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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 3 (September 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Quantification of the Natural Factors’ Impact Effectiveness on Environmental Hazards – Slope Movements in the Flysch Areas of the Kysuce Region

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 197 - 213

Résumé

Abstract

The flysch areas belong to the territories with highest occurrence of landslides in Slovakia. Almost 67% of all landslides in Slovakia take place within the Carpathian flysch. It is a type of slope deformation that responds sensitively to the quality of individual factors that form the landscape and to the change in natural conditions. The occurrence of various geodynamic phenomena can be understood as a geological barrier that reduces or inhibits the use of natural environment and negatively affects the life of society and territorial development. In this paper, we evaluate the statistical significance of selected natural factors of the landscape in relation to the occurrence of unstable slopes in the Kysuce region. In addition, we also evaluated the expansion of unstable slopes in individual landscape factors. Significant linkages between the variables’ hydrogeological base_sandstones with thin clay layers (HB_s) and geological-substrate complex_loamy wastes to loamy-stony debris on sandy conglomerates (GSC_sc) (R = 0.95, p = 0.002) and secondary significant linkages between the variables soil type: Dystric Cambisols (S_CMd) and HB_s (R = 0.40, p = 0.002) (Klokočov and Zákopčie cadastres) were observed. Significant correlation of variables within the areas with unstable slopes was also observed between hydrogeological base_sandy flysch (HB_sf) and geological-substrate complex_loamy wastes on flysch stones (GSC_fs) (R = 0.81, p = 0.002) (Nová Bystrica and Kysucké Nové Mesto cadastres). The most unstable slopes occur in Nová Bystrica cadastre (34.62% of the area) and in the Klokočov cadastre (28.25% of the area). The inclination of slopes (especially slopes above 12°) plays an important role within the unstable slopes. Slopes with steep inclination cover up to 81.45% of the cadastral area of Nová Bystrica, of which almost 1/3 are unstable slopes.

Mots clés

  • slope movements
  • statistical methods
  • flysch area
  • natural factors
Accès libre

Detailed Geoecological Research of Terroir with the Focus on Georelief and Soil – A Case Study of Krátke Kesy Vineyards

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 214 - 225

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this research is to present the application of the detailed geoecological research for use by the identification of natural elements of terroir, based on the example of cadastral area Krátke Kesy. The characteristics of georelief (influencing the microclimate of vineyards) and soil characteristics (affecting the vineyard nutrition) are the most important elements of a terroir on a local scale. We present maps of 10 types of geoecological complexes in topic dimension, whose borders were allocated on the base of georelief as a leading factor of regionalization. Foot slopes, transport slopes and terraces prevail in the vineyard. Cultivated Haplic and Luvi-Haplic Chernozem of the Danube Lowland have excellent conditions for precision agriculture. The impact of soil factors on vineyards was evaluated with the use of accredited laboratory analysis. Using statistical methods, we confirmed the hypothesis that the relationship between observed relevant soil elements in the study area and sugar content of grape is direct, and between the soil elements and acids in must is indirect. The biggest dependence was seen for magnesium, zinc and copper. Research results were presented in the form of maps and tables that can find use in vineyard and landscape-ecological practice.

Mots clés

  • georelief
  • soil
  • vineyards
  • geoecological research
  • terroir
  • Marcelová
  • Slovakia
Accès libre

Selection of Parameters and Architecture of Multilayer Perceptrons for Predicting Ice Coverage of Lakes

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 226 - 234

Résumé

Abstract

The ice cover on lakes is one of the most influential factors in the lakes’ winter aquatic ecosystem. The paper presents a method for predicting ice coverage of lakes by means of multilayer perceptrons. This approach is based on historical data on the ice coverage of lakes taking Lake Onega as an example. The daily time series of ice coverage of Lake Onega for 2004–2017 was collected by means of satellite data analysis of snow and ice cover of the Northern Hemisphere. Input signals parameters for the multilayer perceptrons aimed at predicting ice coverage of lakes are based on the correlation analysis of this time series. The results of training of multilayer perceptrons showed that perceptrons with architectures of 3-2-1 within the Freeze-up phase (arithmetic mean of the mean square errors for training epoch MSE¯=0.0155$\overline {MSE} = 0.0155$ ) and 3-6-1 within the Break-up phase ( MSE¯=0.0105$\overline {MSE} = 0.0105$ ) have the least mean-squared error for the last training epoch. Tests within the holdout samples prove that multilayer perceptrons give more adequate and reliable prediction of the ice coverage of Lake Onega (mean-squared prediction error MSPE = 0.0076) comparing with statistical methods such as linear regression, moving average and autoregressive analyses of the first and second order.

Mots clés

  • Freeze-up phase
  • Break-up phase
  • Lake Onega
  • training sample
  • statistical methods
Accès libre

Analysis of Grassland ANPP Dynamics Due to Changes in Climate Variables at Ukrainian Biosphere Reserve ‘Askania-Nova’

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 235 - 246

Résumé

Abstract

The Ukrainian feather-grass steppe ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate changes. To study the impact of climatic factors on steppe ecosystems’ productivity, the correlation and stepwise regression analysis between ANPP and other variables were provided. The correlation of bioclimatic variables (month precipitation, relative humidity and air and soil temperatures) and above-ground net primary production (ANPP) were investigated for three study plots that represent major steppe microrelief: plain, slope and lowland. The results of multiple regression analysis showed the major components that influenced the ANPP at each of the study plots ‘Plain’, ‘Slope’ and ‘Lowland’. The precipitation and relative humidity in the months before the vegetation peak were most important for ANPP accumulation.

Results of this study are important for the prediction of ecosystem changes under the climate changes and also for the development of nature conservation programmes.

Mots clés

  • ANPP
  • steppe
  • grassland
  • precipitation
  • relative humidity
  • air and soil temperatures
  • correlation
  • multiple regression analysis
Accès libre

Impact of Water-Induced Processes on the Development of Tarns and Their Basins in the High Tatras

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 247 - 267

Résumé

Abstract

In the report we concentrate on the influences of water-induced morphodynamic processes and surface flow on the development of tarns in alpine environment conditions of selected valleys in the High Tatras. Model areas are represented by higher basins parts in the Malá Studená valley and the Veľká Studená valley, where we confirmed that slope-gravitational processes in the form of rockfall, water-gravitational processes in the form of debris flows, but also fluvial-proluvial processes as the accumulation of the soft fractions from the area of debris cones take part in the material deposition in the tarns. In this context we focused on the creation of the model of spatial distribution of the water-induced potential of material deposition in drainage tarn basins. The model includes three basic factors: slope and curvature of the relief and land cover character. Map processing with GIS technologies was done on the basis of a 3-D relief model, which allowed the locating of the local erosion bases areas, where the material could be accumulated. The achieved results confirmed the hypothesis that tarn basin development of the alpine environment is subordinated to permanent backfilling as a consequence of the cumulative influence of the several processes connected with rainfall and the runoff regime of the drainage basins.

Mots clés

  • debris flows
  • High Tatras
  • slope motions
  • tarns
  • Veľká and Malá Studená valley
  • Slovak Republic
Accès libre

Effect of Forest Ecosystems on the Snow Water Equivalent in Relation to Aspect And Elevation in the Hučava River Watershed, Poľana Biosphere Reserve (Slovakia)

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 268 - 280

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this work was to assess how forest ecosystems dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) or European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) affect snow water equivalent (SWE) in relation to aspect and elevation. The research plots were established in a small headwater watershed of the Hučava flow belonging to the Poľana Biosphere Reserve (Central Europe, Inner Western Carpathians). The SWE values in this watershed (approximately 580–1270 m a.s.l.) were monitored during the three winter seasons starting from 2012–2013 to 2014–2015. The results revealed high variability in SWE and in snow cover duration between the studied seasons. The spatial variability was significantly affected by the forest ecosystem, aspect and elevation. The seasonal mean SWE value was lower by about 50–60% in the spruce forests and by about 21–30% in the beech forests compared to the open areas (100%). Over the whole seasons, the whole watershed mean SWE value on the slopes with the northern aspect was mostly higher compared to the slopes with the southern aspect. The effect of aspect was significant mainly in the open areas and in the forests dominated by European beech during the ablation periods of every season. In the case of the sufficient snow cover, the mean SWE value always increased with elevation. The elevation gradient of SWE was steepest at the open areas of the watershed in the peaks of the winter seasons. The three-season mean value of SWE elevation gradient (per 100 m) at the time of snow accumulation peak was equal to 16 mm in the spruce forests, 20 mm in the beech forests and 26 mm in the open areas. The research revealed that SWE is significantly affected by the forest ecosystem whilst its effect is dependent on the occurrence of dominant deciduous or coniferous tree species. However, the effect of forests is closely related to topographic characteristics (aspect and elevation) of a locality.

Mots clés

  • snow cover
  • snowpack properties
  • elevation gradient
  • water supply
Accès libre

Environmental Status of Kam’yanske Reservoir (Ukraine)

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 281 - 289

Résumé

Abstract

Environmental status of Kam’yanske reservoir (47°55′51.6″N 33°46′08.4″E) as one of the small water bodies belonging to southeast Ukraine was investigated. The integrated environmental assessment based on the quality indices of salt content, trophic–saprobiological indicators and specific toxic water indicators of Kam’yanske reservoir are characterised as ‘satisfactory’ and ‘slightly polluted’. Defined bottom accumulation coefficient (BAC) shows continuing heavy metals enlargement in the upper layer of the bottom sediments and chronic pollution in ecosystem. The content of heavy metals in the muscles of industrial fish in the researched pond did not exceed maximal allowed concentration (MAC) for fish as food according to Ukrainian standards. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish was due to the peculiarities of their ways of nutrition and existing. The total contents of heavy metals in common carp was almost twice as large compared to other fish. The maximum accumulation rates set for fish muscles of essential elements – zinc and iron.

Mots clés

  • small reservoir
  • chemical index of water pollution
  • heavy metals
  • sediments
  • industrial fish
Accès libre

Microbial Investigation of Recreation Effects on Water and Soil in the Tatra National Park

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 290 - 302

Résumé

Abstract

Tatra National Park is considered as the most visited protected area in Slovakia. Striking a balance between the preservation of natural resources and opportunities for public recreation often forces responsible authorities to make compromises between visitation impacts and protection. In this case, the microbial investigation of recreation effects on water and soil in the Tatra National Park were studied.

The study areas were two valleys – Malá Studená, accessible by trail from south with higher human impact and visitation, including mountain huts Téryho and Zamkovského chata and Javorová, accessible from the northern part with a low number of visitors. Soil samples were taken from the main path, 30 cm away from it and water samples from or near the main path in both valleys. The selected colonies, after the cultivation on TSA medium were also analysed according to the dry and semi-extraction procedure of MALDI–TOF method. Most of the obtained strains are endospore forming, psychrotolerant species like Pseudomonas, Bacillus or Paenibacillus away of path, which corresponds with the climate and geographical conditions. But, the relatedness of soil sample strains in both valleys increases with rising altitude, with distance away from path; in contrast, the relatedness of water samples strains in both valleys increases with increasing distance sample areas from chalet and frequent visitors’ places. Water and soil samples were processed for community level physiological profiling using Biolog EcoPlates. The obtained results of carbon source utilization abilities of bacterial communities in both valleys suggested lower diversity in Javorová Valley, which corresponds probably with less visitor intensity, with less anthropogenic impact as well as with less risk of xenobiotics presence in environment.

Mots clés

  • microorganisms
  • communities
  • impact
  • high mountain
  • visitors
8 Articles
Accès libre

Quantification of the Natural Factors’ Impact Effectiveness on Environmental Hazards – Slope Movements in the Flysch Areas of the Kysuce Region

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 197 - 213

Résumé

Abstract

The flysch areas belong to the territories with highest occurrence of landslides in Slovakia. Almost 67% of all landslides in Slovakia take place within the Carpathian flysch. It is a type of slope deformation that responds sensitively to the quality of individual factors that form the landscape and to the change in natural conditions. The occurrence of various geodynamic phenomena can be understood as a geological barrier that reduces or inhibits the use of natural environment and negatively affects the life of society and territorial development. In this paper, we evaluate the statistical significance of selected natural factors of the landscape in relation to the occurrence of unstable slopes in the Kysuce region. In addition, we also evaluated the expansion of unstable slopes in individual landscape factors. Significant linkages between the variables’ hydrogeological base_sandstones with thin clay layers (HB_s) and geological-substrate complex_loamy wastes to loamy-stony debris on sandy conglomerates (GSC_sc) (R = 0.95, p = 0.002) and secondary significant linkages between the variables soil type: Dystric Cambisols (S_CMd) and HB_s (R = 0.40, p = 0.002) (Klokočov and Zákopčie cadastres) were observed. Significant correlation of variables within the areas with unstable slopes was also observed between hydrogeological base_sandy flysch (HB_sf) and geological-substrate complex_loamy wastes on flysch stones (GSC_fs) (R = 0.81, p = 0.002) (Nová Bystrica and Kysucké Nové Mesto cadastres). The most unstable slopes occur in Nová Bystrica cadastre (34.62% of the area) and in the Klokočov cadastre (28.25% of the area). The inclination of slopes (especially slopes above 12°) plays an important role within the unstable slopes. Slopes with steep inclination cover up to 81.45% of the cadastral area of Nová Bystrica, of which almost 1/3 are unstable slopes.

Mots clés

  • slope movements
  • statistical methods
  • flysch area
  • natural factors
Accès libre

Detailed Geoecological Research of Terroir with the Focus on Georelief and Soil – A Case Study of Krátke Kesy Vineyards

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 214 - 225

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this research is to present the application of the detailed geoecological research for use by the identification of natural elements of terroir, based on the example of cadastral area Krátke Kesy. The characteristics of georelief (influencing the microclimate of vineyards) and soil characteristics (affecting the vineyard nutrition) are the most important elements of a terroir on a local scale. We present maps of 10 types of geoecological complexes in topic dimension, whose borders were allocated on the base of georelief as a leading factor of regionalization. Foot slopes, transport slopes and terraces prevail in the vineyard. Cultivated Haplic and Luvi-Haplic Chernozem of the Danube Lowland have excellent conditions for precision agriculture. The impact of soil factors on vineyards was evaluated with the use of accredited laboratory analysis. Using statistical methods, we confirmed the hypothesis that the relationship between observed relevant soil elements in the study area and sugar content of grape is direct, and between the soil elements and acids in must is indirect. The biggest dependence was seen for magnesium, zinc and copper. Research results were presented in the form of maps and tables that can find use in vineyard and landscape-ecological practice.

Mots clés

  • georelief
  • soil
  • vineyards
  • geoecological research
  • terroir
  • Marcelová
  • Slovakia
Accès libre

Selection of Parameters and Architecture of Multilayer Perceptrons for Predicting Ice Coverage of Lakes

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 226 - 234

Résumé

Abstract

The ice cover on lakes is one of the most influential factors in the lakes’ winter aquatic ecosystem. The paper presents a method for predicting ice coverage of lakes by means of multilayer perceptrons. This approach is based on historical data on the ice coverage of lakes taking Lake Onega as an example. The daily time series of ice coverage of Lake Onega for 2004–2017 was collected by means of satellite data analysis of snow and ice cover of the Northern Hemisphere. Input signals parameters for the multilayer perceptrons aimed at predicting ice coverage of lakes are based on the correlation analysis of this time series. The results of training of multilayer perceptrons showed that perceptrons with architectures of 3-2-1 within the Freeze-up phase (arithmetic mean of the mean square errors for training epoch MSE¯=0.0155$\overline {MSE} = 0.0155$ ) and 3-6-1 within the Break-up phase ( MSE¯=0.0105$\overline {MSE} = 0.0105$ ) have the least mean-squared error for the last training epoch. Tests within the holdout samples prove that multilayer perceptrons give more adequate and reliable prediction of the ice coverage of Lake Onega (mean-squared prediction error MSPE = 0.0076) comparing with statistical methods such as linear regression, moving average and autoregressive analyses of the first and second order.

Mots clés

  • Freeze-up phase
  • Break-up phase
  • Lake Onega
  • training sample
  • statistical methods
Accès libre

Analysis of Grassland ANPP Dynamics Due to Changes in Climate Variables at Ukrainian Biosphere Reserve ‘Askania-Nova’

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 235 - 246

Résumé

Abstract

The Ukrainian feather-grass steppe ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate changes. To study the impact of climatic factors on steppe ecosystems’ productivity, the correlation and stepwise regression analysis between ANPP and other variables were provided. The correlation of bioclimatic variables (month precipitation, relative humidity and air and soil temperatures) and above-ground net primary production (ANPP) were investigated for three study plots that represent major steppe microrelief: plain, slope and lowland. The results of multiple regression analysis showed the major components that influenced the ANPP at each of the study plots ‘Plain’, ‘Slope’ and ‘Lowland’. The precipitation and relative humidity in the months before the vegetation peak were most important for ANPP accumulation.

Results of this study are important for the prediction of ecosystem changes under the climate changes and also for the development of nature conservation programmes.

Mots clés

  • ANPP
  • steppe
  • grassland
  • precipitation
  • relative humidity
  • air and soil temperatures
  • correlation
  • multiple regression analysis
Accès libre

Impact of Water-Induced Processes on the Development of Tarns and Their Basins in the High Tatras

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 247 - 267

Résumé

Abstract

In the report we concentrate on the influences of water-induced morphodynamic processes and surface flow on the development of tarns in alpine environment conditions of selected valleys in the High Tatras. Model areas are represented by higher basins parts in the Malá Studená valley and the Veľká Studená valley, where we confirmed that slope-gravitational processes in the form of rockfall, water-gravitational processes in the form of debris flows, but also fluvial-proluvial processes as the accumulation of the soft fractions from the area of debris cones take part in the material deposition in the tarns. In this context we focused on the creation of the model of spatial distribution of the water-induced potential of material deposition in drainage tarn basins. The model includes three basic factors: slope and curvature of the relief and land cover character. Map processing with GIS technologies was done on the basis of a 3-D relief model, which allowed the locating of the local erosion bases areas, where the material could be accumulated. The achieved results confirmed the hypothesis that tarn basin development of the alpine environment is subordinated to permanent backfilling as a consequence of the cumulative influence of the several processes connected with rainfall and the runoff regime of the drainage basins.

Mots clés

  • debris flows
  • High Tatras
  • slope motions
  • tarns
  • Veľká and Malá Studená valley
  • Slovak Republic
Accès libre

Effect of Forest Ecosystems on the Snow Water Equivalent in Relation to Aspect And Elevation in the Hučava River Watershed, Poľana Biosphere Reserve (Slovakia)

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 268 - 280

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this work was to assess how forest ecosystems dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) or European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) affect snow water equivalent (SWE) in relation to aspect and elevation. The research plots were established in a small headwater watershed of the Hučava flow belonging to the Poľana Biosphere Reserve (Central Europe, Inner Western Carpathians). The SWE values in this watershed (approximately 580–1270 m a.s.l.) were monitored during the three winter seasons starting from 2012–2013 to 2014–2015. The results revealed high variability in SWE and in snow cover duration between the studied seasons. The spatial variability was significantly affected by the forest ecosystem, aspect and elevation. The seasonal mean SWE value was lower by about 50–60% in the spruce forests and by about 21–30% in the beech forests compared to the open areas (100%). Over the whole seasons, the whole watershed mean SWE value on the slopes with the northern aspect was mostly higher compared to the slopes with the southern aspect. The effect of aspect was significant mainly in the open areas and in the forests dominated by European beech during the ablation periods of every season. In the case of the sufficient snow cover, the mean SWE value always increased with elevation. The elevation gradient of SWE was steepest at the open areas of the watershed in the peaks of the winter seasons. The three-season mean value of SWE elevation gradient (per 100 m) at the time of snow accumulation peak was equal to 16 mm in the spruce forests, 20 mm in the beech forests and 26 mm in the open areas. The research revealed that SWE is significantly affected by the forest ecosystem whilst its effect is dependent on the occurrence of dominant deciduous or coniferous tree species. However, the effect of forests is closely related to topographic characteristics (aspect and elevation) of a locality.

Mots clés

  • snow cover
  • snowpack properties
  • elevation gradient
  • water supply
Accès libre

Environmental Status of Kam’yanske Reservoir (Ukraine)

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 281 - 289

Résumé

Abstract

Environmental status of Kam’yanske reservoir (47°55′51.6″N 33°46′08.4″E) as one of the small water bodies belonging to southeast Ukraine was investigated. The integrated environmental assessment based on the quality indices of salt content, trophic–saprobiological indicators and specific toxic water indicators of Kam’yanske reservoir are characterised as ‘satisfactory’ and ‘slightly polluted’. Defined bottom accumulation coefficient (BAC) shows continuing heavy metals enlargement in the upper layer of the bottom sediments and chronic pollution in ecosystem. The content of heavy metals in the muscles of industrial fish in the researched pond did not exceed maximal allowed concentration (MAC) for fish as food according to Ukrainian standards. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish was due to the peculiarities of their ways of nutrition and existing. The total contents of heavy metals in common carp was almost twice as large compared to other fish. The maximum accumulation rates set for fish muscles of essential elements – zinc and iron.

Mots clés

  • small reservoir
  • chemical index of water pollution
  • heavy metals
  • sediments
  • industrial fish
Accès libre

Microbial Investigation of Recreation Effects on Water and Soil in the Tatra National Park

Publié en ligne: 23 Sep 2017
Pages: 290 - 302

Résumé

Abstract

Tatra National Park is considered as the most visited protected area in Slovakia. Striking a balance between the preservation of natural resources and opportunities for public recreation often forces responsible authorities to make compromises between visitation impacts and protection. In this case, the microbial investigation of recreation effects on water and soil in the Tatra National Park were studied.

The study areas were two valleys – Malá Studená, accessible by trail from south with higher human impact and visitation, including mountain huts Téryho and Zamkovského chata and Javorová, accessible from the northern part with a low number of visitors. Soil samples were taken from the main path, 30 cm away from it and water samples from or near the main path in both valleys. The selected colonies, after the cultivation on TSA medium were also analysed according to the dry and semi-extraction procedure of MALDI–TOF method. Most of the obtained strains are endospore forming, psychrotolerant species like Pseudomonas, Bacillus or Paenibacillus away of path, which corresponds with the climate and geographical conditions. But, the relatedness of soil sample strains in both valleys increases with rising altitude, with distance away from path; in contrast, the relatedness of water samples strains in both valleys increases with increasing distance sample areas from chalet and frequent visitors’ places. Water and soil samples were processed for community level physiological profiling using Biolog EcoPlates. The obtained results of carbon source utilization abilities of bacterial communities in both valleys suggested lower diversity in Javorová Valley, which corresponds probably with less visitor intensity, with less anthropogenic impact as well as with less risk of xenobiotics presence in environment.

Mots clés

  • microorganisms
  • communities
  • impact
  • high mountain
  • visitors

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