- Détails du magazine
- Première publication
- 01 Jan 1992
- Période de publication
- 4 fois par an
- Accès libre
Determination of Mainstream and Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Components for Cigarettes of Different Tobacco Types and a Set of Reference Cigarettes
Pages: 95 - 113
The yield of selected components in the mainstream and sidestream smoke for cigarettes of different tobacco types and a set of Kentucky Reference cigarettes have been measured. The BAT ‘fishtail’ chimney apparatus was used in conjunction with standard FTC Cambridge pad collection apparatus for the simultaneous collection of both sidestream (SS) and mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke, respectively. Comparison of MS FTC yields and MS yields from the BAT MS/SS smoke collection device showed that the smoke yields for the products of this study were similar for the two methods. Sidestream to mainstream smoke ratios (SS/MS) for TPM, nicotine, HO, ‘tar’, CO and COwere similar to those reported in the literature, despite the variety of collection devices employed in literature reports. The total nicotine accountabilities for the single tobacco cigarettes and the set of Reference cigarettes of this study were relatively constant (~53 %). Enantiomeric separation of the alkaloids in the different smoke streams was accomplished by chiral gas chromatography-mass selective detection. The levels and the enantiomeric ratios of nicotine and nornicotine varied in the smoke streams of the different cigarettes. The level and enantiomeric ratios of anaba-sine and anatabine in sidestream smoke were below detection limits of the method employed. The enantio-meric ratios of these secondary alkaloids could not be calculated. The fraction ofd -nicotine transferred to side-stream smoke did not change significantly when compared to that yielded in mainstream smoke even though the temperatures experienced during the side-stream smoke formation process are quite different (lower) from those occurring in the mainstream smoke formation process. Relatively low concentrations of the secondary alkaloids provided only a preliminary evaluation of their enantiomeric distribution in cigarette smoke.
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Discussion of a Study on the “Determination of Mainstream and Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Components for Cigarettes of Different Tobacco Types and a Set of Reference Cigarettes”
Pages: 115 - 118
The following discussion looks at some of the results of the paper by PERFETTI et al. (1) from a different perspective. Those results are in Tables 3 and 7 of PERFETTI et al. Tables in this discussion are identified by letter rather than number to avoid confusion. The main purpose of the discussion is to suggest that sidestream (SS) and mainstream (MS) yields of a smoke component should be “normalised” to SS and MS tars respectively before calculating SS/MS ratios. With the ubiquitous use of filter ventilation, simple SS/MS ratios are subject to substantial variation and may be of limited value in understanding the smoke system. BROWNE et al. (2) found that as ventilation increases (0-83 %), the SS/MS ratio for smoke nicotine increased (3.49-13.11) and PERFETTI et al. found a similar trend. This is because of the known reduction in mainstream nicotine with ventilation and the known relatively minor effect of ventilation on sidestream yields. It follows that, with the introduction of ventilation in many products, SS/MS ratios for many smoke components will have a very wide range, making this ratio of relatively little value in understanding the underlying system. However, if the SS and MS yields of component X (in this case nicotine) are “normalised” to SS and MS tar yields respectively, then a more useful ratio can be calculated. That ratio is SS yield of X per unit SS tar divided by MS yield of X per unit MS tar. In the case of nicotine/tar ratio (NTR) it is conveniently expressed as a percentage, or milligrams of nicotine per 100 mg of tar. Tables A - C use tobacco nicotine (%), weight of nicotine consumed (mg), weight of tobacco consumed (mg), MS and SS tar and nicotine (mg) from tables of PERFETTI et al. to calculate other variables and construct scatter plots. In Table A, “nicotine transfer” is the MS or SS nicotine (mg) divided by weight of nicotine consumed (mg) expressed as a percentage. “NTR” was defined previously. “TANT” (“Tar Adjusted Nicotine Transfer”) is the NTR (%) divided by tobacco nicotine (%). Table B gives the SS/MS nicotine ratios from Table 3 of PERFETTI et al. and, additionally, the SS/MS NTR ratios calculated from Table A.
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Conference Report: 52nd Tobacco Science Research Conference (TSRC), September 13-16, 1998, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Pages: 119 - 122
The 52nd Tobacco Science Research Conference (TSRC) was held from 13th to 16th September 1998 in Atlanta, U.S.A., at the invitation of the University of Georgia, Atlanta. Two parallel sessions were held during which 64 papers were presented dealing with the results of recent biotechnological research with respect to the tobacco plant, as well as research into the manufacture and analysis of tobacco products, human smoking behaviour and the effects of pyrolytic products on the environment and the organism.
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Conference Report: 51st German Plant Protection Conference, October 5-8, 1998, in Halle/Saale, Germany
Pages: 123 - 125
The 51st German Plant Protection Conference was held by the Federal Biological Institute of Agriculture and Forestry [BiologischeBundesanstaltfür Land- und Forstwirtschaft] in Halle/Saale from 5th to 8th October 1998. The attendance of over 1,000 registered participants reflected the continued lively interest shown in the conference. Some 330 oral contributions, assigned to the various sections, were presented in five parallel sessions.
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Pages: 127 - 129