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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 25 (2013): Edition 7 (September 2013)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

4 Articles
Accès libre

Limitations in the Statistical Analysis of Normalised Cigarette Smoke Analyte Yield per Milligram of Nicotine Yield

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 617 - 626

Résumé

Abstract

Yields of selected mainstream smoke analytes expressed per milligram of nicotine yield (nicotine ratio) and ceilings on these ratios have been proposed by WHO as part of future cigarette product regulation. This paper describes the different approaches required for precision assessment, depending on whether yields or nicotine ratios are being studied. The widely used approach of assessment of yield precision is to perform a collaborative study using a standardised method. However, for assessment of ratio precision the measurement of smoke analyte and smoke nicotine yields are often not carried out on the same set of cigarettes (unpaired) due to analytical constraints and therefore the statistical approach described in ISO 5725 is inappropriate due to the various replicate combinations. In this paper, the precision of ratios was computed with unpaired measurements for NNN and nicotine yield data for the CM6 monitor test piece and the Kentucky Reference 1R5F cigarette carried out during a collaborative study in 2011 (1). A sampling technique, based on the draw of the most representative ratios, has been used to evaluate the range of both estimated repeatability and reproducibility under the ISO smoking regime that might be expected when comparing data between different laboratories. This statistical evaluation highlighted that a robust estimate of repeatability and reproducibility could not be determined for ratios obtained with unpaired measurements, using the method defined by ISO5725-2.

Accès libre

A Comprehensive Study on Triacylglycerols in Tobacco Leaves Using Liquid Chromatography and Atmospheric- Pressure Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 627 - 637

Résumé

Abstract

Triacylglycerols in tobacco leaves were investigated to further understand their compositional and metabolic differences among various tobacco leaves and their changes during the curing processes. Non-aqueous reverse-phase chromatography for efficient separation of triacylglycerols and atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry for their detection were selected for quantitative analysis. For measuring their absolute amounts, authentic triacylglycerols comprised of the same fatty acids were introduced to generate calibration curves and to quantify the analytes. A validation study using the combination of appropriate separation and authentic triacylglycerols produced very good results in terms of linearity (> 0.999), limit of detection (3-4 ng), limit of quantification (10-15 ng) and recovery ratio (80-120%). The quantification of triacylglycerols in tobacco leaves and a subsequent principal component analysis clarified for the first time their compositional and metabolic differences among various tobacco leaves.

Accès libre

Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 638 - 648

Résumé

Abstract

The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of questions that cover the major dimensions of cigarette smoking, and yet comply with current criteria used for defining smoking history and status. In studies where no very high level of exposure assessment is required or where smoking is not the major subject of investigation, a practical standardized core set of questions appears to be of considerable value, in particularwith regard to making results more comparable across studies.

Accès libre

Evaluation of Several Minor Alkaloid Levels in Tobacco with Separation of R- and S-Nornicotine

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 649 - 659

Résumé

Abstract

The chiral separation of minor alkaloids from tobacco is of interest because R and S isomers of these compounds have differences in their physiological activity. This difference is also reflected in the physiological properties of tobaccospecificN’-nitrosamines (TSNAs), in particular that of N’-nitrosonornicotine. This compound results mainly from nornicotinenitrosation. The previously reported analytical techniques for the enantiomer separation of minor alkaloids have various shortcomings, such as the need for bidimensional chromatography or poor enantiomer separation. A new method for the analysis of nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine has been developed, based on an original derivatization and a simple gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The method allows separate quantitation of S-nornicotine and R-nornicotine, and the analysis of anabasine and anatabine (without isomer separation). It was found that the proportion of S-nornicotine in the total nornicotine present in tobacco varies, depending on the tobacco type, between 52.6% for a flue-cured tobacco to 91.4% for a Burley. Green tobaccos (freeze dried) showed lower levels of minor alkaloids and S-nornicotine accounted for between 31.6% to 43.8% of the total nornicotine (in the analyzed samples).

4 Articles
Accès libre

Limitations in the Statistical Analysis of Normalised Cigarette Smoke Analyte Yield per Milligram of Nicotine Yield

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 617 - 626

Résumé

Abstract

Yields of selected mainstream smoke analytes expressed per milligram of nicotine yield (nicotine ratio) and ceilings on these ratios have been proposed by WHO as part of future cigarette product regulation. This paper describes the different approaches required for precision assessment, depending on whether yields or nicotine ratios are being studied. The widely used approach of assessment of yield precision is to perform a collaborative study using a standardised method. However, for assessment of ratio precision the measurement of smoke analyte and smoke nicotine yields are often not carried out on the same set of cigarettes (unpaired) due to analytical constraints and therefore the statistical approach described in ISO 5725 is inappropriate due to the various replicate combinations. In this paper, the precision of ratios was computed with unpaired measurements for NNN and nicotine yield data for the CM6 monitor test piece and the Kentucky Reference 1R5F cigarette carried out during a collaborative study in 2011 (1). A sampling technique, based on the draw of the most representative ratios, has been used to evaluate the range of both estimated repeatability and reproducibility under the ISO smoking regime that might be expected when comparing data between different laboratories. This statistical evaluation highlighted that a robust estimate of repeatability and reproducibility could not be determined for ratios obtained with unpaired measurements, using the method defined by ISO5725-2.

Accès libre

A Comprehensive Study on Triacylglycerols in Tobacco Leaves Using Liquid Chromatography and Atmospheric- Pressure Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 627 - 637

Résumé

Abstract

Triacylglycerols in tobacco leaves were investigated to further understand their compositional and metabolic differences among various tobacco leaves and their changes during the curing processes. Non-aqueous reverse-phase chromatography for efficient separation of triacylglycerols and atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry for their detection were selected for quantitative analysis. For measuring their absolute amounts, authentic triacylglycerols comprised of the same fatty acids were introduced to generate calibration curves and to quantify the analytes. A validation study using the combination of appropriate separation and authentic triacylglycerols produced very good results in terms of linearity (> 0.999), limit of detection (3-4 ng), limit of quantification (10-15 ng) and recovery ratio (80-120%). The quantification of triacylglycerols in tobacco leaves and a subsequent principal component analysis clarified for the first time their compositional and metabolic differences among various tobacco leaves.

Accès libre

Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 638 - 648

Résumé

Abstract

The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of questions that cover the major dimensions of cigarette smoking, and yet comply with current criteria used for defining smoking history and status. In studies where no very high level of exposure assessment is required or where smoking is not the major subject of investigation, a practical standardized core set of questions appears to be of considerable value, in particularwith regard to making results more comparable across studies.

Accès libre

Evaluation of Several Minor Alkaloid Levels in Tobacco with Separation of R- and S-Nornicotine

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 649 - 659

Résumé

Abstract

The chiral separation of minor alkaloids from tobacco is of interest because R and S isomers of these compounds have differences in their physiological activity. This difference is also reflected in the physiological properties of tobaccospecificN’-nitrosamines (TSNAs), in particular that of N’-nitrosonornicotine. This compound results mainly from nornicotinenitrosation. The previously reported analytical techniques for the enantiomer separation of minor alkaloids have various shortcomings, such as the need for bidimensional chromatography or poor enantiomer separation. A new method for the analysis of nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine has been developed, based on an original derivatization and a simple gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The method allows separate quantitation of S-nornicotine and R-nornicotine, and the analysis of anabasine and anatabine (without isomer separation). It was found that the proportion of S-nornicotine in the total nornicotine present in tobacco varies, depending on the tobacco type, between 52.6% for a flue-cured tobacco to 91.4% for a Burley. Green tobaccos (freeze dried) showed lower levels of minor alkaloids and S-nornicotine accounted for between 31.6% to 43.8% of the total nornicotine (in the analyzed samples).

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