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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 1 (March 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-947X
Première publication
24 Aug 2013
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
Accès libre

Structure and physical–chemical properties of humic aсids of oligotrophic peat bog of arkhangelsk region

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 1 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

The article presents data on the elemental and functional composition of humic acids, their molecular weight characteristics, physical, chemical and acid-base properties. The sorption properties of humic acids towards Cd2+ and Pb2+ are studied. The relationship between the polyelectrolyte nature of humic acids and their sorption capacity is revealed.

Mots clés

  • humic acid
  • sorption
  • physico-chemical properties
Accès libre

Production-ecological analysis of herb layer in the softwood floodplain forests formed after the gabčíkovo waterwork construction and their characteristics

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 9 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

This paper is focused on phytocoenological characteristics and production analysis of herbaceous layer biomass of the softwood floodplain forests (Salici-Populetum (R. Tx. 1931) Meijer Drees 1936 association) and their phytocoenological characteristics. The sampling site was located in the young stands, which were formed after the Gabčíkovo Waterwork construction in 1992. Redirection of the major ratio of flow into the supply channel has caused essential decrease of water level in the old Danube riverbed. As a result of this, new bare sites have appeared having character of pioneer habitat. In the process of primary succession, new softwood floodplain forests have formed here within a few years. These stands are the subject of the study presented in this paper. We estimated herb layer biomass using indirect sampling modified for non-repeated field measurements (Kubíček, Brechtl, 1970). Total biomass of herbaceous layer was estimated to be 5577 kg ha−1, the aboveground biomass was 4065 kg ha−1 while the belowground biomass was 1512 kg ha−1. The results were compared with the data of Kubíček et al. (2009) and Kollár et al. (2010). Some attention was also paid to their phytocoenologic characteristics. Considering this, it seems that they represent full-value softwood floodplain forest of the Salici-Populetum association despite a bit higher occurrence of some synanthropic species. Such statement is supported by comparison with the data of Jurko (1958) and Šomšák (2003).

Mots clés

  • herb layer biomass
  • phytocoenology
  • Salici-Populetum
  • Danube
  • Gabčikovo Waterwork
Accès libre

Perspectives for the application of computer models to forest dynamics forecasting in bieszczadzki national park (Poland)

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 16 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the perspectives for application of computer models in forecasting the dynamics of forest development on example of Moczarne area, in Bieszczadzki National Park, based on authors’ computer models. First, the possibilities for forecasting the dynamics of forest development in a local scale, i.e. within single rectangular or circular study plot, are presented. For this purpose, a computer prognostic model FORKOM E has been applied, using both general mathematical relationships functioning within a forest ecosystem and empirical ones, characteristic for tree stands at analysed plots. Additionally, a layer of 3D visualisation of a tree stand, which is an integral part of the mentioned model, is also presented. Presented also are the possibilities for forecasting the dynamics of forest development at landscape scale, applying the theory of cellular automata. For this purpose, a prognostic computer model CELLAUT was used in which the whole analysed tree stand is understood as a set of single cells, where stages of landscape development dominating within those cells are considered as also the influence of particular cells upon their neighbours. The paper also describes the perspectives for application of self-learning neural networks in the process of supplementation and verification of some parameters of a tree stand, calculated by the above-mentioned models.

Mots clés

  • forest
  • Bieszczadzki National Park
  • FORKOME
  • CELLAUT
  • prognosis
Accès libre

Assessment of landslide risk using gis and statistical methods in kysuce region

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 26 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

The landslide susceptibility was assessed based on multivariation analysis. The input parameters were represented by lithology, land use, slope inclination and average annual precipitation. These parameters were evaluated as independent variables, and the existing landslides as dependent variables. The individual input parameters were reclassified and spatially adjusted. Spatial analysis resulted in 15 988 combinations of input parameters representing the homogeneous condition unit (HCU ). Based on the landslide density within individual units, the HCU polygons have been classified according to landslide risk into stable, conditionally stable, conditionally stable and unstable (subdivided into low, medium and high landslide risk). A total of 2002 HCU s were affected by landslides, and the remaining 13 986 were not affected. The total HCU area affected by landslides is about 156.92 km2 (20.1%). Stable areas covered 623.01 km2 (79.8%), and conditionally stable areas covered 228.77 km2 (29.33% out of this area). Unstable areas were divided into three levels of landslide risk - low, medium and high risk. An area of 111.19 km2 (14.3%) represents low landslide risk, medium risk 29.7 km2 (3.8%) and 16.01 km2 (2%) represents high risk. Since Zlín Formation lithological unit covers approximately one-third of the study area, it also influences the overall landslide risk assessment. This lithological formation covers the largest area within all landslide risk classes as well as in conditionally stable areas. The most frequent slope class was in the range of 14-19. The higher susceptibility of Zlín Formation to landslides is caused mainly by different geomorphological value of claystone and sandstone sequence. The higher share of claystone results in higher susceptibility of this formation to exogenous degradation processes.

Mots clés

  • landslide risk assessment
  • GIS
Accès libre

Sodium in precipitation in a beech forest ecosystem in the kremnické vrchy mts (Western Carpathians)

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 36 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

We present data on sodium amounts reaching the forest soil surface at the Beech Ecological Experimental Site Kremnické vrchy Mts (Western Carpathians). Sodium concentration and deposition were determined in precipitation and throughfall sampled from study plots. The mean annual sodium concentrations obtained on the two plots (CC - clear cut, C - control) were 0.16 (CC ) and 0.19 mg l−1 (C). The values were the lowest among the base cations in precipitation. The trends in spring and annual concentrations were similar, in the 10th year after the intervention, identical. The possible cause is interception of precipitation in the stand and the ions tendency to absorb by beech leaf tissues. This may cause interception of precipitation in the stand and the tendency of beech leaf tissue to absorb sodium ions. Also, the mechanism driving the ion exchange between K+ and Na+ may cause lower sodium content in throughfall. On both plots, the sodium concentration in spring was somewhat higher than in other seasons of the other year: 0.04-0.42 (CC ) and 0.07-0.76 mg l−1 (C). The trends of spring sodium concentration and deposition on C were decreasing. Plot CC in spring was the only case showing an increasing trend. The spring trends evidently reflected the fact that 10-12 years after the cutting intervention, natural regeneration and growth of beech stand occurred on both the plots. Moreover, the mean winter and summer sodium deposition on both plots was low (0.02 kg), showing a decreasing trend. The autumnal deposition was 0.5 kg (CC ) and 0.3 kg ha−1 (C). The total annual sodium amount reaching the forest soil surface was lower on C (0.9 kg) than on CC (1.2 kg ha−1 year−1). The crown impact coefficient (CIC),the deposition ratio between the plots C:CC , values were 0.6 (spring, autumn), 1.0 (winter, summer) and 0.8 (year). There was no manifested presence of sodium sources of either natural or anthropogenic origin. All the obtained values are low and may be considered as background. They indicate that the Beech Experimental Ecological Site is ecologically clean.

Mots clés

  • sodium deposition
  • precipitation
  • throughfall
  • beech ecosystem
Accès libre

Comparison of modern and traditional methods of soilsorption complex measurement : the basis of long -term studies and modelling

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 48 - 59

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the correlations between two different analytical methods of assessing soil nutrient contents. Soil nutrient content measurements measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS ) method, which uses barium chloride extraction, were compared with those of the now-unused Gedroiz method, which uses ammonium chloride extraction (calcium by titration, magnesium, potassium and sodium by weighing). Natural forest soils from the Ukrainian Carpathians at the localities of Javorník and Pop Ivan were used. Despite the risk of analysis errors during the complicated analytical procedure, the results showed a high level of correlation between different nutrient content measurements across the whole soil profile. This allows concentration values given in different studies to be linearly recalculated on results of modern method. In this way, results can be used to study soil’s chemical changes over time from the soil samples that were analysed in the past using labour-intensive and time-consuming methods with a higher risk of analytic error.

Mots clés

  • Gedroiz
  • flame atomic absorption spectrometry
  • base cations
  • soil analysis
  • natural forest
  • sorption complex
Accès libre

Integral indices for quality assessment of pulp and paper mill effluents

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 60 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

The first part of this investigation studied complex nature of chemical oxygen demand (COD ) parameter on local and overall effluents, which were obtained from two pulp and paper mills, located in the Northwest region of Russia. Contribution of individual compounds and fractions of matters having different chemical nature to COD for these effluents was established. The second part of this study shows that, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of priority pollutants and their contribution to COD for different pulp and paper mills are not the same, though these mills use similar technologies and produce similar products.

Mots clés

  • Best available technology (BAT)
  • Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
  • Industrial effluents
  • Resin and fatty acids (RFAs)
  • Suspended solids (SS)
Accès libre

Effect of afforestation of agricultural soils and tree species composition on soil physical characteristics changes

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 67 - 80

Résumé

Abstract

This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of afforestation of previously arable land to soil characteristics changes. One of the main aims was to evaluate the effects of each forest species on the soil structure quality after afforestation. Soil samples were taken at two climatically distinct subregions within the Czech Republic. Based on the different site conditions, two study sites were chosen at each locality for a total of four research sites. Detailed soil survey and basic forest stand inventories were conducted at all four sites. The first locality was established in the Rychnov nad Kněžnou district in the Protected Landscape Area of the Orlické mountains (soil type a Haplic Cambisol). The second locality was established in the Prague-East district (soil type a Haplic Cambisol and a Haplic Stagnosol). Afforestation had a positive influence on the soil physical characteristics which are important for the maintenance of soil stability. Forest cover has a major influence on increasing the soil porosity, by decreasing the reduced bulk density and increasing capillary and gravitational pores, which is crucial. Afforestation was also found to be positively related to increases in soil organic matter content in different forms, both stable and unstable, and tendency of considerable soil organic matter accumulation not only in the layer of surface humus but also in the entire soil profiles of the research sites. The main contributor to soil improvement after afforestation is the formation of stable soil aggregates. This is typical also for spruce and pine cover.

Mots clés

  • afforestation
  • former agricultural lands
  • soil
  • physical characteristics
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 81 - 92

Résumé

Abstract

Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms), goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing). Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

Mots clés

  • wolf
  • livestock
  • free ranging dog
  • depredation
  • husbandry method
  • compensation programme
Accès libre

Ground level ozone effects in individual growth phases of central european submountain beech forests

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 93 - 100

Résumé

Abstract

We observed ground level ozone concentrations on a series of five beech experimental plots, one representing the original stand and the other four generated and modified by cuts of graduated intensity. The study was carried out in a beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts, the Western Carpathian region, in years 1999-2008. The plots, established in 1989, were evaluated and compared statistically before and after the cutting modification in 2004. The level of significance of the effect of this intervention was 99% on the plot representing small-area clear-cut and on the plot treated with medium cut. Differences, though not significant, were also found in the other plots. Apart from the effects due to the stocking reduction, the whole post-intervention period was characterised with the influence of progressively increasing average air temperatures and similarly increasing ozone concentrations. Globally, the ozone concentrations on all plots were lower (average value 39 μg m-3) during the period 1999-2003 than in the following years 2004-2008 (average value 55 μg m-3). Maximum values measured in the growing season ranged from 36 to 140 μg m-3. The allowable limit exceeded 10 times in years 1999-2003 but 17 times in years 2004-2008, implying worsening conditions in Central European beech forest stands.

Mots clés

  • ground level ozone
  • forest beech
  • forest harvesting
  • reforestation
  • Western Carpathian
10 Articles
Accès libre

Structure and physical–chemical properties of humic aсids of oligotrophic peat bog of arkhangelsk region

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 1 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

The article presents data on the elemental and functional composition of humic acids, their molecular weight characteristics, physical, chemical and acid-base properties. The sorption properties of humic acids towards Cd2+ and Pb2+ are studied. The relationship between the polyelectrolyte nature of humic acids and their sorption capacity is revealed.

Mots clés

  • humic acid
  • sorption
  • physico-chemical properties
Accès libre

Production-ecological analysis of herb layer in the softwood floodplain forests formed after the gabčíkovo waterwork construction and their characteristics

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 9 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

This paper is focused on phytocoenological characteristics and production analysis of herbaceous layer biomass of the softwood floodplain forests (Salici-Populetum (R. Tx. 1931) Meijer Drees 1936 association) and their phytocoenological characteristics. The sampling site was located in the young stands, which were formed after the Gabčíkovo Waterwork construction in 1992. Redirection of the major ratio of flow into the supply channel has caused essential decrease of water level in the old Danube riverbed. As a result of this, new bare sites have appeared having character of pioneer habitat. In the process of primary succession, new softwood floodplain forests have formed here within a few years. These stands are the subject of the study presented in this paper. We estimated herb layer biomass using indirect sampling modified for non-repeated field measurements (Kubíček, Brechtl, 1970). Total biomass of herbaceous layer was estimated to be 5577 kg ha−1, the aboveground biomass was 4065 kg ha−1 while the belowground biomass was 1512 kg ha−1. The results were compared with the data of Kubíček et al. (2009) and Kollár et al. (2010). Some attention was also paid to their phytocoenologic characteristics. Considering this, it seems that they represent full-value softwood floodplain forest of the Salici-Populetum association despite a bit higher occurrence of some synanthropic species. Such statement is supported by comparison with the data of Jurko (1958) and Šomšák (2003).

Mots clés

  • herb layer biomass
  • phytocoenology
  • Salici-Populetum
  • Danube
  • Gabčikovo Waterwork
Accès libre

Perspectives for the application of computer models to forest dynamics forecasting in bieszczadzki national park (Poland)

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 16 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the perspectives for application of computer models in forecasting the dynamics of forest development on example of Moczarne area, in Bieszczadzki National Park, based on authors’ computer models. First, the possibilities for forecasting the dynamics of forest development in a local scale, i.e. within single rectangular or circular study plot, are presented. For this purpose, a computer prognostic model FORKOM E has been applied, using both general mathematical relationships functioning within a forest ecosystem and empirical ones, characteristic for tree stands at analysed plots. Additionally, a layer of 3D visualisation of a tree stand, which is an integral part of the mentioned model, is also presented. Presented also are the possibilities for forecasting the dynamics of forest development at landscape scale, applying the theory of cellular automata. For this purpose, a prognostic computer model CELLAUT was used in which the whole analysed tree stand is understood as a set of single cells, where stages of landscape development dominating within those cells are considered as also the influence of particular cells upon their neighbours. The paper also describes the perspectives for application of self-learning neural networks in the process of supplementation and verification of some parameters of a tree stand, calculated by the above-mentioned models.

Mots clés

  • forest
  • Bieszczadzki National Park
  • FORKOME
  • CELLAUT
  • prognosis
Accès libre

Assessment of landslide risk using gis and statistical methods in kysuce region

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 26 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

The landslide susceptibility was assessed based on multivariation analysis. The input parameters were represented by lithology, land use, slope inclination and average annual precipitation. These parameters were evaluated as independent variables, and the existing landslides as dependent variables. The individual input parameters were reclassified and spatially adjusted. Spatial analysis resulted in 15 988 combinations of input parameters representing the homogeneous condition unit (HCU ). Based on the landslide density within individual units, the HCU polygons have been classified according to landslide risk into stable, conditionally stable, conditionally stable and unstable (subdivided into low, medium and high landslide risk). A total of 2002 HCU s were affected by landslides, and the remaining 13 986 were not affected. The total HCU area affected by landslides is about 156.92 km2 (20.1%). Stable areas covered 623.01 km2 (79.8%), and conditionally stable areas covered 228.77 km2 (29.33% out of this area). Unstable areas were divided into three levels of landslide risk - low, medium and high risk. An area of 111.19 km2 (14.3%) represents low landslide risk, medium risk 29.7 km2 (3.8%) and 16.01 km2 (2%) represents high risk. Since Zlín Formation lithological unit covers approximately one-third of the study area, it also influences the overall landslide risk assessment. This lithological formation covers the largest area within all landslide risk classes as well as in conditionally stable areas. The most frequent slope class was in the range of 14-19. The higher susceptibility of Zlín Formation to landslides is caused mainly by different geomorphological value of claystone and sandstone sequence. The higher share of claystone results in higher susceptibility of this formation to exogenous degradation processes.

Mots clés

  • landslide risk assessment
  • GIS
Accès libre

Sodium in precipitation in a beech forest ecosystem in the kremnické vrchy mts (Western Carpathians)

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 36 - 47

Résumé

Abstract

We present data on sodium amounts reaching the forest soil surface at the Beech Ecological Experimental Site Kremnické vrchy Mts (Western Carpathians). Sodium concentration and deposition were determined in precipitation and throughfall sampled from study plots. The mean annual sodium concentrations obtained on the two plots (CC - clear cut, C - control) were 0.16 (CC ) and 0.19 mg l−1 (C). The values were the lowest among the base cations in precipitation. The trends in spring and annual concentrations were similar, in the 10th year after the intervention, identical. The possible cause is interception of precipitation in the stand and the ions tendency to absorb by beech leaf tissues. This may cause interception of precipitation in the stand and the tendency of beech leaf tissue to absorb sodium ions. Also, the mechanism driving the ion exchange between K+ and Na+ may cause lower sodium content in throughfall. On both plots, the sodium concentration in spring was somewhat higher than in other seasons of the other year: 0.04-0.42 (CC ) and 0.07-0.76 mg l−1 (C). The trends of spring sodium concentration and deposition on C were decreasing. Plot CC in spring was the only case showing an increasing trend. The spring trends evidently reflected the fact that 10-12 years after the cutting intervention, natural regeneration and growth of beech stand occurred on both the plots. Moreover, the mean winter and summer sodium deposition on both plots was low (0.02 kg), showing a decreasing trend. The autumnal deposition was 0.5 kg (CC ) and 0.3 kg ha−1 (C). The total annual sodium amount reaching the forest soil surface was lower on C (0.9 kg) than on CC (1.2 kg ha−1 year−1). The crown impact coefficient (CIC),the deposition ratio between the plots C:CC , values were 0.6 (spring, autumn), 1.0 (winter, summer) and 0.8 (year). There was no manifested presence of sodium sources of either natural or anthropogenic origin. All the obtained values are low and may be considered as background. They indicate that the Beech Experimental Ecological Site is ecologically clean.

Mots clés

  • sodium deposition
  • precipitation
  • throughfall
  • beech ecosystem
Accès libre

Comparison of modern and traditional methods of soilsorption complex measurement : the basis of long -term studies and modelling

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 48 - 59

Résumé

Abstract

This paper presents the correlations between two different analytical methods of assessing soil nutrient contents. Soil nutrient content measurements measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS ) method, which uses barium chloride extraction, were compared with those of the now-unused Gedroiz method, which uses ammonium chloride extraction (calcium by titration, magnesium, potassium and sodium by weighing). Natural forest soils from the Ukrainian Carpathians at the localities of Javorník and Pop Ivan were used. Despite the risk of analysis errors during the complicated analytical procedure, the results showed a high level of correlation between different nutrient content measurements across the whole soil profile. This allows concentration values given in different studies to be linearly recalculated on results of modern method. In this way, results can be used to study soil’s chemical changes over time from the soil samples that were analysed in the past using labour-intensive and time-consuming methods with a higher risk of analytic error.

Mots clés

  • Gedroiz
  • flame atomic absorption spectrometry
  • base cations
  • soil analysis
  • natural forest
  • sorption complex
Accès libre

Integral indices for quality assessment of pulp and paper mill effluents

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 60 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

The first part of this investigation studied complex nature of chemical oxygen demand (COD ) parameter on local and overall effluents, which were obtained from two pulp and paper mills, located in the Northwest region of Russia. Contribution of individual compounds and fractions of matters having different chemical nature to COD for these effluents was established. The second part of this study shows that, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of priority pollutants and their contribution to COD for different pulp and paper mills are not the same, though these mills use similar technologies and produce similar products.

Mots clés

  • Best available technology (BAT)
  • Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
  • Industrial effluents
  • Resin and fatty acids (RFAs)
  • Suspended solids (SS)
Accès libre

Effect of afforestation of agricultural soils and tree species composition on soil physical characteristics changes

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 67 - 80

Résumé

Abstract

This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of afforestation of previously arable land to soil characteristics changes. One of the main aims was to evaluate the effects of each forest species on the soil structure quality after afforestation. Soil samples were taken at two climatically distinct subregions within the Czech Republic. Based on the different site conditions, two study sites were chosen at each locality for a total of four research sites. Detailed soil survey and basic forest stand inventories were conducted at all four sites. The first locality was established in the Rychnov nad Kněžnou district in the Protected Landscape Area of the Orlické mountains (soil type a Haplic Cambisol). The second locality was established in the Prague-East district (soil type a Haplic Cambisol and a Haplic Stagnosol). Afforestation had a positive influence on the soil physical characteristics which are important for the maintenance of soil stability. Forest cover has a major influence on increasing the soil porosity, by decreasing the reduced bulk density and increasing capillary and gravitational pores, which is crucial. Afforestation was also found to be positively related to increases in soil organic matter content in different forms, both stable and unstable, and tendency of considerable soil organic matter accumulation not only in the layer of surface humus but also in the entire soil profiles of the research sites. The main contributor to soil improvement after afforestation is the formation of stable soil aggregates. This is typical also for spruce and pine cover.

Mots clés

  • afforestation
  • former agricultural lands
  • soil
  • physical characteristics
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 81 - 92

Résumé

Abstract

Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms), goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing). Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

Mots clés

  • wolf
  • livestock
  • free ranging dog
  • depredation
  • husbandry method
  • compensation programme
Accès libre

Ground level ozone effects in individual growth phases of central european submountain beech forests

Publié en ligne: 12 Apr 2014
Pages: 93 - 100

Résumé

Abstract

We observed ground level ozone concentrations on a series of five beech experimental plots, one representing the original stand and the other four generated and modified by cuts of graduated intensity. The study was carried out in a beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts, the Western Carpathian region, in years 1999-2008. The plots, established in 1989, were evaluated and compared statistically before and after the cutting modification in 2004. The level of significance of the effect of this intervention was 99% on the plot representing small-area clear-cut and on the plot treated with medium cut. Differences, though not significant, were also found in the other plots. Apart from the effects due to the stocking reduction, the whole post-intervention period was characterised with the influence of progressively increasing average air temperatures and similarly increasing ozone concentrations. Globally, the ozone concentrations on all plots were lower (average value 39 μg m-3) during the period 1999-2003 than in the following years 2004-2008 (average value 55 μg m-3). Maximum values measured in the growing season ranged from 36 to 140 μg m-3. The allowable limit exceeded 10 times in years 1999-2003 but 17 times in years 2004-2008, implying worsening conditions in Central European beech forest stands.

Mots clés

  • ground level ozone
  • forest beech
  • forest harvesting
  • reforestation
  • Western Carpathian

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