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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 4 (December 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Evaluation of Microclimatic Data on Localities with Different Ratio of Vegetation in Urban Environment

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 301 - 306

Résumé

Abstract

Many authors (Akbari, Taha, 1992; Čaboun, 2008; Klein, 2013; Keresztesová, 2013) proved the influence of vegetation on microclimate as well as on the decrease of heat islands. We were interested in how different ratio of vegetation and open spaces influences microclimatic factors. From April to July 2012 microclimatic factors of two different localities with respect to various ratios of vegetation and open spaces were observed in Nitra, Slovakia. More specifically we observed the air temperature, relative air humidity and surface temperatures of four selected points in both localities. We have found out that in the park, i.e. in the locality with a higher portion of vegetation than open space was the course of temperatures more balanced, thanks to the attribute of vegetation to keep a stable microclimate. We have not observed any major Differences between the monitored points variously located in the vegetation in one locality, but on the other hand, we have observed remarkable differences between the two monitored localities. We may allege that the ratio of vegetation and open spaces makes significant contribution to microclimatic conditions of urban environment.

Key words

  • vegetation growth
  • climate
  • surface temperature
  • urban environment
  • air humidity
  • air temperature.
Accès libre

The Species Composition on Agricultural Terraces in NW Part of Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 307 - 320

Résumé

Abstract

The article contributes to a deeper understanding of agricultural terraces in NW Slovakia. The agricultural terraces found in 12 mountain ranges were characterised in detail on 32 localities. The slope parts of the studied terraces are on average only 2.3 m wide and current and former agricultural areas between them are on average 11 m wide. Furthermore, seventy phytosociological relevés were made on the terraces. Overall, 360 species of vascular plants were found in the relevés, 66 of which appeared regularly The localities were evaluated by DCA analysis. The main factor infuencing the species composition appears to be the geological composition of the bedrock and, probably the altitude as well. High coverage of the herb layer (median value 95%), low coverage of the shrub layer (median value 5%) and the absence or a very low coverage of the tree layer is typical for these terraces.

Key words

  • NW Slovakia
  • agricultural terraces
  • vascular plants species
  • properties of the terraces.
Accès libre

Soil Heterogeneity Reflected in Biogeography of Beech Forests in the Borderland Between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 321 - 343

Résumé

Abstract

Soil environment characteristics naturally affect the biogeographical classification of forests in central Europe. However, even on the same localities, different systems of vegetation classification de-scribe the forest types according to the naturally dominant tree species with different accuracy. A set of 20 representative natural beech stands in the borderland between the Bohemian Massif (Hercyni-an biogeographical subprovince) and the Outer Western Carpathians (Westcarpathian subprovince) was selected in order to compare textural, hydrostatic, physico-chemical and chemical properties of soils between the included geomorphological regions, bioregions and biotopes. Differences in the soils of the surveyed beech stands were mainly due to volume weight and specific weight, maximum capillary capacity (MCC), porosity, base saturation (BS), total soil nitrogen (Nt) and fulvic acids. Specifics in the relations between these soil characteristics indicated that transient trans-Hercynian beech forests developed in the borderland between the two compared subprovinces. Soils of the investigated Hercynian beech forests were generally characterized by lower BS and lower Nt. Soils of the trans-Hercynian beech forests were more similar to the Carpathian beech forest soils than soils in the other Hercynian beech forests. Soils of the trans-Hercynian and Carpathian beech forests showed similarly higher BS, deeper occurrence of humic substances, lower specific weight and also higher MCC. Higher content of humic substances as well as MCC indicated an equal effect on forest ecology, which may contribute to more accurate classification of forests.

Key words

  • European beech
  • biogeographical subprovince
  • fulvic acids
  • soil maximum capillary capacity
Accès libre

Landscape Capacity for Ecosystem Services Provision Based on Expert Knowledge and Public Perception (Case Study from the Northwest Slovakia)

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 344 - 353

Résumé

Abstract

Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES) distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC) types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.

Key words

  • ecosystem services
  • land cover types
  • social preferences
  • assessment
Accès libre

Does the Abundance of Voles Microtus spp. Still Determine a Number of Wintering Long-Eared Owls Asio Otus?

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 354 - 364

Résumé

Abstract

Long-eared owl Asio otus is a specialist predator, hunting primarily upon voles Microtus spp. Be-cause size of the territory and breeding success of the predator depend on food availability, the number of long-eared owls wintering in a given locality is likely determined by the local abun-dance of voles. The amplitude and regularity of their cycle have been recently diminished and quantitative assessment of such a cycle is currently unavailable. Diet and number of wintering owls were monitored during two winters (2005/06 and 2006/07) in Busko-Zdrój and Pińczów (south-central Poland). It was found that number of voles is still a factor determining number of wintering owls, also every fock in particular locality has its’ own dynamics of owl number. Research on predators’ diet − especially specialists like long-eared owl − is nowadays very important because of vole fluctuation cycle disturbances caused mainly by global warming.

Key words

  • owl
  • wintering
  • diet specialisation
  • predator−prey relationship
  • small mammals
  • cycles’ disturbance
Accès libre

Assessment of Mountain Ecosystems Changes Under Anthropogenic Pressure in Latorica River Basin (Transcarpathian Region, Ukraine)

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 365 - 379

Résumé

Abstract

The Carpathian mountain ecosystems have been changed under anthropogenic pressure during last decades. The different types of anthropogenic pressure affect the ecosystem characteristics and functioning. The species composition, species richness and ecological indicator values of 12 ecological factors were compared among 14 habitats: natural, semi-natural, degraded and ruderal ecosystems in different altitude zones. The results show that anthropogenic pressure and altitude gradient influence indices of edaphic and climate conditions. The anthropogenic pressure also affects biodiversity: the highest species richness and Shannon-Wiener index are observed in habitats with ‘intermediate’ disturbances level, while high level of disturbances cause decrease in bio-diversity. The disturbances cause the ecosystem to become susceptible to invasion of alien species, while native species, especially rare, become vulnerable and can disappear.

Key words

  • altitude gradient
  • ecological indicator values
  • biodiversity
Accès libre

Development of Košice Region by Implementation of Environmental Projects in the Field of Water Management - Case Study

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 380 - 390

Résumé

Abstract

The development of the regions in Slovakia in recent years has significant disparities in both so-cio-economic as well as environmental issues, as evidenced by the eight environmentally polluted areas (these areas are highly urbanised with industrial agglomerations or intensive agricultural production).

This article deals with a management system model of regional by implementation of projects in environmental field of water management with application-specific benefits and risks arising from the process of their implementation in relation to regional development. It analyses projects in the area of water management of one of the regions of Slovakia, KoŠice region in particular, in terms of connection to public water duct and sewer, identifes a strategy for development of the region and its socio-economic and environmental benefits based on the analysis of drinking water, the quan-tity and quality of treated wastewater through wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). It identifes the infuencing factors of benefits and risks and proposes procedure for solving at various stages.

Key words

  • regional development
  • water
  • environmental quality
Accès libre

Forkome Model Application for Prognosis of Forest Fires

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 391 - 400

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the perspectives of FORKOME model use regarding the simulation of fre and its impact on forest stands. The calculation of probability of forest fres and predicting its effect on forest stands are analysed as well. The model is supposed to examine the impact of fres on pine stands, which ultimately leads to a decline in the viability of those trees. As a result of fre activity there were determined the following categories of trees - undamaged, slightly damaged, heavily damaged and destroyed. Moreover, by conducting simulations on forests with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), there were demonstrated the possibilities of FORKOME model practical application. Simulation shows the possibility of the model to predict the fre damage in a particular year and the perspective of a stand development, taking into account climate change and its influence on the frequency of fres. Prospects and directions of further developments of the model concerning simulation of fre in forest stands were discussed as well.

Key words

  • tree
  • simulation
  • fre damage
  • climate changes
8 Articles
Accès libre

Evaluation of Microclimatic Data on Localities with Different Ratio of Vegetation in Urban Environment

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 301 - 306

Résumé

Abstract

Many authors (Akbari, Taha, 1992; Čaboun, 2008; Klein, 2013; Keresztesová, 2013) proved the influence of vegetation on microclimate as well as on the decrease of heat islands. We were interested in how different ratio of vegetation and open spaces influences microclimatic factors. From April to July 2012 microclimatic factors of two different localities with respect to various ratios of vegetation and open spaces were observed in Nitra, Slovakia. More specifically we observed the air temperature, relative air humidity and surface temperatures of four selected points in both localities. We have found out that in the park, i.e. in the locality with a higher portion of vegetation than open space was the course of temperatures more balanced, thanks to the attribute of vegetation to keep a stable microclimate. We have not observed any major Differences between the monitored points variously located in the vegetation in one locality, but on the other hand, we have observed remarkable differences between the two monitored localities. We may allege that the ratio of vegetation and open spaces makes significant contribution to microclimatic conditions of urban environment.

Key words

  • vegetation growth
  • climate
  • surface temperature
  • urban environment
  • air humidity
  • air temperature.
Accès libre

The Species Composition on Agricultural Terraces in NW Part of Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 307 - 320

Résumé

Abstract

The article contributes to a deeper understanding of agricultural terraces in NW Slovakia. The agricultural terraces found in 12 mountain ranges were characterised in detail on 32 localities. The slope parts of the studied terraces are on average only 2.3 m wide and current and former agricultural areas between them are on average 11 m wide. Furthermore, seventy phytosociological relevés were made on the terraces. Overall, 360 species of vascular plants were found in the relevés, 66 of which appeared regularly The localities were evaluated by DCA analysis. The main factor infuencing the species composition appears to be the geological composition of the bedrock and, probably the altitude as well. High coverage of the herb layer (median value 95%), low coverage of the shrub layer (median value 5%) and the absence or a very low coverage of the tree layer is typical for these terraces.

Key words

  • NW Slovakia
  • agricultural terraces
  • vascular plants species
  • properties of the terraces.
Accès libre

Soil Heterogeneity Reflected in Biogeography of Beech Forests in the Borderland Between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 321 - 343

Résumé

Abstract

Soil environment characteristics naturally affect the biogeographical classification of forests in central Europe. However, even on the same localities, different systems of vegetation classification de-scribe the forest types according to the naturally dominant tree species with different accuracy. A set of 20 representative natural beech stands in the borderland between the Bohemian Massif (Hercyni-an biogeographical subprovince) and the Outer Western Carpathians (Westcarpathian subprovince) was selected in order to compare textural, hydrostatic, physico-chemical and chemical properties of soils between the included geomorphological regions, bioregions and biotopes. Differences in the soils of the surveyed beech stands were mainly due to volume weight and specific weight, maximum capillary capacity (MCC), porosity, base saturation (BS), total soil nitrogen (Nt) and fulvic acids. Specifics in the relations between these soil characteristics indicated that transient trans-Hercynian beech forests developed in the borderland between the two compared subprovinces. Soils of the investigated Hercynian beech forests were generally characterized by lower BS and lower Nt. Soils of the trans-Hercynian beech forests were more similar to the Carpathian beech forest soils than soils in the other Hercynian beech forests. Soils of the trans-Hercynian and Carpathian beech forests showed similarly higher BS, deeper occurrence of humic substances, lower specific weight and also higher MCC. Higher content of humic substances as well as MCC indicated an equal effect on forest ecology, which may contribute to more accurate classification of forests.

Key words

  • European beech
  • biogeographical subprovince
  • fulvic acids
  • soil maximum capillary capacity
Accès libre

Landscape Capacity for Ecosystem Services Provision Based on Expert Knowledge and Public Perception (Case Study from the Northwest Slovakia)

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 344 - 353

Résumé

Abstract

Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES) distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC) types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.

Key words

  • ecosystem services
  • land cover types
  • social preferences
  • assessment
Accès libre

Does the Abundance of Voles Microtus spp. Still Determine a Number of Wintering Long-Eared Owls Asio Otus?

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 354 - 364

Résumé

Abstract

Long-eared owl Asio otus is a specialist predator, hunting primarily upon voles Microtus spp. Be-cause size of the territory and breeding success of the predator depend on food availability, the number of long-eared owls wintering in a given locality is likely determined by the local abun-dance of voles. The amplitude and regularity of their cycle have been recently diminished and quantitative assessment of such a cycle is currently unavailable. Diet and number of wintering owls were monitored during two winters (2005/06 and 2006/07) in Busko-Zdrój and Pińczów (south-central Poland). It was found that number of voles is still a factor determining number of wintering owls, also every fock in particular locality has its’ own dynamics of owl number. Research on predators’ diet − especially specialists like long-eared owl − is nowadays very important because of vole fluctuation cycle disturbances caused mainly by global warming.

Key words

  • owl
  • wintering
  • diet specialisation
  • predator−prey relationship
  • small mammals
  • cycles’ disturbance
Accès libre

Assessment of Mountain Ecosystems Changes Under Anthropogenic Pressure in Latorica River Basin (Transcarpathian Region, Ukraine)

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 365 - 379

Résumé

Abstract

The Carpathian mountain ecosystems have been changed under anthropogenic pressure during last decades. The different types of anthropogenic pressure affect the ecosystem characteristics and functioning. The species composition, species richness and ecological indicator values of 12 ecological factors were compared among 14 habitats: natural, semi-natural, degraded and ruderal ecosystems in different altitude zones. The results show that anthropogenic pressure and altitude gradient influence indices of edaphic and climate conditions. The anthropogenic pressure also affects biodiversity: the highest species richness and Shannon-Wiener index are observed in habitats with ‘intermediate’ disturbances level, while high level of disturbances cause decrease in bio-diversity. The disturbances cause the ecosystem to become susceptible to invasion of alien species, while native species, especially rare, become vulnerable and can disappear.

Key words

  • altitude gradient
  • ecological indicator values
  • biodiversity
Accès libre

Development of Košice Region by Implementation of Environmental Projects in the Field of Water Management - Case Study

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 380 - 390

Résumé

Abstract

The development of the regions in Slovakia in recent years has significant disparities in both so-cio-economic as well as environmental issues, as evidenced by the eight environmentally polluted areas (these areas are highly urbanised with industrial agglomerations or intensive agricultural production).

This article deals with a management system model of regional by implementation of projects in environmental field of water management with application-specific benefits and risks arising from the process of their implementation in relation to regional development. It analyses projects in the area of water management of one of the regions of Slovakia, KoŠice region in particular, in terms of connection to public water duct and sewer, identifes a strategy for development of the region and its socio-economic and environmental benefits based on the analysis of drinking water, the quan-tity and quality of treated wastewater through wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). It identifes the infuencing factors of benefits and risks and proposes procedure for solving at various stages.

Key words

  • regional development
  • water
  • environmental quality
Accès libre

Forkome Model Application for Prognosis of Forest Fires

Publié en ligne: 10 Dec 2014
Pages: 391 - 400

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the perspectives of FORKOME model use regarding the simulation of fre and its impact on forest stands. The calculation of probability of forest fres and predicting its effect on forest stands are analysed as well. The model is supposed to examine the impact of fres on pine stands, which ultimately leads to a decline in the viability of those trees. As a result of fre activity there were determined the following categories of trees - undamaged, slightly damaged, heavily damaged and destroyed. Moreover, by conducting simulations on forests with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), there were demonstrated the possibilities of FORKOME model practical application. Simulation shows the possibility of the model to predict the fre damage in a particular year and the perspective of a stand development, taking into account climate change and its influence on the frequency of fres. Prospects and directions of further developments of the model concerning simulation of fre in forest stands were discussed as well.

Key words

  • tree
  • simulation
  • fre damage
  • climate changes

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