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Volume 40 (2021): Edition 2 (June 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

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Volume 37 (2018): Edition 2 (June 2018)

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Volume 36 (2017): Edition 3 (September 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 1 (March 2017)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)

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Volume 34 (2015): Edition 4 (December 2015)

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

11 Articles
Accès libre

The Relationship Between Soil Heterogeneity and Cellulolytic Activity

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 1 - 7

Résumé

Abstract

This article examines the relationship between soil heterogeneity and cellulolytic activity. The investigated substrate was a typical chernozem (black soil). Cellulolytic activity was studied by the application method across a regular grid of 7×15 points (21×45 m). The distance between the measurement points was 3 m. Soil heterogeneity determined by the measurement of soil penetration resistance using a hand penetrometer Eijkelkamp. Measurements of soil penetration resistance were fixed to a depth of 100 cm at intervals of 5 cm. Geostatistical analysis showed a high level of spatial dependence of soil cellulolytic activity. Significant correlations were obtained between the spatial distribution of cellulolytic activity and soil penetration resistance at different depths. The results reflect a significant correlation of soil conditions at different depths.

Mots clés

  • soil cellulolytic activity
  • soil heterogeneity
  • soil penetration resistance
  • geostatistics
Accès libre

Assessment of the State of Soil’s Microbial Community in Condition of Intensive Influence of Pollutants

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 8 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the study of toxicological state of the soil. It shows ecological and microbiological properties of the soil mantle in the areas of technological environmental impact and evaluates changes in the number of soil microorganisms as a result of toxic contamination of urban soil at different distances from the Moscow loop highway, and also as a result of dumping aluminum foundry slag in Orel region. Soil-inhabiting invertebrates species composition was evaluated at different soil contamination conditions. It was proven that the state of microbiocenosis changes depending on the intensity and character of the anthropogenic impact. It was established that soil fermentation and microbiological activity changes depending on the value of the cumulative heavy metals’ build-up coefficient. Study of interelement ties between the heavy metals concerned showed that they too may have the same anthropogenic origin regardless of their sources of origin. Pollution index indicates medium to high level of soil contamination in explored urban territories where vehicle emission is the main source of pollution, and dangerously high contamination of light-gray soil in the small settlement impacted by a nearby slag disposal site.

Mots clés

  • microorganisms
  • urbanozems
  • invertebrates
  • mesofauna
  • heavy metals
Accès libre

Alien Plants are Less Palatable to Pest Herbivores than Native Plants: Evidence from Cafeteria Experiments in Search of Suitable Plant Species to Restore Degraded Ecosystems

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 16 - 24

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays, the ecology and evolutionary potential of alien species are the subjects of several ecological studies. The goal of this study was to compare the feeding preference of Arion ater on seedlings and leaves of alien and native plant species. Seedlings of three native species and one alien species were offered to slugs individually and in combination. Afterward, leaf discs from the native and alien species collected from the same source site of slug’s habitat were offered individually and in combination for slugs. When the new plant emerges, it constitutes a generous source of potential food and slugs would even feed on seedlings, which are not particularly palatable. Nonetheless, when given a choice, slug often preferentially feeds on some food items while ignoring others. Alien plants are more resistant to herbivory than native plants. There is a general tendency for alien species to be less palatable than native species. In general, slugs may eat a wide range of seedlings that are much more attractive than mature plants of the same species. Therefore, the native herbivores were found to attack native plants and promoted alien plants. Consequently, highly unacceptable alien species such as Eucalyptus globulus may play an important role in the restoration process.

Mots clés

  • feeding
  • herbivory
  • native
Accès libre

Indication of Natural Boreo-Continental Pine Sites Through Discrimination Analysis of the Soil Biochemical and Water-Holding Properties

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 25 - 36

Résumé

Abstract

Natural pine site differentiation is instrumental in the modification of Scots pine cultivation to environmental change. The aim of this study was to distinguish azonal pine sites in prevailing beechwood conditions by the means of soil property interrelationships. The study aimed at verifying assumptions (i) that intrinsic soil properties suggest differences at naturalness among various communities in the same mesoclimate, relief or on same soil group and (ii) whether pines differ from beechwoods uniformly or unevenly among different regional population areas. The verification was carried out by discrimination analysis of the H- and A-horizon forest soil properties at selected pine and beech stands in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2015. Homogeneous pines were confirmed either on poorly developed or very infertile soils. Mixed pines were found on Cambisols. Complete separability was found between pines and beechwoods on Podzols due to inverse proportions of correlations among acid phosphomonoesterase (APMEA) and urease (UA) activities, Corg, Cmic, base saturation, bulk density and aeration. The inverse proportions among UA, Ntot, Cmic and soil hydrophysical properties conditioned the separability of pines on different soil groups than beechwoods. Soil indications of natural pines are related to phosphorus release by APMEA and site resistance to drought due to soil organic matter and water-holding capacity.

Mots clés

  • soil biochemical signatures
  • enzyme-organomineral complex
  • soil organic matter
  • soil desiccation
  • forest community
Accès libre

Mass Mortality as a Way of Structuring Amazonian and Alpine Tree Populations: Evidence After Storm Vaia

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 37 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

By logging in the past, humans can determine current tree population structures, but fast stump decomposition makes difficult to falsify that for Amazonian Rainforests. We reconstructed land-use histories and surveyed trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height on three 1-ha plots (K1, K2, and K6) in Kühbergl, South Tyrolean Alps as we did for four plots in Atacapi, Ecuador (plots A, B, C, and D). Storm Vaia (October 27 –November 1, 2018) stroke Kübergl providing dated evidence of mass tree-mortality on plot K6. We used K6 as control for comparing its pre- and post-storm population structures with the ones of four Amazonian, and three Alpine species where Vaia did not kill trees (Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests). When compared with K6’s Picea abies, the following species had size distributions similar to post-storm, but not to pre-storm situation. Amazonian: Piptocoma discolor, Vochysia bracelineae (plots B and D), Miconia decurrens (plots B and C), and Pseudobombax sp (plot C). Alpine: Larix decidua (plot K1) and Picea abies (plot K2). Storms do not occur in Atacapi, where logging is a common practice. That makes plausible that discrete events of compulsive logging during secondary succession made Amazonian population structures to look similar to K6’s P. abies. Logging is forbidden in Kühbergl, but storms are common there. Thus, the current population structures of Larix decidua (plot K1) and Picea abies (plot K2) should be legacies of storms before Vaia. Looking into tree populations’ history can impulse research for answering some basic questions of Ecology: what alters population structures, and which population structuring processes are more influential than others.

Mots clés

  • alpine wet tundra
  • disturbance
  • land-use history
  • tree sizes
  • tropical rainforest
Accès libre

Distribution and Population Structure of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh in Relation to the Environmental Gradient Along the Red Sea Coast of Egypt

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 48 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents an assessment of changes in Avicennia marina population along the Egyptian coasts of the Red Sea. A retrospective analysis of the mangrove cover and distribution was carried out. The populations in Sharm El-Bahary and wadi El-Gimal lack at least one or more volume class stages, while all volume classes are represented in the last two populations occurring in wadi Al-Qu’lan and Sharm El-Madfa’a. The relationships between the individual diameter and canopy volume of A. marina population are simply linear. Strong correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.92) for the population of Sharm El-Bahry and the weak correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.63) for the population of wadi El-Gimal. On the other hand, the relationships between the individual heights and canopy volume of A. marina population are simply linear. Strong correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.72) for the population of Sharm El-Bahry and the weak correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.46) for the population of wadi El-Gimal. All growth performance of A. marina species differ significantly at the four localities except the circumference. The comparison of soil characteristics A. marina populations in the four study localities showed significant variations in all variables except the silt content and SO4.

Mots clés

  • mangrove
  • distribution
  • Red Sea
  • population structure
Accès libre

Being Dark is Better: A Feral Pigeon Plumage Polymorphism as a Response to Urban Environments in Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 54 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and plumage phenotypes of the feral pigeon, Columba livia forma urbana (Gmelin, 1789), in Slovakia. Censuses carried out in the built-up areas of 16 towns and cities from November to February (2012–2018) counted and evaluated 3,123 individual birds. The most frequent were melanic colored birds (checker, T-pattern and spread phenotypes), which predominated in the population (51.6%, n = 1,613), followed by paler ones (42.1%, n = 1,316) and other types (6.2%, n = 194). A statistically significant difference was confirmed among the melanic and paler plumage phenotypes (χ2 = 81.49, df = 15, p < 0.0001). Correlation confirmed the different importance of city area and human density on the maintenance of dark and/or pale pigeons living in cities.

Mots clés

  • color
  • feather variability
  • urbanization process
Accès libre

Some Population Aspects of Common Tern Sterna hirundo Breeding in Algeria at a Small Mediterranean Island (East Coast of Algeria)

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 62 - 69

Résumé

Abstract

We present the first detailed study of population dynamics, breeding biology and egg measurement of Common Terns. During six years (from 2004 to 2009) of monitoring, from mid-May to mid-August, 74 Common Terns individual were recorded at Laouinet small island, El Tarf, northeast of Algeria, witha finite population growth rate that indicated an alarming population decline(λ = -0.62: Lambda). Sterna hirundo build its nests (n = 37) in the northeast at a mean distance of 7.58 m from the closest edge of rocks. The nests were closed and ovoid, constituted mainly of mussel shells Sandpit, stems and leaves. Incubation was performed by pairs of common tern and lasted 25.5 ±3.4 days. We recorded a clutch size of 1 to 3 eggs with mean clutch size of 2.45±0.65 (41.24±0.83 × 30.46±0.62 mm). The egg parameters (volume, mass, shape index) varied between the six years of the study. The egg volume (19.24±0.87) depended more on egg width (30.46±0.62), however the egg shape (0.73±0.20) depended negatively on the egg length (41.24±0.83) but not on the egg width. Our results also showed a stabilized hatching success and a best estimation of breeding success. The hatching success did not vary between years: 70.5% in 2004, 68.75% in 2005, 71.42% in 2006, 71.42% in 2007, 69.23% in 2008 and 69.23% in 2009.

Mots clés

  • unique population
  • egg parameters
  • little rocky
  • marine environment
Accès libre

Does Substrate Quality Influence Diversity and Habitat Use of Waterbirds?: A Case Study from Wetlands in Southern India

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 70 - 79

Résumé

Abstract

Wetland acts as an important habitat that supports a massive diversity of organisms, especially waterbirds. We examined waterbird diversity and habitat use in relation to abiotic factors at Mavoor and Vazhakkad, two major wetlands in southwestern India. The study was carried out from 2015 December to 2016 November. A total of 50 species from Vazhakkad and 40 species from Mavoor wetlands were recorded; 12 species were exclusive to Vazhakkad and three to Mavoor. Among them, 16 species were winter visitors in Vazhakkad and nine in Mavoor. Highest diversity of waterbirds was observed in the agroecosystem of Vazhakkad. Physicochemical variables were recorded for the two wetlands, and their effect on waterbird richness, abundance and diversity were correlated. Multivariate analysis showed the variation in diversity between the two wetlands (MANOVA: Wilks’ λ = 0.933, F = 3.69, P = 0.006) and habitat wetland interaction (MANOVA: Wilks’ λ = 0.694, F = 10.25, P = 0.00). Nonlinear regression analyses were carried out between the evolution of the ecological index in the two wetlands separately. The present study could determine the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wetland function from this study.

Mots clés

  • richness
  • abundance
  • abiotic factors
  • agricultural land
  • Mavoor
  • Vazhakkad
Accès libre

Urban Green Areas and Woody Plant Composition: Dwelling Space Quality Factor in the Klokočina Housing Estate

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 80 - 90

Résumé

Abstract

The environment of a city is influenced by global and local climate changes, pollution load from transport, industry and local heat sources. Green spaces as part of the urban green infrastructure fulfil multiple ecosystem services and improve the environmental and residential quality of a city. The level of positive effects of green spaces depends on their area, distribution within the city and the proportion of trees. The aim of the paper was to evaluate land cover structure in a selected segment of the housing estate Klokočina in Nitra, Slovakia. The evaluation focused on the share of biologically active and inactive surfaces, as well as the parameters of woody plant structure in green spaces. Green areas account for 58.70%, while built-up areas, parking lots and roads cover in total 41.30%. Biologically inactive anthropogenic horizontal and of building envelope areas represent 67.30%. Biologically active green areas represent 32.70%. The share of areas with tree crown overlap on horizontal areas is 20.82%, other areas are paved surfaces or grassland. We calculated the indices of the quality of green spaces from the individual categories of areas: proportional green area index (PGAI), effective green area index (EGAI) and tree shade index (TSI). The tree species composition consists of 36 deciduous and 11 coniferous tree species, and 20 shrub species. We evaluated the biometric traits of trees as the tree height, crown width, stem girth and tree vitality class (TVC). The correlations between tree traits were statistically tested with a significant result. In the group of biologically active areas of greenery, we propose to increase the proportion of trees, to establish more natural lawns and xerophyte flower beds. In the category of inactive areas, we propose the reconstruction of parking lots to grass paved surfaces.

Mots clés

  • town structure
  • housing estate
  • land cover
  • green spaces
  • tree quality traits
Accès libre

Heavy Metal and Trace Element Bioaccumulation in Muscle and Liver of the Merlu (Merluccius merluccius Linneaus, 1758) from the Gulf of Bejaia in Algeria

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 91 - 100

Résumé

Abstract

This preliminary study aims at assessing a contamination level of Bejaia Gulf by some Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs) such as zinc, iron, copper, nickel, lead and cadmium. The use of hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linneaus, 1758) as a bio-indicator of these heavy metals, made it possible to put in an obvious the presence of these micropollutants at the level of two target organs, the liver, detoxifying organ and the muscle, the most prized part by consumer. The MTE assays are performed using a Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). As for the fish contamination level, it is referred to the guide values of the WHO, FAO and Algerian recommendations. Within the framework of our study, the recorded values show that hake accumulates all metal pollutants being analyzed. Iron and zinc exhibit the highest concentration, the presence of nickel and copper were also recorded. Lead and cadmium have critical concentrations exceeding even Algerian standards.

These results revealed no significant difference in both sexes and in both target organs. However, the study indicates considerable contamination in young fish with significant concentrations according to established standards. These data reveal that Merluccius merluccius is a bio-indicator of marine pollution in the Gulf of Bejaia.

Mots clés

  • heavy metals bioaccumulation
  • contamination
  • Gulf of Bejaia
11 Articles
Accès libre

The Relationship Between Soil Heterogeneity and Cellulolytic Activity

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 1 - 7

Résumé

Abstract

This article examines the relationship between soil heterogeneity and cellulolytic activity. The investigated substrate was a typical chernozem (black soil). Cellulolytic activity was studied by the application method across a regular grid of 7×15 points (21×45 m). The distance between the measurement points was 3 m. Soil heterogeneity determined by the measurement of soil penetration resistance using a hand penetrometer Eijkelkamp. Measurements of soil penetration resistance were fixed to a depth of 100 cm at intervals of 5 cm. Geostatistical analysis showed a high level of spatial dependence of soil cellulolytic activity. Significant correlations were obtained between the spatial distribution of cellulolytic activity and soil penetration resistance at different depths. The results reflect a significant correlation of soil conditions at different depths.

Mots clés

  • soil cellulolytic activity
  • soil heterogeneity
  • soil penetration resistance
  • geostatistics
Accès libre

Assessment of the State of Soil’s Microbial Community in Condition of Intensive Influence of Pollutants

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 8 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the study of toxicological state of the soil. It shows ecological and microbiological properties of the soil mantle in the areas of technological environmental impact and evaluates changes in the number of soil microorganisms as a result of toxic contamination of urban soil at different distances from the Moscow loop highway, and also as a result of dumping aluminum foundry slag in Orel region. Soil-inhabiting invertebrates species composition was evaluated at different soil contamination conditions. It was proven that the state of microbiocenosis changes depending on the intensity and character of the anthropogenic impact. It was established that soil fermentation and microbiological activity changes depending on the value of the cumulative heavy metals’ build-up coefficient. Study of interelement ties between the heavy metals concerned showed that they too may have the same anthropogenic origin regardless of their sources of origin. Pollution index indicates medium to high level of soil contamination in explored urban territories where vehicle emission is the main source of pollution, and dangerously high contamination of light-gray soil in the small settlement impacted by a nearby slag disposal site.

Mots clés

  • microorganisms
  • urbanozems
  • invertebrates
  • mesofauna
  • heavy metals
Accès libre

Alien Plants are Less Palatable to Pest Herbivores than Native Plants: Evidence from Cafeteria Experiments in Search of Suitable Plant Species to Restore Degraded Ecosystems

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 16 - 24

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays, the ecology and evolutionary potential of alien species are the subjects of several ecological studies. The goal of this study was to compare the feeding preference of Arion ater on seedlings and leaves of alien and native plant species. Seedlings of three native species and one alien species were offered to slugs individually and in combination. Afterward, leaf discs from the native and alien species collected from the same source site of slug’s habitat were offered individually and in combination for slugs. When the new plant emerges, it constitutes a generous source of potential food and slugs would even feed on seedlings, which are not particularly palatable. Nonetheless, when given a choice, slug often preferentially feeds on some food items while ignoring others. Alien plants are more resistant to herbivory than native plants. There is a general tendency for alien species to be less palatable than native species. In general, slugs may eat a wide range of seedlings that are much more attractive than mature plants of the same species. Therefore, the native herbivores were found to attack native plants and promoted alien plants. Consequently, highly unacceptable alien species such as Eucalyptus globulus may play an important role in the restoration process.

Mots clés

  • feeding
  • herbivory
  • native
Accès libre

Indication of Natural Boreo-Continental Pine Sites Through Discrimination Analysis of the Soil Biochemical and Water-Holding Properties

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 25 - 36

Résumé

Abstract

Natural pine site differentiation is instrumental in the modification of Scots pine cultivation to environmental change. The aim of this study was to distinguish azonal pine sites in prevailing beechwood conditions by the means of soil property interrelationships. The study aimed at verifying assumptions (i) that intrinsic soil properties suggest differences at naturalness among various communities in the same mesoclimate, relief or on same soil group and (ii) whether pines differ from beechwoods uniformly or unevenly among different regional population areas. The verification was carried out by discrimination analysis of the H- and A-horizon forest soil properties at selected pine and beech stands in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2015. Homogeneous pines were confirmed either on poorly developed or very infertile soils. Mixed pines were found on Cambisols. Complete separability was found between pines and beechwoods on Podzols due to inverse proportions of correlations among acid phosphomonoesterase (APMEA) and urease (UA) activities, Corg, Cmic, base saturation, bulk density and aeration. The inverse proportions among UA, Ntot, Cmic and soil hydrophysical properties conditioned the separability of pines on different soil groups than beechwoods. Soil indications of natural pines are related to phosphorus release by APMEA and site resistance to drought due to soil organic matter and water-holding capacity.

Mots clés

  • soil biochemical signatures
  • enzyme-organomineral complex
  • soil organic matter
  • soil desiccation
  • forest community
Accès libre

Mass Mortality as a Way of Structuring Amazonian and Alpine Tree Populations: Evidence After Storm Vaia

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 37 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

By logging in the past, humans can determine current tree population structures, but fast stump decomposition makes difficult to falsify that for Amazonian Rainforests. We reconstructed land-use histories and surveyed trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height on three 1-ha plots (K1, K2, and K6) in Kühbergl, South Tyrolean Alps as we did for four plots in Atacapi, Ecuador (plots A, B, C, and D). Storm Vaia (October 27 –November 1, 2018) stroke Kübergl providing dated evidence of mass tree-mortality on plot K6. We used K6 as control for comparing its pre- and post-storm population structures with the ones of four Amazonian, and three Alpine species where Vaia did not kill trees (Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests). When compared with K6’s Picea abies, the following species had size distributions similar to post-storm, but not to pre-storm situation. Amazonian: Piptocoma discolor, Vochysia bracelineae (plots B and D), Miconia decurrens (plots B and C), and Pseudobombax sp (plot C). Alpine: Larix decidua (plot K1) and Picea abies (plot K2). Storms do not occur in Atacapi, where logging is a common practice. That makes plausible that discrete events of compulsive logging during secondary succession made Amazonian population structures to look similar to K6’s P. abies. Logging is forbidden in Kühbergl, but storms are common there. Thus, the current population structures of Larix decidua (plot K1) and Picea abies (plot K2) should be legacies of storms before Vaia. Looking into tree populations’ history can impulse research for answering some basic questions of Ecology: what alters population structures, and which population structuring processes are more influential than others.

Mots clés

  • alpine wet tundra
  • disturbance
  • land-use history
  • tree sizes
  • tropical rainforest
Accès libre

Distribution and Population Structure of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh in Relation to the Environmental Gradient Along the Red Sea Coast of Egypt

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 48 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents an assessment of changes in Avicennia marina population along the Egyptian coasts of the Red Sea. A retrospective analysis of the mangrove cover and distribution was carried out. The populations in Sharm El-Bahary and wadi El-Gimal lack at least one or more volume class stages, while all volume classes are represented in the last two populations occurring in wadi Al-Qu’lan and Sharm El-Madfa’a. The relationships between the individual diameter and canopy volume of A. marina population are simply linear. Strong correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.92) for the population of Sharm El-Bahry and the weak correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.63) for the population of wadi El-Gimal. On the other hand, the relationships between the individual heights and canopy volume of A. marina population are simply linear. Strong correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.72) for the population of Sharm El-Bahry and the weak correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.46) for the population of wadi El-Gimal. All growth performance of A. marina species differ significantly at the four localities except the circumference. The comparison of soil characteristics A. marina populations in the four study localities showed significant variations in all variables except the silt content and SO4.

Mots clés

  • mangrove
  • distribution
  • Red Sea
  • population structure
Accès libre

Being Dark is Better: A Feral Pigeon Plumage Polymorphism as a Response to Urban Environments in Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 54 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and plumage phenotypes of the feral pigeon, Columba livia forma urbana (Gmelin, 1789), in Slovakia. Censuses carried out in the built-up areas of 16 towns and cities from November to February (2012–2018) counted and evaluated 3,123 individual birds. The most frequent were melanic colored birds (checker, T-pattern and spread phenotypes), which predominated in the population (51.6%, n = 1,613), followed by paler ones (42.1%, n = 1,316) and other types (6.2%, n = 194). A statistically significant difference was confirmed among the melanic and paler plumage phenotypes (χ2 = 81.49, df = 15, p < 0.0001). Correlation confirmed the different importance of city area and human density on the maintenance of dark and/or pale pigeons living in cities.

Mots clés

  • color
  • feather variability
  • urbanization process
Accès libre

Some Population Aspects of Common Tern Sterna hirundo Breeding in Algeria at a Small Mediterranean Island (East Coast of Algeria)

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 62 - 69

Résumé

Abstract

We present the first detailed study of population dynamics, breeding biology and egg measurement of Common Terns. During six years (from 2004 to 2009) of monitoring, from mid-May to mid-August, 74 Common Terns individual were recorded at Laouinet small island, El Tarf, northeast of Algeria, witha finite population growth rate that indicated an alarming population decline(λ = -0.62: Lambda). Sterna hirundo build its nests (n = 37) in the northeast at a mean distance of 7.58 m from the closest edge of rocks. The nests were closed and ovoid, constituted mainly of mussel shells Sandpit, stems and leaves. Incubation was performed by pairs of common tern and lasted 25.5 ±3.4 days. We recorded a clutch size of 1 to 3 eggs with mean clutch size of 2.45±0.65 (41.24±0.83 × 30.46±0.62 mm). The egg parameters (volume, mass, shape index) varied between the six years of the study. The egg volume (19.24±0.87) depended more on egg width (30.46±0.62), however the egg shape (0.73±0.20) depended negatively on the egg length (41.24±0.83) but not on the egg width. Our results also showed a stabilized hatching success and a best estimation of breeding success. The hatching success did not vary between years: 70.5% in 2004, 68.75% in 2005, 71.42% in 2006, 71.42% in 2007, 69.23% in 2008 and 69.23% in 2009.

Mots clés

  • unique population
  • egg parameters
  • little rocky
  • marine environment
Accès libre

Does Substrate Quality Influence Diversity and Habitat Use of Waterbirds?: A Case Study from Wetlands in Southern India

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 70 - 79

Résumé

Abstract

Wetland acts as an important habitat that supports a massive diversity of organisms, especially waterbirds. We examined waterbird diversity and habitat use in relation to abiotic factors at Mavoor and Vazhakkad, two major wetlands in southwestern India. The study was carried out from 2015 December to 2016 November. A total of 50 species from Vazhakkad and 40 species from Mavoor wetlands were recorded; 12 species were exclusive to Vazhakkad and three to Mavoor. Among them, 16 species were winter visitors in Vazhakkad and nine in Mavoor. Highest diversity of waterbirds was observed in the agroecosystem of Vazhakkad. Physicochemical variables were recorded for the two wetlands, and their effect on waterbird richness, abundance and diversity were correlated. Multivariate analysis showed the variation in diversity between the two wetlands (MANOVA: Wilks’ λ = 0.933, F = 3.69, P = 0.006) and habitat wetland interaction (MANOVA: Wilks’ λ = 0.694, F = 10.25, P = 0.00). Nonlinear regression analyses were carried out between the evolution of the ecological index in the two wetlands separately. The present study could determine the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wetland function from this study.

Mots clés

  • richness
  • abundance
  • abiotic factors
  • agricultural land
  • Mavoor
  • Vazhakkad
Accès libre

Urban Green Areas and Woody Plant Composition: Dwelling Space Quality Factor in the Klokočina Housing Estate

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 80 - 90

Résumé

Abstract

The environment of a city is influenced by global and local climate changes, pollution load from transport, industry and local heat sources. Green spaces as part of the urban green infrastructure fulfil multiple ecosystem services and improve the environmental and residential quality of a city. The level of positive effects of green spaces depends on their area, distribution within the city and the proportion of trees. The aim of the paper was to evaluate land cover structure in a selected segment of the housing estate Klokočina in Nitra, Slovakia. The evaluation focused on the share of biologically active and inactive surfaces, as well as the parameters of woody plant structure in green spaces. Green areas account for 58.70%, while built-up areas, parking lots and roads cover in total 41.30%. Biologically inactive anthropogenic horizontal and of building envelope areas represent 67.30%. Biologically active green areas represent 32.70%. The share of areas with tree crown overlap on horizontal areas is 20.82%, other areas are paved surfaces or grassland. We calculated the indices of the quality of green spaces from the individual categories of areas: proportional green area index (PGAI), effective green area index (EGAI) and tree shade index (TSI). The tree species composition consists of 36 deciduous and 11 coniferous tree species, and 20 shrub species. We evaluated the biometric traits of trees as the tree height, crown width, stem girth and tree vitality class (TVC). The correlations between tree traits were statistically tested with a significant result. In the group of biologically active areas of greenery, we propose to increase the proportion of trees, to establish more natural lawns and xerophyte flower beds. In the category of inactive areas, we propose the reconstruction of parking lots to grass paved surfaces.

Mots clés

  • town structure
  • housing estate
  • land cover
  • green spaces
  • tree quality traits
Accès libre

Heavy Metal and Trace Element Bioaccumulation in Muscle and Liver of the Merlu (Merluccius merluccius Linneaus, 1758) from the Gulf of Bejaia in Algeria

Publié en ligne: 18 Apr 2021
Pages: 91 - 100

Résumé

Abstract

This preliminary study aims at assessing a contamination level of Bejaia Gulf by some Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs) such as zinc, iron, copper, nickel, lead and cadmium. The use of hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linneaus, 1758) as a bio-indicator of these heavy metals, made it possible to put in an obvious the presence of these micropollutants at the level of two target organs, the liver, detoxifying organ and the muscle, the most prized part by consumer. The MTE assays are performed using a Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). As for the fish contamination level, it is referred to the guide values of the WHO, FAO and Algerian recommendations. Within the framework of our study, the recorded values show that hake accumulates all metal pollutants being analyzed. Iron and zinc exhibit the highest concentration, the presence of nickel and copper were also recorded. Lead and cadmium have critical concentrations exceeding even Algerian standards.

These results revealed no significant difference in both sexes and in both target organs. However, the study indicates considerable contamination in young fish with significant concentrations according to established standards. These data reveal that Merluccius merluccius is a bio-indicator of marine pollution in the Gulf of Bejaia.

Mots clés

  • heavy metals bioaccumulation
  • contamination
  • Gulf of Bejaia

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