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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Changes of the Ecological Conditions in the Báb Forest on the Basis of a Bioindication Method

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 201 - 216

Résumé

Abstract

This work analyses the changes of ecological conditions in the Báb forest on the basis of a bioindication method. The comparison is made between the phytocenological records from the years 1968-1969 and 2013 where permanent research plots (PRPs) were established in the forest coppi-ce and on clearcuts. In 2013, the amount of photophilous and thermophilic species increased mainly on the clearcut PRP and the amount of suboceanic taxa on PRP in the forest coppice. Moreover, there is also an increase of taxa like nitrogen-rich posts. On the other hand, the share of fresh soils indicators and acidophilous species significantly decreased. The change in the ratio of the econumbers of the observed ecofactors between the records from 1968-1969 and 2013 is caused mainly by a diversified management. It is the formation of clearcuts due to which synanthropic, clearcut and invasive species occupy the free space. The given species are mainly thermophilic, photophilous representatives and representatives of nitrogen-rich soils and they have a significant influence on the change in the percentual ratios of the econumbers of the six observed ecofactors.

Mots clés

  • eco-analysis
  • Ellenberg’s indicator values
  • clearcuts
  • forest cover
Accès libre

Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 217 - 231

Résumé

Abstract

The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i) describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii) test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER) sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net) including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%). Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i) this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii) this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii) further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

Mots clés

  • ecosystem service assessment
  • natural resource management
  • environmental values
  • natural capital
  • land-use assessment
  • Long-Term Ecosystem Research (LTER).
Accès libre

Proportion of Root Production in Several Temperate Grasslands of Central Europe

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 232 - 241

Résumé

Abstract

Variability in frnpp, defined as the fraction of root net primary productivity (RNPP) to total net primary productivity (TNPP) [above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) + RNPP] were examined through synthesis of 40 samples from available field biomass data assessed by in-growth core and obtained at 13 grassland sites situated in different altitudes in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Results indicate that frnpp varied from 0.05 to 0.59 across the compared sites. Submontane wet meadows had larger frnpp and dry lowland grasslands had smaller frnpp However, extreme conditions of mountain sites were reflected in a decrease of frnpp. Thus the relationship between values of frnpp at different sites and altitudes was indicated by quadratic regression with the highest frnpp coefficients in middle altitudes, where there were sufficient amounts of precipitation together with not so extremely cold temperatures. Results also indicate a high variability in frnpp at a regional scale and along increasing altitude. These data show how important and different roles grasslands can play in accumulation and turnover of root biomass.

Mots clés

  • altitude
  • biomass partitioning
  • grassland
  • net primary productivity
  • precipitation
  • temperature
Accès libre

Chemical Properties of the Forest Litter in Istria and the Croatian Littoral

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 242 - 251

Résumé

Abstract

The experiment was set up in the forest ecosystem with diverse vegetation zones in the area of Istria and the Croatian Littoral. Research included the following systematic soil units: lithic lepto-sols, rendzic leptosols, rendzic leptosols - eroded, mollic leptosols, chromic cambisol and chromic luvisols. The average quantity of the forest litter in the studied systematic soil units reaches 13.36 t/ha (Tables 1-3). The “wealth” of organic matter in the studied soil units can be presented with the following series: chromic cambisols (CMx) > mollic leptosols (LPm), organogenic, rendzic leptosols (LPk) > lithic leptosols (LPq) > chromic cambisols (CMx) - Terra rossa, chromic luvi-sols (LVx) > rendzic leptosols (LPk) - eroded. As expected, the lowest value of total nitrogen was found in the lithic leptosols in relation to almost all the other soils, except when compared with chromic cambisol and rendzic leptosols (p ⋋ 0.05). The statistically justified higher values of the percentage share of P2O5 in the forest litter were found in chromic luvisols and rendzic leptosols - eroded in relation to the other studied soils. Significantly higher level of copper contamination was inside rendzic leptosols - eroded in relation to the other studied soils. The exception is rendzic leptosols (p ⋋ 0.05). A significantly higher zinc content was detected in the lithic leptosols in relation to the other soil units, except for chromic luvisols, while a justifiably higher total lead and cadmium content in the forest litter was observed in chromic luvisols in relation to the other compared soils (p ⋋ 0.05).

Mots clés

  • contamination
  • heavy metals
  • soil units
Accès libre

Landscape-Ecological Interpretation and Applications of Landscape Survey Results for Optimal Land Use

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 252 - 258

Résumé

Abstract

Landscape-ecological multidisciplinary approach is turning out to be the only suitable solution for the problem of land-use optimisation. The article puts forward a landscape-ecological methodology of landscape-ecological carrying capacity (LCC) evaluation and accounts for its interconnection with sectoral surveys. Primarily it is an interpretation of survey results of the forest ecology in forestry and the complex soil survey in agriculture within the methods of LCC. By application of the results, the process of LCC evaluation will be accelerated and remedial measures will be provided more efficiently. The result of an application of the methodics will be suitable land use in conformity to landscape potential, while landscape-ecological limits are respected. The article calls attention to the fact that LCC methods should be considered within the planning of land use of forest and agricultural landscape on the basis of the entire gravitational unit - watershed.

Mots clés

  • sustainable development
  • optimal land use
  • landscape-ecological carrying capacity
  • ofrestry
  • multifunctional agriculture
  • land surveys
Accès libre

Succession of Periphyton and Phytoplankton Assemblages in Years with Varying Amounts of Precipitation in a Shallow Urban Lake (Lake Jeziorak Mały, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 259 - 273

Résumé

Abstract

This study of periphyton assemblages (periphyton in separator pipes, epilithon and epiphyton) and phytoplankton was carried out in Lake Jeziorak Maly in 1997-2003 and 2005. Since precipitation amounts varied in these years, changes in the abundance, biomass, taxonomic group structure, spe-cies diversity and dominant taxa of these assemblages were analyzed in relation to the physical and chemical water parameters. The periphyton in pipes had their highest abundance and biomass at the mean precipitation in the vegetative season and at maximum precipitations in winter 2000, and also in the 1997 vegetative season when there were high levels of electrolytic conductivity and orthophosphate and chloride concentrations. The assemblage was dominated by the diatoms Diatoma vulgaris which was resistant to washing and Navicula gregaria resistant to high amounts of organic matter. Similarly, maximum abundance and biomass of epilithon was found at the maximum precipitation level. However, in 2003 there was a low precipitation level which favoured habitation by epilithic filamentous chlorophytes, especially Ulothrix tenuissima. Meanwhile, epiphyton and phytoplankton thrived best in the high precipitation conditions and moderate chloride concentration in 2001. These assemblages were dominated by species typical for eutrophic waters, such as Gomphonema oliva-ceum and Planktolyngbya brevicellularis. Differences in the dynamics of periphyton assemblages and phytoplankton in the studied years indicate varying succession rates in these assemblages, especially in the separator pipes and on stones. These phenomena are considered to be related to the different environmental conditions engendered by variable amounts of precipitation.

Mots clés

  • lake
  • littoral zone
  • periphyton
  • phytoplankton
  • succession
  • precipitations
  • environmental conditions
Accès libre

Response of Vegetation on Gravel Bars to Management Measures and Floods: Case Study From the Czech Republic

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 274 - 285

Résumé

Abstract

This article investigates response of vegetation on gravel bars to management measures and floods. The management measures consisted of the partial removal of gravel and vegetation cover, and were applied to six gravel bars on the Ostravice River, Czech Republic. Unexpected floods occu-rred in 2010, with the amplitude of 5- to 50-year repetition. Research of vegetation on the gravel bars consisted of vegetation survey before the management works; the monitoring of vegetation development over the following year and the verification of the relationships of species diversity, successional stages and the biotope conditions with the help of multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis). Vegetation on the gravel bars was at different successional stages, and had higher diversity and vegetation cover before the management measures and floods. The mul-tivariate analysis revealed a shift toward initial successional stages with high demand on moisture, temperature and light after both management measures and floods.

Mots clés

  • gravel bar
  • natural biotopes
  • vegetation succession
  • management measures
  • floods
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

Joint Slovak-Ukraine-Germany Beech Ecosystems as the World Natural Heritage

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 286 - 300

Résumé

Abstract

The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1). Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine) were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.

Mots clés

  • primeval beech forest
  • ancient beech forest
  • World Natural Heritage
  • integrated management plan
8 Articles
Accès libre

Changes of the Ecological Conditions in the Báb Forest on the Basis of a Bioindication Method

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 201 - 216

Résumé

Abstract

This work analyses the changes of ecological conditions in the Báb forest on the basis of a bioindication method. The comparison is made between the phytocenological records from the years 1968-1969 and 2013 where permanent research plots (PRPs) were established in the forest coppi-ce and on clearcuts. In 2013, the amount of photophilous and thermophilic species increased mainly on the clearcut PRP and the amount of suboceanic taxa on PRP in the forest coppice. Moreover, there is also an increase of taxa like nitrogen-rich posts. On the other hand, the share of fresh soils indicators and acidophilous species significantly decreased. The change in the ratio of the econumbers of the observed ecofactors between the records from 1968-1969 and 2013 is caused mainly by a diversified management. It is the formation of clearcuts due to which synanthropic, clearcut and invasive species occupy the free space. The given species are mainly thermophilic, photophilous representatives and representatives of nitrogen-rich soils and they have a significant influence on the change in the percentual ratios of the econumbers of the six observed ecofactors.

Mots clés

  • eco-analysis
  • Ellenberg’s indicator values
  • clearcuts
  • forest cover
Accès libre

Ecosytem Services: A Rapid Assessment Method Tested at 35 Sites of the LTER-Europe Network

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 217 - 231

Résumé

Abstract

The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i) describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii) test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER) sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net) including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%). Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i) this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii) this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii) further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.

Mots clés

  • ecosystem service assessment
  • natural resource management
  • environmental values
  • natural capital
  • land-use assessment
  • Long-Term Ecosystem Research (LTER).
Accès libre

Proportion of Root Production in Several Temperate Grasslands of Central Europe

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 232 - 241

Résumé

Abstract

Variability in frnpp, defined as the fraction of root net primary productivity (RNPP) to total net primary productivity (TNPP) [above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) + RNPP] were examined through synthesis of 40 samples from available field biomass data assessed by in-growth core and obtained at 13 grassland sites situated in different altitudes in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Results indicate that frnpp varied from 0.05 to 0.59 across the compared sites. Submontane wet meadows had larger frnpp and dry lowland grasslands had smaller frnpp However, extreme conditions of mountain sites were reflected in a decrease of frnpp. Thus the relationship between values of frnpp at different sites and altitudes was indicated by quadratic regression with the highest frnpp coefficients in middle altitudes, where there were sufficient amounts of precipitation together with not so extremely cold temperatures. Results also indicate a high variability in frnpp at a regional scale and along increasing altitude. These data show how important and different roles grasslands can play in accumulation and turnover of root biomass.

Mots clés

  • altitude
  • biomass partitioning
  • grassland
  • net primary productivity
  • precipitation
  • temperature
Accès libre

Chemical Properties of the Forest Litter in Istria and the Croatian Littoral

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 242 - 251

Résumé

Abstract

The experiment was set up in the forest ecosystem with diverse vegetation zones in the area of Istria and the Croatian Littoral. Research included the following systematic soil units: lithic lepto-sols, rendzic leptosols, rendzic leptosols - eroded, mollic leptosols, chromic cambisol and chromic luvisols. The average quantity of the forest litter in the studied systematic soil units reaches 13.36 t/ha (Tables 1-3). The “wealth” of organic matter in the studied soil units can be presented with the following series: chromic cambisols (CMx) > mollic leptosols (LPm), organogenic, rendzic leptosols (LPk) > lithic leptosols (LPq) > chromic cambisols (CMx) - Terra rossa, chromic luvi-sols (LVx) > rendzic leptosols (LPk) - eroded. As expected, the lowest value of total nitrogen was found in the lithic leptosols in relation to almost all the other soils, except when compared with chromic cambisol and rendzic leptosols (p ⋋ 0.05). The statistically justified higher values of the percentage share of P2O5 in the forest litter were found in chromic luvisols and rendzic leptosols - eroded in relation to the other studied soils. Significantly higher level of copper contamination was inside rendzic leptosols - eroded in relation to the other studied soils. The exception is rendzic leptosols (p ⋋ 0.05). A significantly higher zinc content was detected in the lithic leptosols in relation to the other soil units, except for chromic luvisols, while a justifiably higher total lead and cadmium content in the forest litter was observed in chromic luvisols in relation to the other compared soils (p ⋋ 0.05).

Mots clés

  • contamination
  • heavy metals
  • soil units
Accès libre

Landscape-Ecological Interpretation and Applications of Landscape Survey Results for Optimal Land Use

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 252 - 258

Résumé

Abstract

Landscape-ecological multidisciplinary approach is turning out to be the only suitable solution for the problem of land-use optimisation. The article puts forward a landscape-ecological methodology of landscape-ecological carrying capacity (LCC) evaluation and accounts for its interconnection with sectoral surveys. Primarily it is an interpretation of survey results of the forest ecology in forestry and the complex soil survey in agriculture within the methods of LCC. By application of the results, the process of LCC evaluation will be accelerated and remedial measures will be provided more efficiently. The result of an application of the methodics will be suitable land use in conformity to landscape potential, while landscape-ecological limits are respected. The article calls attention to the fact that LCC methods should be considered within the planning of land use of forest and agricultural landscape on the basis of the entire gravitational unit - watershed.

Mots clés

  • sustainable development
  • optimal land use
  • landscape-ecological carrying capacity
  • ofrestry
  • multifunctional agriculture
  • land surveys
Accès libre

Succession of Periphyton and Phytoplankton Assemblages in Years with Varying Amounts of Precipitation in a Shallow Urban Lake (Lake Jeziorak Mały, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 259 - 273

Résumé

Abstract

This study of periphyton assemblages (periphyton in separator pipes, epilithon and epiphyton) and phytoplankton was carried out in Lake Jeziorak Maly in 1997-2003 and 2005. Since precipitation amounts varied in these years, changes in the abundance, biomass, taxonomic group structure, spe-cies diversity and dominant taxa of these assemblages were analyzed in relation to the physical and chemical water parameters. The periphyton in pipes had their highest abundance and biomass at the mean precipitation in the vegetative season and at maximum precipitations in winter 2000, and also in the 1997 vegetative season when there were high levels of electrolytic conductivity and orthophosphate and chloride concentrations. The assemblage was dominated by the diatoms Diatoma vulgaris which was resistant to washing and Navicula gregaria resistant to high amounts of organic matter. Similarly, maximum abundance and biomass of epilithon was found at the maximum precipitation level. However, in 2003 there was a low precipitation level which favoured habitation by epilithic filamentous chlorophytes, especially Ulothrix tenuissima. Meanwhile, epiphyton and phytoplankton thrived best in the high precipitation conditions and moderate chloride concentration in 2001. These assemblages were dominated by species typical for eutrophic waters, such as Gomphonema oliva-ceum and Planktolyngbya brevicellularis. Differences in the dynamics of periphyton assemblages and phytoplankton in the studied years indicate varying succession rates in these assemblages, especially in the separator pipes and on stones. These phenomena are considered to be related to the different environmental conditions engendered by variable amounts of precipitation.

Mots clés

  • lake
  • littoral zone
  • periphyton
  • phytoplankton
  • succession
  • precipitations
  • environmental conditions
Accès libre

Response of Vegetation on Gravel Bars to Management Measures and Floods: Case Study From the Czech Republic

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 274 - 285

Résumé

Abstract

This article investigates response of vegetation on gravel bars to management measures and floods. The management measures consisted of the partial removal of gravel and vegetation cover, and were applied to six gravel bars on the Ostravice River, Czech Republic. Unexpected floods occu-rred in 2010, with the amplitude of 5- to 50-year repetition. Research of vegetation on the gravel bars consisted of vegetation survey before the management works; the monitoring of vegetation development over the following year and the verification of the relationships of species diversity, successional stages and the biotope conditions with the help of multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis). Vegetation on the gravel bars was at different successional stages, and had higher diversity and vegetation cover before the management measures and floods. The mul-tivariate analysis revealed a shift toward initial successional stages with high demand on moisture, temperature and light after both management measures and floods.

Mots clés

  • gravel bar
  • natural biotopes
  • vegetation succession
  • management measures
  • floods
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

Joint Slovak-Ukraine-Germany Beech Ecosystems as the World Natural Heritage

Publié en ligne: 21 Aug 2014
Pages: 286 - 300

Résumé

Abstract

The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1). Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine) were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.

Mots clés

  • primeval beech forest
  • ancient beech forest
  • World Natural Heritage
  • integrated management plan

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