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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 2 (1964): Edition 6 (October 1964)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles
Accès libre

Smoking and Redistillation Effect in Theory and Experiments / Verrauchung und Redestillation in Theorie und Versuchen

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 237 - 262

Résumé

Abstract

Three experiments are described to learn, if there is any redistillation effect or not. These experiments established that this is true.

Then a short introduction is given of adsorption laws with regard to tobacco aerosol sucked through a filter, i. e. through tobacco in the butt.

In the following the smoking process is investigated. Beginning we assume for simplicity the case of no redistillation (R = 0):

•mI denotes the aerosol mass precipitated on the tobacco in the butt and which is destroyed by the advancing smouldering zone in section I, i. e. in the ash.

•mII denotes the aerosol mass precipitated in section II, i. e. in the butt.

•mIII denotes the aerosol mass leaving the cigarette.

Tobacco aerosol distribution in section I and II and mass of mIII are given as a function of the smouldering zone's progress. The tables are calculated using the adsorption constant k = 0.0689, this being found for a particular brand of cigarette by experiment.

Then we investigate the other extreme, i. e. the total redistillation (R = 1). An additional mass of volatile tobacco aerosol is generated in the smouldering zone, not through combustion of the tobacco but through redistillation of the precipitated aerosol. Results are obtained by integration and also by an algebraic method using a calculating machine.

Finally further tables are given for partial redistillation effect (R = 0.25; 0.50; 0.75). The experimental part demonstrates that for the special cigarette brand investigated it is found

R = 0.45 for tobacco aerosol and R = 0.72 for phenols.

R = 0.45 means: The aerosol precipitated during smoking on the butt's tobacco by the advancing smouldering zone is partly destroyed (55 %) and partly redistilled (45 %).

Accès libre

The Effect of Cigarette Filters on the Gas Phase Components. Examination of the Smoke Yields of each Puff of a Cigarette / Die Wirkung von Cigarettenfiltern auf die Bestandteile der Dampfphase: Untersuchungen des Rauches von verschiedenen aufeinanderfolgenden Zügen einer Cigarette

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 263 - 269

Résumé

Abstract

An analytical procedure for examining the components of the gas phase of each puff of a cigarette is described. The compounds in question have to be quantitatively detectable by gas chromatography. The relative acetaldehyde retention of four different cigarette filters is determined

Accès libre

The Influence of Air Permeability of Cigarette Paper on the Yield of Condensate and its Composition / Einfluss der Luftdurchlässigkeit von Cigarettenpapier auf die Ausbeute und Zusammensetzung des Rauches

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 271 - 281

Résumé

Abstract

The influence of air permeability of cigarette paper on the yield of condensate and on its composition was examined. Total particulate matter and nicotine in the smoke decrease with increasing permeability of the paper. The decrease results from the smaller quantity of tobacco burnt in the mainstream. Higher combustion cannot be obtained by paper of greater permeability. The content of condensate of 3,4-benzopyrene is constant. Total particulate matter and nicotine in the smoke - measured in per cent of the tobacco smoked in the mainstream - are also constant.

Accès libre

The Determination of Pyridin in Tobacco Smoke during a Routine Determination of Smoke Alkaloids / Zur Bestimmung des Pyridins im Rauch von Cigaretten im Rahmen der Bestimmung der Gesamtalkaloide

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 282 - 293

Résumé

Abstract

Asmus et al. have published an analytical procedure for the quantitative separate determination of nicotine and pyridine in tobacco smoke. Their method has been slightly modified in order to adapt it to the standard procedure of smoke alkaloid analysis. The modified method allows the accurate determination of the nicotine alkaloids and the pyridines; the latter can be assayed with a precision of ± 0.7 µg per cigarette, for a total of 21 µg pyridine per cigarette (95 % confidence limits). Preliminary results using this method indicate that the mainstream smoke of one cigarette contains between about 20 (sun-cured and flue-cured tobaccos) and 50 (air-cured tobaccos) µg of pyridine. The stub of a straight cigarette shows a marked retention efficiency for smoke pyridine; still better retention is observed through a cigarette filter from cellulose acetate, whereas filters on a paper or cellulose basis are less efficient. It is usual to separate the pyridines from the other smoke bases by steam distillation in presence of acetic acid or a buffer solution. It is shown that this procedure is inefficient. The simple pyridines contributing rarely more than 2 percent to the mass of the total smoke bases, there seems to be no real necessity of determining their amount in the course of a routine determination of the smoke alkaloids.

Accès libre

Analysis of an Ultra-Violet Colourimeter Developed by B. Lange for the Measurement of Nicotine in Tobacco Smoke Condensate / Über die Eignung des UV-Kolorimeters nach B. Lange zur Bestimmung des Nikotins im Tabakrauchkondensat

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 294 - 301

Résumé

Abstract

The measurement of nicotine solutions by means of an ultra-violet colorimeter prerequisites a special procedure because of the solutions being chemically changed during the measuring process already by the low pressure ultra-violet lamp situated beside the cell. The „Einheitliche Vorschriften für die Analyse von Tabak und Tabakrauch“ (prescriptions for the analysis of tobacco and tobacco smoke) being followed until the preparation of the solutions, the verification of the accuracy of the method can be limited to the control of the reproducibility of reading. The results obtained by the procedure in question are compared to those resulting from the silicotungstic method. The experiments indicate that the method is sufficiently accurate for the determination of nicotine in tobacco smoke condensates.

Accès libre

The Capillary Press, a Smoking Machine for the Collection of Native Smoke Condensate: 1st Report / Die Kapillarpresse, eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat: 1. Mitteilung

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 303 - 310

Résumé

Abstract

A piston smoking machine is described in which the smoke is precipitated by coagulation in a capillary. The apparatus maintains a constant puff volume, can be adapted to any smoking condition, and is suitable for the successive smoking of a great number of cigarettes.

6 Articles
Accès libre

Smoking and Redistillation Effect in Theory and Experiments / Verrauchung und Redestillation in Theorie und Versuchen

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 237 - 262

Résumé

Abstract

Three experiments are described to learn, if there is any redistillation effect or not. These experiments established that this is true.

Then a short introduction is given of adsorption laws with regard to tobacco aerosol sucked through a filter, i. e. through tobacco in the butt.

In the following the smoking process is investigated. Beginning we assume for simplicity the case of no redistillation (R = 0):

•mI denotes the aerosol mass precipitated on the tobacco in the butt and which is destroyed by the advancing smouldering zone in section I, i. e. in the ash.

•mII denotes the aerosol mass precipitated in section II, i. e. in the butt.

•mIII denotes the aerosol mass leaving the cigarette.

Tobacco aerosol distribution in section I and II and mass of mIII are given as a function of the smouldering zone's progress. The tables are calculated using the adsorption constant k = 0.0689, this being found for a particular brand of cigarette by experiment.

Then we investigate the other extreme, i. e. the total redistillation (R = 1). An additional mass of volatile tobacco aerosol is generated in the smouldering zone, not through combustion of the tobacco but through redistillation of the precipitated aerosol. Results are obtained by integration and also by an algebraic method using a calculating machine.

Finally further tables are given for partial redistillation effect (R = 0.25; 0.50; 0.75). The experimental part demonstrates that for the special cigarette brand investigated it is found

R = 0.45 for tobacco aerosol and R = 0.72 for phenols.

R = 0.45 means: The aerosol precipitated during smoking on the butt's tobacco by the advancing smouldering zone is partly destroyed (55 %) and partly redistilled (45 %).

Accès libre

The Effect of Cigarette Filters on the Gas Phase Components. Examination of the Smoke Yields of each Puff of a Cigarette / Die Wirkung von Cigarettenfiltern auf die Bestandteile der Dampfphase: Untersuchungen des Rauches von verschiedenen aufeinanderfolgenden Zügen einer Cigarette

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 263 - 269

Résumé

Abstract

An analytical procedure for examining the components of the gas phase of each puff of a cigarette is described. The compounds in question have to be quantitatively detectable by gas chromatography. The relative acetaldehyde retention of four different cigarette filters is determined

Accès libre

The Influence of Air Permeability of Cigarette Paper on the Yield of Condensate and its Composition / Einfluss der Luftdurchlässigkeit von Cigarettenpapier auf die Ausbeute und Zusammensetzung des Rauches

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 271 - 281

Résumé

Abstract

The influence of air permeability of cigarette paper on the yield of condensate and on its composition was examined. Total particulate matter and nicotine in the smoke decrease with increasing permeability of the paper. The decrease results from the smaller quantity of tobacco burnt in the mainstream. Higher combustion cannot be obtained by paper of greater permeability. The content of condensate of 3,4-benzopyrene is constant. Total particulate matter and nicotine in the smoke - measured in per cent of the tobacco smoked in the mainstream - are also constant.

Accès libre

The Determination of Pyridin in Tobacco Smoke during a Routine Determination of Smoke Alkaloids / Zur Bestimmung des Pyridins im Rauch von Cigaretten im Rahmen der Bestimmung der Gesamtalkaloide

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 282 - 293

Résumé

Abstract

Asmus et al. have published an analytical procedure for the quantitative separate determination of nicotine and pyridine in tobacco smoke. Their method has been slightly modified in order to adapt it to the standard procedure of smoke alkaloid analysis. The modified method allows the accurate determination of the nicotine alkaloids and the pyridines; the latter can be assayed with a precision of ± 0.7 µg per cigarette, for a total of 21 µg pyridine per cigarette (95 % confidence limits). Preliminary results using this method indicate that the mainstream smoke of one cigarette contains between about 20 (sun-cured and flue-cured tobaccos) and 50 (air-cured tobaccos) µg of pyridine. The stub of a straight cigarette shows a marked retention efficiency for smoke pyridine; still better retention is observed through a cigarette filter from cellulose acetate, whereas filters on a paper or cellulose basis are less efficient. It is usual to separate the pyridines from the other smoke bases by steam distillation in presence of acetic acid or a buffer solution. It is shown that this procedure is inefficient. The simple pyridines contributing rarely more than 2 percent to the mass of the total smoke bases, there seems to be no real necessity of determining their amount in the course of a routine determination of the smoke alkaloids.

Accès libre

Analysis of an Ultra-Violet Colourimeter Developed by B. Lange for the Measurement of Nicotine in Tobacco Smoke Condensate / Über die Eignung des UV-Kolorimeters nach B. Lange zur Bestimmung des Nikotins im Tabakrauchkondensat

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 294 - 301

Résumé

Abstract

The measurement of nicotine solutions by means of an ultra-violet colorimeter prerequisites a special procedure because of the solutions being chemically changed during the measuring process already by the low pressure ultra-violet lamp situated beside the cell. The „Einheitliche Vorschriften für die Analyse von Tabak und Tabakrauch“ (prescriptions for the analysis of tobacco and tobacco smoke) being followed until the preparation of the solutions, the verification of the accuracy of the method can be limited to the control of the reproducibility of reading. The results obtained by the procedure in question are compared to those resulting from the silicotungstic method. The experiments indicate that the method is sufficiently accurate for the determination of nicotine in tobacco smoke condensates.

Accès libre

The Capillary Press, a Smoking Machine for the Collection of Native Smoke Condensate: 1st Report / Die Kapillarpresse, eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat: 1. Mitteilung

Publié en ligne: 28 May 2014
Pages: 303 - 310

Résumé

Abstract

A piston smoking machine is described in which the smoke is precipitated by coagulation in a capillary. The apparatus maintains a constant puff volume, can be adapted to any smoking condition, and is suitable for the successive smoking of a great number of cigarettes.

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