Magazine et Edition

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 4 (December 2022)

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 3 (September 2022)

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 3 (September 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 2 (June 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 3 (September 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 2 (June 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 4 (December 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 2 (June 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 1 (March 2019)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 3 (September 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 2 (June 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 1 (March 2018)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 4 (December 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 3 (September 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 1 (March 2017)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 3 (September 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 2 (June 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 1 (March 2016)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 4 (December 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 3 (September 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 2 (June 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 1 (March 2015)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 4 (December 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 2 (June 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 1 (March 2014)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 4 (December 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 3 (September 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 2 (June 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 1 (March 2013)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 2 (June 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

9 Articles
Accès libre

Impact of protective shelterbelt microclimate characteristics

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 101 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

Evaluation of microclimate characteristics of a protective shelterbelt in Obelisk enclosure in 2010. Vegetation performs indispensable functions in the landscape. Protective shelterbelts are important landscape elements. Individual interventions to these ecosystems should be made with the intention to increase the retention capacity of the landscape, the biodiversity, and the stability of individual landscape elements and the landscape as a whole. This article presents the results of the measuring of the effect of model forest vegetation in the proximity of Obelisk in the Lednice-Valtice area on the microclimate. The protective shelterbelt, declared as a forest stand, is located in the cadastral area of Lednice, Podivin and Rakvice. A set of weather stations, supplied by AMET- Litschmann and Suchy Velke Bilovice, was used for the measuring. The stations measured wind velocity (m/s), soil temperature in depths of 5 and 10 cm (°C), air temperature (°C), radiation (W.m-2) and precipitation (mm) from January 1 to December 31, 2010. The ImageTool application was used to establish optical porosity, based on photos taken in summer and winter. Optical porosity was established as a ratio of white spots to their total number in a specific section of a photograph. The optical porosity was 5% during the growing season and 23% outside the growing season. These values significantly differ from the optimum values for efficient semi-permeable PS, whose porosity is set to 40-50%.

Keywords

  • protective shelterbelts
  • landscape
  • microclimate
Accès libre

Determining species expansion and extinction possibilities using probabilistic and graphical models

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 111 - 120

Résumé

Abstract

Survival of plant species is governed by a number of functions. The participation of each function in species survival and the impact of the contrary behaviour of the species vary from function to function. The probability of extinction of species varies in all such scenarios and has to be calculated separately. Secondly, species follow different patterns of dispersal and localisation at different stages of occupancy state of the site, therefore, the scenarios of competition for resources with climatic shifts leading to deterioration and loss of biodiversity resulting in extinction needs to be studied. Furthermore, most possible deviations of species from climax community states needs to be calculated before species become extinct due to sudden environmental disruption. Globally, various types of anthropogenic disturbances threaten the diversity of biological systems. The impact of these anthropogenic activities needs to be analysed to identify extinction patterns with respect to these activities. All the analyses mentioned above have been tried to be achieved through probabilistic or graphical models in this study.

Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • disturbances
  • climate change
  • endangered
  • risks
  • ecological models
Accès libre

Identification and typology of Czech post-industrial landscapes on national level using GIS and publicly accessed geodatabases

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 121 - 136

Résumé

Abstract

The post-industrial landscape (PIL) is a generally accepted phenomenon of the present world. Its features are fossil in comparison to those ones in operating industrial landscapes. The required knowledge about the position, size, shape and type of PIL will help decision makers plan PIL future. The paper deals with the selection of identification features of PILs. Applicable data must be related to four landscape structures: natural, economic (land use), social (human) and spiritual. Present Czech geodatabases contain sufficient quantity and quality of data they can be interpreted as source of PIL identification criteria. GIS technology was applied for such data collection, geometric and format pre-processing, thematic reclassification and final processing. Using selected identification and classification criteria, 105 PILs were identified on the Territory of Czech Republic and classified into individual types. A SWOT analysis of results was carried out to identify the reliability level of data and the data processing. The identified PILs represent the primary results generally obtained in the Czech Republic. GIS approach allows repeated procedures elsewhere in EU member states because of some similarity of available geodatabases. Of course, an improvement of classification procedure depends on the real situation in each country.

Keywords

  • industrial heritage
  • landscapes
  • mapping
  • classification
Accès libre

Linking floral biodiversity with nitrogen and carbon translocations in semi-natural grasslands in Lithuani

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 137 - 146

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the long-term effects of long-term piggery effluent application on semi-natural grassland ecotop-phytotop changes (above- and below-ground phytomass production, and carbon and nitrogen allocation in grassland communities) in relation to changes (or variability) in topsoil properties. Analysis of phytomass distribution in piggery effluent irrigated grassland communities showed that dry biomass yield varied from 1.7−5.3 t ha-1. Variability in soil and plant cover created a unique and highly unpredictable site specific system, where long-term anthropogenic influences established successor communities with specific characteristics of above- and below-ground biomass distribution. These characteristics depend more on grassland communities than on soil chemical properties. Families of grasses (Poaceae) dominated the surveyed communities and accumulated most carbon and least nitrogen, while legumes accumulated most nitrogen and lignin and least carbon. Carbon concentrations in above-ground biomass had minor variations, while accumulation of nitrogen was strongly influenced by species diversity (r = 0.94, n = 10, p <0.001) and production of above-ground biomass

Mots clés

  • piggery effluent
  • phytomass
  • Poaceae
  • Fabaceae
  • soil humus
Accès libre

Land units composition of home ranges and changing of winter roosts of long-eared owl <italic>Asio otus</italic>

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 147 - 154

Résumé

Abstract

During the years 2010-2012, we observed the spatial activity of long-eared owls by the radio telemetry in an agricultural land. The average home range size of tracked long-eared owls for 100 and 95% minimum convex polygon (MCP) was 415.93 and 350 ha, respectively. Between the breeding and the non-breeding season, we did not record significant differences in the size of home ranges. Open land units (meadows and arable lands) belonged to the most abundant land units in the home ranges of tracked owls (mean for 100 and 95% MCP was 24.6 and 24.3%, respectively). Forest edges with their ecotone character also represented the abundant land unit (mean for 100 and 95% MCP was 11.4 and 10.6%, respectively). An amount of built-inhabited areas in home ranges (mean for 100 and 95% MCP was 8.2 and 10.1%, respectively) correlated positively with their size (Spearman rank correlation: for 100% MCP: rs = 0.83, p <0.05; for 95% MCP: rs = 0.91, p <0.05) that indicates long-eared owls to be avoiding built-inhabited areas as an area of the food getting. Two individuals of long-eared owl changed the winter roosts during one non-breeding season, which were at a distance of 650 m from each other.

Mots clés

  • land units composition
  • home range
  • long-eared owl
  • changing of winter-roosts
Accès libre

Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 155 - 162

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, associated species (and disease) introductions. Exotic freshwater crustaceans are one of the taxa widely incorporated in the business, counting a remarkable number of species. Recent records of the exotic marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) in German in open ecosystems in Slovakia pointed to human-mediated introductions associated with aquarium pet trade in the country. In this regard, a study of the aquarium pet trade both in expositions and shops and online was assessed. Several crustacean taxa are available both in pet trade exhibitions and online through the Internet. Altogether 26 different species were identified in the aquarium trade in Slovakia. These are Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii, P. alleni, Cherax quadricarinatus, C. destructor, C. holthuisi, C. peknyi, Cambarellus patzcuarensis and C. diminutus occurring in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia (n = 9). Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii and C. patzuarensis are the most common in this regard. There is also a quantity of other related taxa in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia, mainly Caridina spp. (n = 5), Neocaridina spp. (n = 4), Atyopsis moluccensis, Atya gabonensis, Arachnochium kulsiense and several taxa of exotic crabs (n = 5) belonging to three different genera (Cardiosoma, Geosesarma and Gecarinus) present. Neocaridina davidi is identified as the most frequent in this regard. As some of the species can become established and form viable populations in natural ecosystems in Europe, we alert the public to handle the animals responsibly and thus maintain and protect indigenous European fauna.

Mots clés

  • aquarium pet trade
  • Europe
  • exotic species
  • invasions
  • Slovakia
Accès libre

Altitudinal occurrence of non-native plant species (neophytes) and their habitat affinity to anthropogenic biotopes in conditions of South-Western Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 163 - 175

Résumé

Abstract

Many ecological studies showed that species density (the number of species per unit area) in nonnative organism groups of the mountain areas decreases with increasing altitude. The aim of the paper is to determine the variability in the incidence of non-native plant species (neophytes) associated with the change in altitude and links of the invading taxons to reference habitat types, as well as their links to three ecologically very similar, however in natural conditions, different areas. In general, the most invaded habitats are those which are highly influenced by human activities. Firstly, data collection was conducted through field mapping of build-up areas in South-western Slovakia. Subsequently, with the assistance of ordination methods, we evaluated the level of association of invasive neophytes according to the set objectives. We found that altitude was an important factor determining variability of invasive neophytes’ occurrence. Total amount of habitats with invasive neophytes’ occurrence showed a linear increase along the altitudinal gradient. Many invasive neophytes adapted to abandoned habitats of upland territory were also able to grow along roads, and vice versa, abandoned and unused habitats of lowland areas created conditions for many typical invasive neophytes occurring along roads and habitats of gardens and yards. Railways of lowland areas provided habitats and means of spread of invasive woody neophytes. Gardens and yards were important sources of alien neophytes in all observed territories. Invasive neophyte Aster novi-belgii can be described as a very variable species tolerant to a wide range of factors limiting the spread of species along the elevation gradient.

Mots clés

  • altitudinal occurrence
  • anthropogenic biotope
  • habitat affinity
  • invasive neophytes
  • South-Western Slovakia
Accès libre

Research of foraging and resting behaviour of European ground squirrel (<italic>Spermophilus citellus</italic>) in conditions of zoological garden as a tool for its restitution back to the wild

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 176 - 185

Résumé

Abstract

We decided to focus our research on two basic forms of behaviour occurring in colonies of ground squirrels in semi-natural conditions of zoological gardens-foraging and resting behaviour.

Our main goal was to perform an analysis of behaviour of ground squirrels living in captivity and to compare these two categories of behaviour on a set timeline. Our research has been performed throughout the span of years 2011and 2012, during which we were able to observe two separate ground squirrel colonies (A, B). In the analytical part, we described the two main forms of ground squirrels’ behaviour in Zoo Bojnice and we subjected the compiled information to a thorough statistical analysis with the aid of main comparison tools. Based on long-term observation and the analysis of the results, we were able to gather detailed information about the two behaviour categories and their duration within a time frame.

The results from the year 2011 confirmed that ground squirrel’s behaviour, bred in captivity, the display of foraging behaviour is the most frequent during the day, as was also observed in wild ground squirrels recorded by Ambros (Ambros, 1999). Within the year 2011 (without human activity) foraging behaviour reaches two peaks with raised frequencies of display, in the daily time periods, the first from 9 to 11 am and the second from 2.30 to 5 pm. We noted a change in behaviour in 2012, when there was a reconstruction nearby the enclosures. These reconstructive activities influenced the behaviour (significant decrease of activity) of the ground squirrels in the presence of the assigned workers approximately until 3 pm, from which time-also in connection with the lessening of the worker’s presence-the foraging behaviour of ground squirrels began to rise rapidly, which held the peak on until 5 pm. Resting behaviour had only one peak with rising trend during the day in dependence on rising temperature of bedding in the enclosure, on which ground squirrels used to sunbathe. These findings give us valuable information about ground squirrels’ behaviour in captivity as well as behaviour influenced by human presence, what can be used in behavioural research of ground squirrels in the wild.

Mots clés

  • European ground squirrel
  • behaviour
  • semi-natural conditions
Accès libre

Preservation of authenticity and determination of identity of landscape ecology as one prerequisite of its future development (selected theoretical and meta-scientific aspects)

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 186 - 206

Résumé

Abstract

Authenticity and identity of landscape ecology is the core and synthesis of inherent conditions determining its development. Bringing into line the development of the theory, methodology and application it is possible to strengthen the social and scientific relevance of landscape ecology as the reflection of its theoretical-applied and educational maturity or development. Preservation of authenticity and determination of identity of landscape ecology depend first of all on the relationship between landscape-ecological research object (what is researched), landscape-ecological research approach (how it is researched) and landscape-ecological research subject (who researches). These three parts of landscape-ecological research are subject to a permanent development and change. The delineated meta-scientific, e.g. universal remarks seem to be applicable in an effort to ensure the preservation of the authenticity and identity as the condition of further development for the science solving the ecological-environmental and socio-economical problems in the landscape.

Mots clés

  • authenticity
  • identity
  • landscape ecology
  • future development
9 Articles
Accès libre

Impact of protective shelterbelt microclimate characteristics

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 101 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

Evaluation of microclimate characteristics of a protective shelterbelt in Obelisk enclosure in 2010. Vegetation performs indispensable functions in the landscape. Protective shelterbelts are important landscape elements. Individual interventions to these ecosystems should be made with the intention to increase the retention capacity of the landscape, the biodiversity, and the stability of individual landscape elements and the landscape as a whole. This article presents the results of the measuring of the effect of model forest vegetation in the proximity of Obelisk in the Lednice-Valtice area on the microclimate. The protective shelterbelt, declared as a forest stand, is located in the cadastral area of Lednice, Podivin and Rakvice. A set of weather stations, supplied by AMET- Litschmann and Suchy Velke Bilovice, was used for the measuring. The stations measured wind velocity (m/s), soil temperature in depths of 5 and 10 cm (°C), air temperature (°C), radiation (W.m-2) and precipitation (mm) from January 1 to December 31, 2010. The ImageTool application was used to establish optical porosity, based on photos taken in summer and winter. Optical porosity was established as a ratio of white spots to their total number in a specific section of a photograph. The optical porosity was 5% during the growing season and 23% outside the growing season. These values significantly differ from the optimum values for efficient semi-permeable PS, whose porosity is set to 40-50%.

Keywords

  • protective shelterbelts
  • landscape
  • microclimate
Accès libre

Determining species expansion and extinction possibilities using probabilistic and graphical models

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 111 - 120

Résumé

Abstract

Survival of plant species is governed by a number of functions. The participation of each function in species survival and the impact of the contrary behaviour of the species vary from function to function. The probability of extinction of species varies in all such scenarios and has to be calculated separately. Secondly, species follow different patterns of dispersal and localisation at different stages of occupancy state of the site, therefore, the scenarios of competition for resources with climatic shifts leading to deterioration and loss of biodiversity resulting in extinction needs to be studied. Furthermore, most possible deviations of species from climax community states needs to be calculated before species become extinct due to sudden environmental disruption. Globally, various types of anthropogenic disturbances threaten the diversity of biological systems. The impact of these anthropogenic activities needs to be analysed to identify extinction patterns with respect to these activities. All the analyses mentioned above have been tried to be achieved through probabilistic or graphical models in this study.

Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • disturbances
  • climate change
  • endangered
  • risks
  • ecological models
Accès libre

Identification and typology of Czech post-industrial landscapes on national level using GIS and publicly accessed geodatabases

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 121 - 136

Résumé

Abstract

The post-industrial landscape (PIL) is a generally accepted phenomenon of the present world. Its features are fossil in comparison to those ones in operating industrial landscapes. The required knowledge about the position, size, shape and type of PIL will help decision makers plan PIL future. The paper deals with the selection of identification features of PILs. Applicable data must be related to four landscape structures: natural, economic (land use), social (human) and spiritual. Present Czech geodatabases contain sufficient quantity and quality of data they can be interpreted as source of PIL identification criteria. GIS technology was applied for such data collection, geometric and format pre-processing, thematic reclassification and final processing. Using selected identification and classification criteria, 105 PILs were identified on the Territory of Czech Republic and classified into individual types. A SWOT analysis of results was carried out to identify the reliability level of data and the data processing. The identified PILs represent the primary results generally obtained in the Czech Republic. GIS approach allows repeated procedures elsewhere in EU member states because of some similarity of available geodatabases. Of course, an improvement of classification procedure depends on the real situation in each country.

Keywords

  • industrial heritage
  • landscapes
  • mapping
  • classification
Accès libre

Linking floral biodiversity with nitrogen and carbon translocations in semi-natural grasslands in Lithuani

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 137 - 146

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the long-term effects of long-term piggery effluent application on semi-natural grassland ecotop-phytotop changes (above- and below-ground phytomass production, and carbon and nitrogen allocation in grassland communities) in relation to changes (or variability) in topsoil properties. Analysis of phytomass distribution in piggery effluent irrigated grassland communities showed that dry biomass yield varied from 1.7−5.3 t ha-1. Variability in soil and plant cover created a unique and highly unpredictable site specific system, where long-term anthropogenic influences established successor communities with specific characteristics of above- and below-ground biomass distribution. These characteristics depend more on grassland communities than on soil chemical properties. Families of grasses (Poaceae) dominated the surveyed communities and accumulated most carbon and least nitrogen, while legumes accumulated most nitrogen and lignin and least carbon. Carbon concentrations in above-ground biomass had minor variations, while accumulation of nitrogen was strongly influenced by species diversity (r = 0.94, n = 10, p <0.001) and production of above-ground biomass

Mots clés

  • piggery effluent
  • phytomass
  • Poaceae
  • Fabaceae
  • soil humus
Accès libre

Land units composition of home ranges and changing of winter roosts of long-eared owl <italic>Asio otus</italic>

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 147 - 154

Résumé

Abstract

During the years 2010-2012, we observed the spatial activity of long-eared owls by the radio telemetry in an agricultural land. The average home range size of tracked long-eared owls for 100 and 95% minimum convex polygon (MCP) was 415.93 and 350 ha, respectively. Between the breeding and the non-breeding season, we did not record significant differences in the size of home ranges. Open land units (meadows and arable lands) belonged to the most abundant land units in the home ranges of tracked owls (mean for 100 and 95% MCP was 24.6 and 24.3%, respectively). Forest edges with their ecotone character also represented the abundant land unit (mean for 100 and 95% MCP was 11.4 and 10.6%, respectively). An amount of built-inhabited areas in home ranges (mean for 100 and 95% MCP was 8.2 and 10.1%, respectively) correlated positively with their size (Spearman rank correlation: for 100% MCP: rs = 0.83, p <0.05; for 95% MCP: rs = 0.91, p <0.05) that indicates long-eared owls to be avoiding built-inhabited areas as an area of the food getting. Two individuals of long-eared owl changed the winter roosts during one non-breeding season, which were at a distance of 650 m from each other.

Mots clés

  • land units composition
  • home range
  • long-eared owl
  • changing of winter-roosts
Accès libre

Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 155 - 162

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, associated species (and disease) introductions. Exotic freshwater crustaceans are one of the taxa widely incorporated in the business, counting a remarkable number of species. Recent records of the exotic marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) in German in open ecosystems in Slovakia pointed to human-mediated introductions associated with aquarium pet trade in the country. In this regard, a study of the aquarium pet trade both in expositions and shops and online was assessed. Several crustacean taxa are available both in pet trade exhibitions and online through the Internet. Altogether 26 different species were identified in the aquarium trade in Slovakia. These are Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii, P. alleni, Cherax quadricarinatus, C. destructor, C. holthuisi, C. peknyi, Cambarellus patzcuarensis and C. diminutus occurring in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia (n = 9). Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii and C. patzuarensis are the most common in this regard. There is also a quantity of other related taxa in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia, mainly Caridina spp. (n = 5), Neocaridina spp. (n = 4), Atyopsis moluccensis, Atya gabonensis, Arachnochium kulsiense and several taxa of exotic crabs (n = 5) belonging to three different genera (Cardiosoma, Geosesarma and Gecarinus) present. Neocaridina davidi is identified as the most frequent in this regard. As some of the species can become established and form viable populations in natural ecosystems in Europe, we alert the public to handle the animals responsibly and thus maintain and protect indigenous European fauna.

Mots clés

  • aquarium pet trade
  • Europe
  • exotic species
  • invasions
  • Slovakia
Accès libre

Altitudinal occurrence of non-native plant species (neophytes) and their habitat affinity to anthropogenic biotopes in conditions of South-Western Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 163 - 175

Résumé

Abstract

Many ecological studies showed that species density (the number of species per unit area) in nonnative organism groups of the mountain areas decreases with increasing altitude. The aim of the paper is to determine the variability in the incidence of non-native plant species (neophytes) associated with the change in altitude and links of the invading taxons to reference habitat types, as well as their links to three ecologically very similar, however in natural conditions, different areas. In general, the most invaded habitats are those which are highly influenced by human activities. Firstly, data collection was conducted through field mapping of build-up areas in South-western Slovakia. Subsequently, with the assistance of ordination methods, we evaluated the level of association of invasive neophytes according to the set objectives. We found that altitude was an important factor determining variability of invasive neophytes’ occurrence. Total amount of habitats with invasive neophytes’ occurrence showed a linear increase along the altitudinal gradient. Many invasive neophytes adapted to abandoned habitats of upland territory were also able to grow along roads, and vice versa, abandoned and unused habitats of lowland areas created conditions for many typical invasive neophytes occurring along roads and habitats of gardens and yards. Railways of lowland areas provided habitats and means of spread of invasive woody neophytes. Gardens and yards were important sources of alien neophytes in all observed territories. Invasive neophyte Aster novi-belgii can be described as a very variable species tolerant to a wide range of factors limiting the spread of species along the elevation gradient.

Mots clés

  • altitudinal occurrence
  • anthropogenic biotope
  • habitat affinity
  • invasive neophytes
  • South-Western Slovakia
Accès libre

Research of foraging and resting behaviour of European ground squirrel (<italic>Spermophilus citellus</italic>) in conditions of zoological garden as a tool for its restitution back to the wild

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 176 - 185

Résumé

Abstract

We decided to focus our research on two basic forms of behaviour occurring in colonies of ground squirrels in semi-natural conditions of zoological gardens-foraging and resting behaviour.

Our main goal was to perform an analysis of behaviour of ground squirrels living in captivity and to compare these two categories of behaviour on a set timeline. Our research has been performed throughout the span of years 2011and 2012, during which we were able to observe two separate ground squirrel colonies (A, B). In the analytical part, we described the two main forms of ground squirrels’ behaviour in Zoo Bojnice and we subjected the compiled information to a thorough statistical analysis with the aid of main comparison tools. Based on long-term observation and the analysis of the results, we were able to gather detailed information about the two behaviour categories and their duration within a time frame.

The results from the year 2011 confirmed that ground squirrel’s behaviour, bred in captivity, the display of foraging behaviour is the most frequent during the day, as was also observed in wild ground squirrels recorded by Ambros (Ambros, 1999). Within the year 2011 (without human activity) foraging behaviour reaches two peaks with raised frequencies of display, in the daily time periods, the first from 9 to 11 am and the second from 2.30 to 5 pm. We noted a change in behaviour in 2012, when there was a reconstruction nearby the enclosures. These reconstructive activities influenced the behaviour (significant decrease of activity) of the ground squirrels in the presence of the assigned workers approximately until 3 pm, from which time-also in connection with the lessening of the worker’s presence-the foraging behaviour of ground squirrels began to rise rapidly, which held the peak on until 5 pm. Resting behaviour had only one peak with rising trend during the day in dependence on rising temperature of bedding in the enclosure, on which ground squirrels used to sunbathe. These findings give us valuable information about ground squirrels’ behaviour in captivity as well as behaviour influenced by human presence, what can be used in behavioural research of ground squirrels in the wild.

Mots clés

  • European ground squirrel
  • behaviour
  • semi-natural conditions
Accès libre

Preservation of authenticity and determination of identity of landscape ecology as one prerequisite of its future development (selected theoretical and meta-scientific aspects)

Publié en ligne: 29 May 2015
Pages: 186 - 206

Résumé

Abstract

Authenticity and identity of landscape ecology is the core and synthesis of inherent conditions determining its development. Bringing into line the development of the theory, methodology and application it is possible to strengthen the social and scientific relevance of landscape ecology as the reflection of its theoretical-applied and educational maturity or development. Preservation of authenticity and determination of identity of landscape ecology depend first of all on the relationship between landscape-ecological research object (what is researched), landscape-ecological research approach (how it is researched) and landscape-ecological research subject (who researches). These three parts of landscape-ecological research are subject to a permanent development and change. The delineated meta-scientific, e.g. universal remarks seem to be applicable in an effort to ensure the preservation of the authenticity and identity as the condition of further development for the science solving the ecological-environmental and socio-economical problems in the landscape.

Mots clés

  • authenticity
  • identity
  • landscape ecology
  • future development

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo