comparisons between different measures and between different approaches are shown.

Keywords

  • descriptive statistics
  • ordinal variables
  • ordinal variation
  • dispersion measures
  • axiomatic method
Open Access

THE CONCEPT OF DEGRESSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE PROPORTIONALITY AND ITS NORMATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE APPLICATIONS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 67 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

The article discusses the concept of progressive and degressive proportionality of the distribution of parliamentary seats. In the first part are presented axiological sources of the principles of proportionality and progressive and degressive proportionality and the history of degressively proportional apportionments of seats in the European Parliament. The main part of the article is devoted to the formulation of proposals for strict formal definition of degressive and progressive proportionality, and a description of the method of apportionment of seats in the European Parliament based on the strict definition of degressive proportionality and maintaining maximum compatibility with former apportionments adopted in multilateral negotiations. The last part of the article consists of a discussion of the possibilities of adopting the concept of progressive proportionality in the analysis of the functioning of parliamentary electoral systems.

Keywords

  • proportionality
  • degressive proportionality
  • electoral systems
  • proportional elections
  • fair decisions
Open Access

DECISION STRATEGIES AND COGNITIVE ADAPTATIONS TO ECOLOGY

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 93 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, I discuss the concept of adaptive rationality. I present a simple model of ecology and the set of decision rules. The basic structure of the process of cognitive adaptation to ecology is described as a structure comprising (1) perceptual space, (2) a function valuating perceived items, (3) a set of available decision rules and (4) the adaptation process - identification and selection of the best strategies in given ecological conditions. The presented model of ecosystem allows a conclusion that completely opposite strategies may be compatible with the assumption of adaptive rationality.

Keywords

  • rationality
  • ecology
  • adaptation
  • decision rule
  • risk
Open Access

THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 109 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

Keywords

  • game theory
  • third-party sanctions
  • social norms
  • social control
  • private information
  • communication
  • lies detection
Open Access

BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 139 - 163

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm), but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph). The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

Keywords

  • rational choice theory
  • game theory
  • social network analysis
  • bystander behaviour
  • diffusion
  • conformity
Open Access

APPLICATION OF TOPSIS METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN OECD COUNTRIES

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 165 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

Growing economic stratification each year in many countries is such a pressing issue that even the World Economic Forum, organized in 2014 in the luxury resort of Davos, recognized it as one of the most dangerous threats to social order. The problem of economic inequality, pushed by the apologists of economic liberalism to the margins of media discourse, once again became a “hot” topic with the World Economic Crisis in 2008, the effects of which are still felt in various countries today, and which contribute to the expansion of global social stratification. The aim of the article is to describe the sample indicators typically used by organizations, i.e. OECD, theWorld Bank to measure economic inequality in the world, and then, on the basis of these indicators, create a synthetic instrument based on TOPSIS methodology, which will allow for preparing a multi-criteria ranking of OECD countries in terms of economic inequality.

Keywords

  • economic inequality
  • income inequality
  • TOPSIS method
Open Access

ADAPTING LEGISLATIVE AGENDA SETTINGMODELS TO PARLIAMENTARY REGIMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE POLISH PARLIAMENT

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 181 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

This paper draws on Cox and McCubbins’ comparison of floor and cartel agenda models and adapts it to the context of multi-party parliamentary regimes with the goal of clarifying some important differences between the legislative consequences of cohesion and discipline, on the one hand, and the effects of agenda setting, on the other. Internal party discipline and/or preference cohesion receives the bulk of emphasis in comparative studies of empirical patterns of legislative behavior, generally without considering the role of the agenda. In a series of stylized models, this paper highlights important differences between having more unified parties and/or coalitions as a result of discipline and/or cohesion and the successful use of agenda control. We show that cohesion or discipline - understood as the ability to achieve voting unity - does not produce the same patterns of legislative behavior as negative agenda control. Data on legislative voting in the Polish Sejm are used to illustrate some points.

Keywords

  • agenda-setting
  • party cohesion
  • party discipline
  • Sejm
Open Access

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN HIGH-STAKES MATHS TESTING. FINDINGS FROM POLAND

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 205 - 226

Abstract

Abstract

The present research investigates gender gaps in the results of secondary school exit exams (Matura) in mathematics in Poland in 2015. The analysis shows that, in the basic level exam, males are highly overrepresented at the upper end of the score distribution. The same pattern did not exist in the extended-level Matura. Two explanations are offered here. The differences are driven by gender self-selection in high school programs. Students who decide on maths-related tracks have more maths lessons than other students. Secondly, a student who takes the extended Matura also has to take the basic Matura exam. As a result, the population of students taking the basic Matura is highly differentiated in terms of maths competence and motivation. Additionally, the analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) shows that only a few items were flagged as having DIF.

Keywords

  • maths
  • gender
  • Poland
  • Matura
  • DIF
  • Mantel-Haenszel
Open Access

THE BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF IDENTITY IN THE WORKS OF ANTONIO DAMASIO. THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 227 - 238

Abstract

Abstract

This paper confronts the modern findings of neuroscience presented in the works of Antonio Damasio with classic and contemporary concepts regarding the phenomenon of self / identity developed on the basis of the social sciences. In my view, both types of consideration involve illegitimate reduction of presented phenomena either by inadequate analysis of social entities, or by underestimating their biological basis.

Keywords

  • self
  • identity
  • neuroscience
  • sociology
  • emergence
Open Access

INTERNET SECURITY – TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 239 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes selected issues related to user safety on the Internet. This safety consists of a number of factors such as the technology that we use to communicate and to browse the Internet, and habits and behaviors that we have acquired and through which we can identify at least some typical hazards encountered on the Web. Knowledge of software and the ability to use it and to configure it properly as well as checking regularly for security updates reduces the risk of data loss or identity theft. Public awareness of threats continues to grow, but there are also new, previously unknown threats; that is why it is so important to inform of the dangers by all available channels of communication.

Keywords

  • security
  • privacy
  • threats
  • social networks
  • communication
Open Access

MODUS PONENS AND MODUS TOLLENS: THEIR VALIDITY/INVALIDITY IN NATURAL LANGUAGE ARGUMENTS

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 253 - 267

Abstract

Abstract

The precedent studies on the validity of Modus ponens and Modus tollens have been carried out with most regard to a major type of conditionals in which the conditional clause is a sufficient condition for the main clause. But we sometimes, in natural language arguments, find other types of conditionals in which the conditional clause is a necessary or necessary and sufficient condition for the main clause. In this paper I reappraise, on the basis of new definitions of Modus ponens and Modus tollens, their validity/invalidity in natural language arguments in consideration of all types of conditionals.

Keywords

  • affirming the antecedent
  • affirming the consequent
  • argumentation
  • denying the antecedent
  • denying the consequent
  • modus ponens
  • modus tollens
  • validity
Open Access

TERRITORIAL TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE IN TERMS OF CREATIVE DESTRUCTION

Published Online: 31 Oct 2017
Page range: 269 - 287

Abstract

Abstract

‘Creative destruction’ is one of the most important analytical tools, taking into consideration both the economic and sociological characteristics of capitalist society. According to Schumpeter, in the long term, evolution gives rise to economic development resulting from batches of innovative solutions, leading to improvements in the standard of living. The innovation activity of firms is based on supply-side factors, hence it is large enterprises that excel in innovation since they strive to achieve a monopoly market position and above-average profits. Schumpeter attempts to combine two elements: the spread of monopolies and the continuation of economic development, both occurring through innovation, which is far more important than price competition. The Schumpeterian ‘creative destruction’ permeates the main aspects of macroeconomic activity, not only in the long term, but also in the area of economic fluctuations, structural changes, or the functioning of markets. As a result, it becomes a factor determining changes in the economic order. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of territories in the process of creating and using knowledge and its impact on the economic efficiency of the companies which function within their boundaries. Regional cooperation increases the involvement of business entities in innovation activities, which translates into higher competitiveness of firms. Moreover, the awareness of the necessity of cooperation and use of innovation capital tends to grow.

Keywords

  • creative destruction
  • innovation
  • economic development