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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 3 (September 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Ecologically Active Surfaces, Methodological Approach to the Study of Ecological Functions

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 207 - 215

Résumé

Abstract

In studies of individual organisation levels of organisms, the requirement of hollistic expression of structure and function is traditional despite the fact that structural direction prevails in studies. Less attention is paid to the place where function activity occurs in connection with the structure. This place is the surface - the medium where physical, chemical, biological and synergic processes interact. These surfaces are called ecologically active surfaces (EAS). From this standpoint, the surface is a place for energy exchange, which appears as mean studies of function and structural properties of the biological object.

The quantification of these areas taking into account the functional activities - (developed surface, the functional characteristics) to the desktop, or to the volume is the methodological starting point in the assessment of the country, or of its componens after the assessment of the energy potential of the environment. This ratio can be considered as the degree of heterogeneity of the conditions after taking into account the gradient of the environment.

We have achieved partial results related to EAS during the solution of tasks connected with the environmental evaluation of biotic components of a landscape, mainly during the investigation of aquatic biotopes, which are demonstrated on some examples.

Keywords

  • ecologically active surfaces (EAS)
  • aquatic biotopes
  • Eastern Slovakia
Accès libre

The Variability of Succisa Pratensis Moench Individuals and Ramet Clusters in Abandoned Molinietum Caeruleae Meadows

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 216 - 225

Résumé

Abstract

This paper reports the results of observations of the abundance of population Succisa pratensis Moench, as well as temporal and spatial variabilities of chosen traits such as the number of rosettes, number of leaves per rosette, number and height of flowering stems, number of flower heads per generative stem and number of seeds per fruit. Investigations were conducted in the years 2009−2013, in six patches of Molinietum caeruleae with different dominant species, unmanaged from 10 to 22 years. On the basis of studies performed, the state of populations and chances for maintenance in the colonised site were evaluated.

Mots clés

  • abundance
  • clonal plant
  • generative stem
  • flower head
  • leaf rosette
  • seed production
  • succession
Accès libre

Changes in Soil Structure and Soil Organic Matter Due to Different Severities of Fire

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 226 - 234

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of different fire severity on the changes of the soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure was evaluated. Soil samples were collected (May 2010) in the locality of Nitra-Dražovce (Slovakia) from the following plots: 1) control (unburned place), 2) low severity of fire and 3) higher severity of fire. The results showed that the content of water-stable microaggregates (WSAmi) increased by 20% in the area with a low severity of fire, but on the other hand, it decreased by 42% in the area with the higher severity of fire in comparison to control. The higher severity of fire resulted in a decrease of smaller size fractions of water-stable macroaggregates (WSAma) (0.5−0.25) and a low severity of fire resulted in the decrease of WSAma 2−0.5 mm. On the other hand, the content of WSAma in the size fraction >5 mm was higher by 54% and by 32% in the lower and higher severity of fire, respectively, than in unburned soil. The higher severity of fire had a more positive effect on increases of the structure coefficient and coefficient of aggregate stability, as well as on the decrease of the vulnerability coefficient compared to the low severity of fire. After burning, the contents of soil organic carbon (Corg) and labile carbon were significantly increased by the severity of fire. However, the low severity of fire affected more markedly the increase of hot water-soluble and cold water-soluble carbon than the higher severity of fire. After burning and due to the severity of fire, both the carbon of humic and carbon of fulvic acids ratios and SOM stability increased. The parameters of SOM due to fire significantly increased also in WSA with the least changes in WSAmi. The results showed that a low severity of fire increased Corg mainly in WSAma >2mm and WSAmi, whereas high severity fire increased Corg content in the smaller fraction of WSAma.

Mots clés

  • size fraction of water-stable aggregates
  • soil organic carbon
  • labile carbon
  • fire.
Accès libre

Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 235 - 248

Résumé

Abstract

Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus). The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7%) of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%).

Mots clés

  • hoofed game
  • bark stripping
  • European ash
  • Male Karpaty Mts
Accès libre

Classification of Land Use Changes (Model Area: Nitra Town)

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 249 - 259

Résumé

Abstract

This paper deals with the new classification of land use changes. We chose Nitra town in Slovakia as a model area. We examined changes of land use for the period 2003-2013. The main result of this work is a table for types of land use changes and a map that shows the location of these changes in Nitra town. Nitra is constantly expanding its area and it is also significantly changing within its borders. Agriculturally used surroundings of the town are being transformed into build-up areas and industrial parks. This transformation causes a loss of agricultural land and vegetation, in general. Agriculture in this region has been gradually declining and disappearing in the past years. On the other side, urbanisation, technicisation and industrialisation are highly supported

Mots clés

  • Nitra
  • Slovakia
  • land use
  • land use changes.
Accès libre

Environmental Consequences of Wildlife Tourism: The Use of Formalised Qualitative Models

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 260 - 267

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents a simple qualitative model of environmental consequences of wildlife tourism. Qualitative models use just three values: Positive/Increasing, Zero/Constant and Negative/Decreasing. Such quantifiers of trends are the least information intensive. Qualitative models can be useful, since models of wildlife tourism include such variables as, for example, Biodiversity (BIO), Animals’ habituation to tourists (HAB) or Plant composition change (PLA) that are sometimes difficult or costly to quantify. Hence, a significant fraction of available information about wildlife tourism and its consequences is not of numerical nature, for example, if HAB is increasing then BIO is decreasing. Such equationless relations are studied in this paper. The model has 10 variables and 20 equationless pairwise interrelations among them. The model is solved and 15 solutions, that is, scenarios are obtained. All qualitative states, including the first and second qualitative derivatives with respect to time, of all variables are specified for each scenario.

Mots clés

  • tourism
  • human impact
  • formalisation
  • qualitative model
  • multidimensional model
  • scenarios
Accès libre

Protection of a Landscape Park’s Area in The Spatial Extent of Impact of the Poznan Agglomeration, Midwestern Poland

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 268 - 280

Résumé

Abstract

This paper points out possibilities for limiting anthropic pressure in the Puszcza Zielonka Landscape Park in Poland. Based on the identification and evaluation of the most precious fragments of the environment, it determines the attractiveness of the park perceived as a complex multi- -ecosystem. It also identifies the main spatial problems and symptoms of anthropic pressure. The evaluation was conducted through establishing zones with similar environmental value and the determination of hemeroby indicators. The following basic problems were identified: recreational buildings and the development of settlements, cessation of agricultural production, further division of arable land into smaller plots in the buffer zone, combined with a change of land use. The final result of this research is a map of the functional and spatial division of the park, allowing for its protective, biocenotic and scientific functions and possible use for recreation in line with the principles of sustainable development. We ascertained that the strategic objectives and criteria for shaping spatial structures of protected areas should be included in the local spatial policy.

Mots clés

  • anthropic pressure
  • functional division
  • sustainable development
  • spatial planning
Accès libre

The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia)

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 281 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

Mots clés

  • environmental impacts
  • tourism
  • tourist trails
  • national parks
  • Slovakia.
8 Articles
Accès libre

Ecologically Active Surfaces, Methodological Approach to the Study of Ecological Functions

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 207 - 215

Résumé

Abstract

In studies of individual organisation levels of organisms, the requirement of hollistic expression of structure and function is traditional despite the fact that structural direction prevails in studies. Less attention is paid to the place where function activity occurs in connection with the structure. This place is the surface - the medium where physical, chemical, biological and synergic processes interact. These surfaces are called ecologically active surfaces (EAS). From this standpoint, the surface is a place for energy exchange, which appears as mean studies of function and structural properties of the biological object.

The quantification of these areas taking into account the functional activities - (developed surface, the functional characteristics) to the desktop, or to the volume is the methodological starting point in the assessment of the country, or of its componens after the assessment of the energy potential of the environment. This ratio can be considered as the degree of heterogeneity of the conditions after taking into account the gradient of the environment.

We have achieved partial results related to EAS during the solution of tasks connected with the environmental evaluation of biotic components of a landscape, mainly during the investigation of aquatic biotopes, which are demonstrated on some examples.

Keywords

  • ecologically active surfaces (EAS)
  • aquatic biotopes
  • Eastern Slovakia
Accès libre

The Variability of Succisa Pratensis Moench Individuals and Ramet Clusters in Abandoned Molinietum Caeruleae Meadows

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 216 - 225

Résumé

Abstract

This paper reports the results of observations of the abundance of population Succisa pratensis Moench, as well as temporal and spatial variabilities of chosen traits such as the number of rosettes, number of leaves per rosette, number and height of flowering stems, number of flower heads per generative stem and number of seeds per fruit. Investigations were conducted in the years 2009−2013, in six patches of Molinietum caeruleae with different dominant species, unmanaged from 10 to 22 years. On the basis of studies performed, the state of populations and chances for maintenance in the colonised site were evaluated.

Mots clés

  • abundance
  • clonal plant
  • generative stem
  • flower head
  • leaf rosette
  • seed production
  • succession
Accès libre

Changes in Soil Structure and Soil Organic Matter Due to Different Severities of Fire

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 226 - 234

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of different fire severity on the changes of the soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure was evaluated. Soil samples were collected (May 2010) in the locality of Nitra-Dražovce (Slovakia) from the following plots: 1) control (unburned place), 2) low severity of fire and 3) higher severity of fire. The results showed that the content of water-stable microaggregates (WSAmi) increased by 20% in the area with a low severity of fire, but on the other hand, it decreased by 42% in the area with the higher severity of fire in comparison to control. The higher severity of fire resulted in a decrease of smaller size fractions of water-stable macroaggregates (WSAma) (0.5−0.25) and a low severity of fire resulted in the decrease of WSAma 2−0.5 mm. On the other hand, the content of WSAma in the size fraction >5 mm was higher by 54% and by 32% in the lower and higher severity of fire, respectively, than in unburned soil. The higher severity of fire had a more positive effect on increases of the structure coefficient and coefficient of aggregate stability, as well as on the decrease of the vulnerability coefficient compared to the low severity of fire. After burning, the contents of soil organic carbon (Corg) and labile carbon were significantly increased by the severity of fire. However, the low severity of fire affected more markedly the increase of hot water-soluble and cold water-soluble carbon than the higher severity of fire. After burning and due to the severity of fire, both the carbon of humic and carbon of fulvic acids ratios and SOM stability increased. The parameters of SOM due to fire significantly increased also in WSA with the least changes in WSAmi. The results showed that a low severity of fire increased Corg mainly in WSAma >2mm and WSAmi, whereas high severity fire increased Corg content in the smaller fraction of WSAma.

Mots clés

  • size fraction of water-stable aggregates
  • soil organic carbon
  • labile carbon
  • fire.
Accès libre

Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 235 - 248

Résumé

Abstract

Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus). The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7%) of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%).

Mots clés

  • hoofed game
  • bark stripping
  • European ash
  • Male Karpaty Mts
Accès libre

Classification of Land Use Changes (Model Area: Nitra Town)

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 249 - 259

Résumé

Abstract

This paper deals with the new classification of land use changes. We chose Nitra town in Slovakia as a model area. We examined changes of land use for the period 2003-2013. The main result of this work is a table for types of land use changes and a map that shows the location of these changes in Nitra town. Nitra is constantly expanding its area and it is also significantly changing within its borders. Agriculturally used surroundings of the town are being transformed into build-up areas and industrial parks. This transformation causes a loss of agricultural land and vegetation, in general. Agriculture in this region has been gradually declining and disappearing in the past years. On the other side, urbanisation, technicisation and industrialisation are highly supported

Mots clés

  • Nitra
  • Slovakia
  • land use
  • land use changes.
Accès libre

Environmental Consequences of Wildlife Tourism: The Use of Formalised Qualitative Models

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 260 - 267

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents a simple qualitative model of environmental consequences of wildlife tourism. Qualitative models use just three values: Positive/Increasing, Zero/Constant and Negative/Decreasing. Such quantifiers of trends are the least information intensive. Qualitative models can be useful, since models of wildlife tourism include such variables as, for example, Biodiversity (BIO), Animals’ habituation to tourists (HAB) or Plant composition change (PLA) that are sometimes difficult or costly to quantify. Hence, a significant fraction of available information about wildlife tourism and its consequences is not of numerical nature, for example, if HAB is increasing then BIO is decreasing. Such equationless relations are studied in this paper. The model has 10 variables and 20 equationless pairwise interrelations among them. The model is solved and 15 solutions, that is, scenarios are obtained. All qualitative states, including the first and second qualitative derivatives with respect to time, of all variables are specified for each scenario.

Mots clés

  • tourism
  • human impact
  • formalisation
  • qualitative model
  • multidimensional model
  • scenarios
Accès libre

Protection of a Landscape Park’s Area in The Spatial Extent of Impact of the Poznan Agglomeration, Midwestern Poland

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 268 - 280

Résumé

Abstract

This paper points out possibilities for limiting anthropic pressure in the Puszcza Zielonka Landscape Park in Poland. Based on the identification and evaluation of the most precious fragments of the environment, it determines the attractiveness of the park perceived as a complex multi- -ecosystem. It also identifies the main spatial problems and symptoms of anthropic pressure. The evaluation was conducted through establishing zones with similar environmental value and the determination of hemeroby indicators. The following basic problems were identified: recreational buildings and the development of settlements, cessation of agricultural production, further division of arable land into smaller plots in the buffer zone, combined with a change of land use. The final result of this research is a map of the functional and spatial division of the park, allowing for its protective, biocenotic and scientific functions and possible use for recreation in line with the principles of sustainable development. We ascertained that the strategic objectives and criteria for shaping spatial structures of protected areas should be included in the local spatial policy.

Mots clés

  • anthropic pressure
  • functional division
  • sustainable development
  • spatial planning
Accès libre

The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia)

Publié en ligne: 01 Sep 2015
Pages: 281 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

Mots clés

  • environmental impacts
  • tourism
  • tourist trails
  • national parks
  • Slovakia.

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