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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Composition of microbial PLFAs and correlations with topsoil characteristics in the rare active travertine spring-fed fen

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 295 - 308

Résumé

Abstract

We studied soil PLFAs composition and specific soil properties among transect of small-scale fen in Stankovany, Slovakia. The aim of this study was to determine potential differences in the microbial community structure of the fen transect and reveal correlations among PLFAs and specific soil characteristics. PCA analyses of 43 PLFAs showed a separation of the samples along the axis largely influenced by i14:0, 16:1ω5, br17:0, 10Me16:0, cy17:0, cy17:1, br18:0 and 10Me17:0. We measured a high correlation of sample scores and distance from fen edge (Kendall’s test τ = 0.857, P < 0.01). Kendall’s test showed a negative correlation of PLFAs content (mol%) and distance from the fen border for Gram (+) bacteria, Actinomycetes, mid-chain branched saturated PLFAs and total PLFAs. The redundancy analysis of the PLFA data set for the eight samples using PLFAs as species and 21 environmental variables identified soil properties significantly associated with the PLFA variables, as tested by Monte Carlo permutation showing most significant environmental variables including dichlormethan extractables, water extractables, Klason lignin, acid-soluble lignin, holocellulose, total extractables, organic matter content, total PLFA amount, bacterial PLFA and total nitrogen negatively correlated to axis 1 and dry weight and carbonate carbon positively correlated to axis 1. The amounts of Klason lignin, acid-soluble lignin, holocellulose total extractables, total PLFA, bacterial PLFA and total nitrogen were significantly correlated positively to the distance from fen border while moisture and total carbonate carbon were correlated negatively.

Mots clés

  • phospholipid fatty acids
  • organic C fractions
  • soil properties
Accès libre

Geographical conceptualization of quality of life

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 309 - 319

Résumé

Abstract

The conceptualization of quality of life in terms of geography is based on two assumptions. The first assumption is that the quality of life consists of two dimensions: subjective and objective. The subjective is known as ‘well-being’, while the objective is the proposed term ‘quality of place’. The second assumption is based on the recognition that quality of life is always a spatial dimension. The concept of quality of life is closely linked with the concept of a good life; geographers enriched this concept by using the term ‘good place’ as a place in which the conditions are created for a good life. The quality of life for individuals in terms of a good place overlaps with the quality of life in society, namely the societal quality of life. The geographical conceptualisation of quality of life is applied to settlements within the city of Liberec.

Mots clés

  • quality of life
  • quality of place
  • good life
  • Liberec
Accès libre

Formation of groupings of mayfly larvae (Ephemeroptera) in the area of small hydrological structures, in the streams of the Kamienica Nawojowska river basin (the Sądeckie Beskids, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 320 - 339

Résumé

Abstract

Anthropogenic modification of abiotic factor in turn influencez biotic communities. The aim of this study was to characterise clusters of mayflies in selected streams of Kamienica Nawojowska river basin in conjunction with small, lateral hydrological structures that have been built in this area. There was an attempt to determine whether and to what extent small lateral hydrological structures affect larvae of mayflies in the examined mountain streams. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of mayfly clusters in the examined stream sections was carried out. For this purpose, the author described the taxonomic wealth, variation in the density of organisms, the domination structure within taxonomic groups and trophic functional groups, taxonomic variation (based on the Shannon-Winner factor), constancy of occurrence (according to the Szujecki formula) as well as faunistic similarity (according to the Jaccard formula). An emphasis was also placed on the species included in the Red List of Vulnerable and Endangered Species in Poland (2002). The obtained results indicate a high taxonomic richness and a large diversity of mayfly fauna on the examined stream sections. There were no significant differences, however, in this aspect between posts situated upstream and downstream from the hydrological structures. The formation of clusters was influenced not so much by small hydrological structures as by other abiotic factors such as the nature of the bottom substrate, the way in which the basin is used, the location of a particular post on a particular watercourse section as well as other anthropogenic activities (e.g. those related to forest management). A comparison of the obtained data with the results of the research conducted before the completion of major regulatory works in Kamienica Nawojowska river basin showed that the mayfly fauna had preserved a large taxonomic richness, although some changes had occurred in the structure of the clusters. However, further research related to this issue is needed, especially in other river basins of the Beskids.

Mots clés

  • Ephemeroptera
  • macroinvertebrates
  • mountain streams
  • stream regulation
  • hydrological structures
Accès libre

Communities of epigeic beetles in tree line from montane spruce forest to secondary meadow in the different stage of the forest decline in the area of Modrava (Bohemian forest, Czech Republic)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 340 - 349

Résumé

Abstract

Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.

Mots clés

  • epigeic beetle communities
  • montane spruce forest
  • forest decline
  • bark beetle outbreak
  • forest management
Accès libre

Long-term decline in breeding abundance of Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in the Czech Republic: a case study of a population trend at the Chomoutov lake

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 350 - 358

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the long-term trend in breeding abundance of Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Chomoutov lake, Czech Republic. In the period 1978-2014 (always between April 22 and May 10), we conducted 14 nest counts in the bird colony using the direct nest search method. In total, we counted 57,860 nests, from which 2,174 nests were found in the initial year 1978, the maximum number of nests (8,371) in 1993 and 3,304 nests in the last counting year 2014. The nests were located on the ground on an island elevated 2-3 m above the water level. In 1997, we found an unusually located nest on a nesting pad in a poplar tree (Populus sp.), 821 cm above the water level. In this paper, we point out the long-term decline in breeding abundance of Black-headed Gull in major breeding colonies in the Czech Republic, where the abundance declined by up to 95%, while numerous colonies have vanished completely. We discuss factors influencing the negative population trend of Black-headed Gull on the monitored site and in the entire Czech Republic.

Mots clés

  • Black-headed Gull
  • breeding population
  • trend
  • counting
  • Chomoutov lake
  • SPA Litovelské Pomoraví
Accès libre

Floristic diversity of midforest lakes (Sobibór Landscape Park, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 359 - 370

Résumé

Abstract

Aquatic vegetation greatly impacts lake functions. Forest ecosystems surrounding lakes are effective protection zone of lakes and their associated flora and fauna. The presence of aquatic plants depends on many factors, including the chemical composition and acidity of water, the shape of the lake catchment, the angle of slope along shorelines and the management of surrounding lands. Natural ecosystems throughout Eastern Europe are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Aquatic systems and bogs are particularly sensitive to disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of land management, forest type and stand age on aquatic plant colonisation within lakes as well as to quantify and qualify the structure of macrophyte communities within two lakes, Płotycze Sobiborskie and Orchowe, located in the Sobibór Landscape Park in western Poland. Even though there were few bogs within the catchment areas and lake buffer zones, where they did occur they had the greatest effect on macrophyte presence. The results of this research indicate that in the absence of anthropogenic disturbances midforest water-bog complexes are relatively stable systems and preserve their natural character. The applied multi-criteria evaluation of macrophytes in the studied lakes and their surrounding buffer zones and catchment areas allowed the lakes to be characterised as lakes with a good ecological status.

Mots clés

  • macrophytes
  • polihumic lake
  • buffer zone
  • forest type
Accès libre

Historical changes in dispersed kopanitse land type and changes in use of agricultural land on Kysuce region example

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 371 - 391

Résumé

Abstract

Territory of Kysuce is characterised by a high proportion of the traditional agricultural landscape (TAL), which occupy almost 12% of the area. Two types of TAL were allocated here. The first type is represented by TAL with dispersed settlement. The second type is represented by TAL of arable land and grassland landscape. The largest representation has typical forms of anthropogenic relief (FAR). TALs represent the most diverse mosaic of man-made habitats and natural habitats too. In the past, there were the largest representations of arable land and regularly mown meadows. Currently, these areas are dominated by abandoned meadows (fallow meadows), occasionally grazed pastures and meadows. Arable land is represented only minimally. The large part of areas is overgrown by non-forest woody vegetation or passes to the forest vegetation. In this process of landscape changes, significant changes in biodiversity of the areas are realised. Successively, the species of segetal and ruderal vegetation are less represented and species of forest vegetation obtained greater representation. In the process of mapping and evaluation, FAR - shape and orientation of plots, types of balks and some of their basic characteristics - were monitored.

Mots clés

  • forms of anthropogenic relief (FAR)
  • landscape changes
  • landuse
  • traditional agricultural landscape (TAL)
Accès libre

Attitudes of the involved subjects to the issue of biodiversity conservation in the Protected Area of the Malé Karpaty Mts (Results of personal interviews)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 392 - 400

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the biodiversity from the stakeholders’ point of view as well as to identify the conflicts of interests and the ensuing problems between hunting and the development of other socio-economic activities in the central part of Protected Area of the Little Carpathians. The specified conflicts of interests between hunters, conservationists and farmers are followed by measures that may contribute to increase the biodiversity in this model territory.

Mots clés

  • landscape protection
  • biodiversity
  • stakeholders
8 Articles
Accès libre

Composition of microbial PLFAs and correlations with topsoil characteristics in the rare active travertine spring-fed fen

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 295 - 308

Résumé

Abstract

We studied soil PLFAs composition and specific soil properties among transect of small-scale fen in Stankovany, Slovakia. The aim of this study was to determine potential differences in the microbial community structure of the fen transect and reveal correlations among PLFAs and specific soil characteristics. PCA analyses of 43 PLFAs showed a separation of the samples along the axis largely influenced by i14:0, 16:1ω5, br17:0, 10Me16:0, cy17:0, cy17:1, br18:0 and 10Me17:0. We measured a high correlation of sample scores and distance from fen edge (Kendall’s test τ = 0.857, P < 0.01). Kendall’s test showed a negative correlation of PLFAs content (mol%) and distance from the fen border for Gram (+) bacteria, Actinomycetes, mid-chain branched saturated PLFAs and total PLFAs. The redundancy analysis of the PLFA data set for the eight samples using PLFAs as species and 21 environmental variables identified soil properties significantly associated with the PLFA variables, as tested by Monte Carlo permutation showing most significant environmental variables including dichlormethan extractables, water extractables, Klason lignin, acid-soluble lignin, holocellulose, total extractables, organic matter content, total PLFA amount, bacterial PLFA and total nitrogen negatively correlated to axis 1 and dry weight and carbonate carbon positively correlated to axis 1. The amounts of Klason lignin, acid-soluble lignin, holocellulose total extractables, total PLFA, bacterial PLFA and total nitrogen were significantly correlated positively to the distance from fen border while moisture and total carbonate carbon were correlated negatively.

Mots clés

  • phospholipid fatty acids
  • organic C fractions
  • soil properties
Accès libre

Geographical conceptualization of quality of life

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 309 - 319

Résumé

Abstract

The conceptualization of quality of life in terms of geography is based on two assumptions. The first assumption is that the quality of life consists of two dimensions: subjective and objective. The subjective is known as ‘well-being’, while the objective is the proposed term ‘quality of place’. The second assumption is based on the recognition that quality of life is always a spatial dimension. The concept of quality of life is closely linked with the concept of a good life; geographers enriched this concept by using the term ‘good place’ as a place in which the conditions are created for a good life. The quality of life for individuals in terms of a good place overlaps with the quality of life in society, namely the societal quality of life. The geographical conceptualisation of quality of life is applied to settlements within the city of Liberec.

Mots clés

  • quality of life
  • quality of place
  • good life
  • Liberec
Accès libre

Formation of groupings of mayfly larvae (Ephemeroptera) in the area of small hydrological structures, in the streams of the Kamienica Nawojowska river basin (the Sądeckie Beskids, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 320 - 339

Résumé

Abstract

Anthropogenic modification of abiotic factor in turn influencez biotic communities. The aim of this study was to characterise clusters of mayflies in selected streams of Kamienica Nawojowska river basin in conjunction with small, lateral hydrological structures that have been built in this area. There was an attempt to determine whether and to what extent small lateral hydrological structures affect larvae of mayflies in the examined mountain streams. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of mayfly clusters in the examined stream sections was carried out. For this purpose, the author described the taxonomic wealth, variation in the density of organisms, the domination structure within taxonomic groups and trophic functional groups, taxonomic variation (based on the Shannon-Winner factor), constancy of occurrence (according to the Szujecki formula) as well as faunistic similarity (according to the Jaccard formula). An emphasis was also placed on the species included in the Red List of Vulnerable and Endangered Species in Poland (2002). The obtained results indicate a high taxonomic richness and a large diversity of mayfly fauna on the examined stream sections. There were no significant differences, however, in this aspect between posts situated upstream and downstream from the hydrological structures. The formation of clusters was influenced not so much by small hydrological structures as by other abiotic factors such as the nature of the bottom substrate, the way in which the basin is used, the location of a particular post on a particular watercourse section as well as other anthropogenic activities (e.g. those related to forest management). A comparison of the obtained data with the results of the research conducted before the completion of major regulatory works in Kamienica Nawojowska river basin showed that the mayfly fauna had preserved a large taxonomic richness, although some changes had occurred in the structure of the clusters. However, further research related to this issue is needed, especially in other river basins of the Beskids.

Mots clés

  • Ephemeroptera
  • macroinvertebrates
  • mountain streams
  • stream regulation
  • hydrological structures
Accès libre

Communities of epigeic beetles in tree line from montane spruce forest to secondary meadow in the different stage of the forest decline in the area of Modrava (Bohemian forest, Czech Republic)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 340 - 349

Résumé

Abstract

Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.

Mots clés

  • epigeic beetle communities
  • montane spruce forest
  • forest decline
  • bark beetle outbreak
  • forest management
Accès libre

Long-term decline in breeding abundance of Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in the Czech Republic: a case study of a population trend at the Chomoutov lake

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 350 - 358

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the long-term trend in breeding abundance of Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Chomoutov lake, Czech Republic. In the period 1978-2014 (always between April 22 and May 10), we conducted 14 nest counts in the bird colony using the direct nest search method. In total, we counted 57,860 nests, from which 2,174 nests were found in the initial year 1978, the maximum number of nests (8,371) in 1993 and 3,304 nests in the last counting year 2014. The nests were located on the ground on an island elevated 2-3 m above the water level. In 1997, we found an unusually located nest on a nesting pad in a poplar tree (Populus sp.), 821 cm above the water level. In this paper, we point out the long-term decline in breeding abundance of Black-headed Gull in major breeding colonies in the Czech Republic, where the abundance declined by up to 95%, while numerous colonies have vanished completely. We discuss factors influencing the negative population trend of Black-headed Gull on the monitored site and in the entire Czech Republic.

Mots clés

  • Black-headed Gull
  • breeding population
  • trend
  • counting
  • Chomoutov lake
  • SPA Litovelské Pomoraví
Accès libre

Floristic diversity of midforest lakes (Sobibór Landscape Park, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 359 - 370

Résumé

Abstract

Aquatic vegetation greatly impacts lake functions. Forest ecosystems surrounding lakes are effective protection zone of lakes and their associated flora and fauna. The presence of aquatic plants depends on many factors, including the chemical composition and acidity of water, the shape of the lake catchment, the angle of slope along shorelines and the management of surrounding lands. Natural ecosystems throughout Eastern Europe are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Aquatic systems and bogs are particularly sensitive to disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of land management, forest type and stand age on aquatic plant colonisation within lakes as well as to quantify and qualify the structure of macrophyte communities within two lakes, Płotycze Sobiborskie and Orchowe, located in the Sobibór Landscape Park in western Poland. Even though there were few bogs within the catchment areas and lake buffer zones, where they did occur they had the greatest effect on macrophyte presence. The results of this research indicate that in the absence of anthropogenic disturbances midforest water-bog complexes are relatively stable systems and preserve their natural character. The applied multi-criteria evaluation of macrophytes in the studied lakes and their surrounding buffer zones and catchment areas allowed the lakes to be characterised as lakes with a good ecological status.

Mots clés

  • macrophytes
  • polihumic lake
  • buffer zone
  • forest type
Accès libre

Historical changes in dispersed kopanitse land type and changes in use of agricultural land on Kysuce region example

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 371 - 391

Résumé

Abstract

Territory of Kysuce is characterised by a high proportion of the traditional agricultural landscape (TAL), which occupy almost 12% of the area. Two types of TAL were allocated here. The first type is represented by TAL with dispersed settlement. The second type is represented by TAL of arable land and grassland landscape. The largest representation has typical forms of anthropogenic relief (FAR). TALs represent the most diverse mosaic of man-made habitats and natural habitats too. In the past, there were the largest representations of arable land and regularly mown meadows. Currently, these areas are dominated by abandoned meadows (fallow meadows), occasionally grazed pastures and meadows. Arable land is represented only minimally. The large part of areas is overgrown by non-forest woody vegetation or passes to the forest vegetation. In this process of landscape changes, significant changes in biodiversity of the areas are realised. Successively, the species of segetal and ruderal vegetation are less represented and species of forest vegetation obtained greater representation. In the process of mapping and evaluation, FAR - shape and orientation of plots, types of balks and some of their basic characteristics - were monitored.

Mots clés

  • forms of anthropogenic relief (FAR)
  • landscape changes
  • landuse
  • traditional agricultural landscape (TAL)
Accès libre

Attitudes of the involved subjects to the issue of biodiversity conservation in the Protected Area of the Malé Karpaty Mts (Results of personal interviews)

Publié en ligne: 30 Nov 2016
Pages: 392 - 400

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the biodiversity from the stakeholders’ point of view as well as to identify the conflicts of interests and the ensuing problems between hunting and the development of other socio-economic activities in the central part of Protected Area of the Little Carpathians. The specified conflicts of interests between hunters, conservationists and farmers are followed by measures that may contribute to increase the biodiversity in this model territory.

Mots clés

  • landscape protection
  • biodiversity
  • stakeholders

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