Magazine et Edition

Volume 31 (2022): Edition 2 (July 2022)

Volume 31 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Volume 30 (2021): Edition 4 (November 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edition 3 (July 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edition 2 (May 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

Volume 29 (2020): Edition 3 (December 2020)

Volume 29 (2020): Edition 2 (August 2020)

Volume 29 (2020): Edition 1 (April 2020)

Volume 28 (2019): Edition 7 (December 2019)

Volume 28 (2019): Edition 6 (August 2019)

Volume 28 (2019): Edition 5 (May 2019)

Volume 28 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edition 3 (October 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edition 2 (August 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edition 1 (April 2018)

Volume 27 (2017): Edition 8 (December 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edition 7 (September 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edition 6 (April 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edition 5 (January 2017)

Volume 27 (2016): Edition 4 (October 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edition 3 (July 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edition 2 (April 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edition 1 (January 2016)

Volume 26 (2015): Edition 7 (September 2015)

Volume 26 (2015): Edition 6 (June 2015)

Volume 26 (2015): Edition 5 (March 2015)

Volume 26 (2014): Edition 4 (December 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edition 2 (July 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edition 1 (April 2014)

Volume 25 (2013): Edition 8 (December 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edition 7 (September 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edition 6 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edition 5 (March 2013)

Volume 25 (2012): Edition 4 (December 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edition 3 (August 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edition 2 (June 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edition 1 (February 2012)

Volume 24 (2011): Edition 6 (November 2011)

Volume 24 (2011): Edition 5 (May 2011)

Volume 24 (2011): Edition 4 (January 2011)

Volume 24 (2010): Edition 3 (November 2010)

Volume 24 (2010): Edition 2 (July 2010)

Volume 24 (2010): Edition 1 (April 2010)

Volume 23 (2009): Edition 6 (December 2009)

Volume 23 (2009): Edition 5 (September 2009)

Volume 23 (2009): Edition 4 (May 2009)

Volume 23 (2008): Edition 3 (December 2008)

Volume 23 (2008): Edition 2 (August 2008)

Volume 23 (2008): Edition 1 (April 2008)

Volume 22 (2007): Edition 5 (June 2007)

Volume 22 (2007): Edition 4 (January 2007)

Volume 22 (2006): Edition 3 (October 2006)

Volume 22 (2006): Edition 2 (July 2006)

Volume 22 (2006): Edition 1 (April 2006)

Volume 21 (2005): Edition 8 (December 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edition 7 (October 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edition 6 (July 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edition 5 (April 2005)

Volume 21 (2004): Edition 4 (December 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edition 3 (October 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edition 2 (July 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edition 1 (March 2004)

Volume 20 (2003): Edition 8 (December 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edition 7 (November 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edition 6 (July 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edition 5 (March 2003)

Volume 20 (2002): Edition 4 (December 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edition 3 (August 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edition 2 (June 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edition 1 (February 2002)

Volume 19 (2001): Edition 7 (October 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edition 6 (July 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edition 5 (April 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edition 4 (January 2001)

Volume 19 (2000): Edition 3 (October 2000)

Volume 19 (2000): Edition 2 (July 2000)

Volume 19 (2000): Edition 1 (April 2000)

Volume 18 (1999): Edition 6 (December 1999)

Volume 18 (1999): Edition 5 (July 1999)

Volume 18 (1999): Edition 4 (April 1999)

Volume 18 (1998): Edition 3 (December 1998)

Volume 18 (1998): Edition 2 (August 1998)

Volume 18 (1998): Edition 1 (April 1998)

Volume 17 (1997): Edition 3 (December 1997)

Volume 17 (1997): Edition 2 (September 1997)

Volume 17 (1996): Edition 1 (December 1996)

Volume 16 (1995): Edition 4 (November 1995)

Volume 16 (1995): Edition 3 (July 1995)

Volume 16 (1994): Edition 2 (June 1994)

Volume 16 (1994): Edition 1 (May 1994)

Volume 15 (1992): Edition 3 (November 1992)

Volume 15 (1992): Edition 2 (April 1992)

Volume 15 (1991): Edition 1 (August 1991)

Volume 14 (1990): Edition 6 (June 1990)

Volume 14 (1989): Edition 5 (October 1989)

Volume 14 (1989): Edition 4 (February 1989)

Volume 14 (1989): Edition 3 (January 1989)

Volume 14 (1988): Edition 2 (October 1988)

Volume 14 (1987): Edition 1 (December 1987)

Volume 13 (1986): Edition 5 (December 1986)

Volume 13 (1986): Edition 4 (August 1986)

Volume 13 (1986): Edition 3 (July 1986)

Volume 13 (1985): Edition 2 (December 1985)

Volume 13 (1985): Edition 1 (January 1985)

Volume 12 (1984): Edition 5 (November 1984)

Volume 12 (1984): Edition 4 (July 1984)

Volume 12 (1984): Edition 3 (February 1984)

Volume 12 (1983): Edition 2 (June 1983)

Volume 12 (1983): Edition 1 (February 1983)

Volume 11 (1982): Edition 5 (November 1982)

Volume 11 (1982): Edition 4 (August 1982)

Volume 11 (1982): Edition 3 (January 1982)

Volume 11 (1981): Edition 2 (September 1981)

Volume 11 (1981): Edition 1 (March 1981)

Volume 10 (1980): Edition 3 (October 1980)

Volume 10 (1980): Edition 2 (July 1980)

Volume 10 (1979): Edition 1 (December 1979)

Volume 9 (1978): Edition 5 (December 1978)

Volume 9 (1978): Edition 4 (July 1978)

Volume 9 (1977): Edition 3 (October 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edition 2 (June 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edition 1 (April 1977)

Volume 8 (1976): Edition 7 (October 1976)

Volume 8 (1976): Edition 6 (June 1976)

Volume 8 (1976): Edition 5 (March 1976)

Volume 8 (1975): Edition 4 (December 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edition 3 (August 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edition 2 (May 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edition 1 (January 1975)

Volume 7 (1974): Edition 5 (September 1974)

Volume 7 (1974): Edition 4 (April 1974)

Volume 7 (1973): Edition 3 (November 1973)

Volume 7 (1973): Edition 2 (June 1973)

Volume 7 (1973): Edition 1 (January 1973)

Volume 6 (1972): Edition 5 (October 1972)

Volume 6 (1972): Edition 4 (August 1972)

Volume 6 (1972): Edition 3 (March 1972)

Volume 6 (1971): Edition 2 (September 1971)

Volume 6 (1971): Edition 1 (July 1971)

Volume 5 (1970): Edition 6 (December 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edition 5 (November 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edition 4 (August 1970)

Volume 5 (1969): Edition 3 (December 1969)

Volume 5 (1969): Edition 2 (August 1969)

Volume 5 (1969): Edition 1 (June 1969)

Volume 4 (1968): Edition 7 (December 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edition 6 (November 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edition 5 (July 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edition 4 (May 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edition 3 (February 1968)

Volume 4 (1967): Edition 2 (October 1967)

Volume 4 (1967): Edition 1 (August 1967)

Volume 3 (1966): Edition 9 (December 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edition 8 (December 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edition 7 (November 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edition 6 (September 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edition 5 (May 1966)

Volume 3 (1965): Edition 4 (October 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edition 3 (August 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edition 2 (May 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edition 1 (April 1965)

Volume 2 (1964): Edition 7 (November 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edition 6 (October 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edition 5 (May 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edition 4 (February 1964)

Volume 2 (1963): Edition 3 (October 1963)

Volume 2 (1963): Edition 2 (June 1963)

Volume 2 (1963): Edition 1 (March 1963)

Volume 1 (1962): Edition 10 (December 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edition 9 (December 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edition 8 (November 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edition 7 (November 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edition 6 (July 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edition 5 (February 1962)

Volume 1 (1961): Edition 4 (November 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edition 3 (August 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edition 2 (May 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edition 1 (January 1961)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 23 (2009): Edition 5 (September 2009)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles
Accès libre

Editors’ Note

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 231 - 231

Résumé

Accès libre

A Robust Method for Estimating Human Smoked Cigarette Yields from Filter Analysis Data

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 231 - 243

Résumé

Abstract

The analysis of spent filters from human-smoked (HS) cigarettes has been used to estimate cigarette yields for over three decades. Until recently, the whole filter was used for estimation; however a part-filter method has been shown to improve the accuracy of estimated HS yields. The part-filter method uses only the mouth-end portion of the filter, downstream of the ventilation holes, for analysis. In this portion, the filtration efficiency is relatively constant irrespective of typical puff flow rates of humans and also minimizes butt length effects (e.g. nicotine condensation) on filtration efficiency. Therefore, the estimations of HS cigarette yields are more robust to human smoking conditions than previous whole-filter methods.

British American Tobacco has adopted this method to obtain better understanding of how smokers actually use their products in their everyday environment. This can give information to help understand approaches to harm reduction. Since adopting this method, modifications and quality control features have been added to improve the accuracy of the estimation. This paper will describe in detail the methodology currently in use, along with sources of error, storage studies, quality control, repeatability and reproducibility.

Accès libre

The Effect of Fertilization and Mycorrhiza on Cadmium Uptake by Tobacco

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 244 - 247

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of fertilization and arbuscularmycorrhiza (AM) on cadmium (Cd) uptake by tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.) was studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Two tobacco varieties and five AM fungal isolates were included in this study. Each combination of tobacco variety × AM fungal isolate was compared in two fertilization treatments: a nutrient solution and a slow-release fertilizer. Unexpectedly, root colonisation levels were low for most treatments. They were lower in the treatments having received the slow-release fertilizer than in the treatments with the nutrient solution. Inoculation with two AM fungal isolates led to a significant reduction of the Cd concentration in tobacco leaves. However, the main outcome of this study was the important effect of the fertilization regime on the Cd concentration of tobacco leaves. For one variety, Cd concentration was decreased by 48-58% in the slow-release fertilizer treatment when compared to the nutrient solution treatment. The effect of the fertilization regime on leaf Cd concentration was thus clearly more pronounced than that of AM. Similar results were obtained for the other variety, although the decrease was less pronounced.

Accès libre

Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 248 - 276

Résumé

Abstract

Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

An overview is presented on the different types of smokeless tobaccos consumed around the world. Commercial products differ widely in composition and patterns of use. The smokeless tobaccos of the Western world (Europe and North America) need to be clearly distinguished from those popular in Asia, Africa and South America. The modern smokeless tobaccos used in Europe and North America are reviewed regarding their chemical composition and toxicological properties. Agents of concern found in smokeless tobacco, especially the tobacco specific N-nitrosamines, are dealt with in particular.

The epidemiological evidence is summarized concerning a wide range of health outcomes. Published reviews and studies are presented and interpreted regarding non-neoplastic oral diseases, various forms of cancer, circulatory diseases, several other diseases and pregnancy outcome. While many of the epidemiological studies have weaknesses and data are often inconsistent it is quite obvious that smokeless tobacco use is much less risky for consumers than smoking. In fact, for modern forms of European moist snuff such as Swedish snus, which is subject to strict quality standards, there is evidence for - if any - only very limited serious health risk.

The ongoing public discussion centers around the influence smokeless tobacco may have on smoking rates (initiation or cessation) and the occurrence of tobacco specific diseases - with Sweden being a revealing example. There is an interesting controversy regarding product and marketing regulations for smokeless tobaccos in the European Union.

Accès libre

The Chemical Components Identified in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Prior to 1954: A Chronology of Classical Chemistry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 277 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

Because of the excellent fractionation and identification technologies developed during the early-1950s, the compositions of tobacco and tobacco smoke, both classified as highly complex mixtures, have been defined more completely than the composition of any other highly complex commercial product such as coffee. By year-end 1953, the many years of research by scientists using classical chemical techniques to define the composition of tobacco and its smoke provided meaningful information on the nature of over 300 tobacco components and fewer than 100 tobacco smoke components. Those involved in the pre-1954 research not only provided the cornerstone of our knowledge of the two compositions but also deserve the gratitude of their successors for the early information generated on tobacco and its smoke. This article is our tribute to those researchers who generated much meaningful knowledge on the composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke prior to 1954 despite the now known fractionation and analytical limitations of the so-called classical chemical techniques. It also notes the similarity of some of the early and more recent research results obtained on the chemical and biological properties of smoke condensate and several of its components from tobacco with those obtained by Roffo in the 1930s on a destructive distillate of tobacco.

Accès libre

Letter to the Editor: Analysis of the Data Variability in the Australian Benchmark Study 2000-2001

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 335 - 336

Résumé

6 Articles
Accès libre

Editors’ Note

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 231 - 231

Résumé

Accès libre

A Robust Method for Estimating Human Smoked Cigarette Yields from Filter Analysis Data

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 231 - 243

Résumé

Abstract

The analysis of spent filters from human-smoked (HS) cigarettes has been used to estimate cigarette yields for over three decades. Until recently, the whole filter was used for estimation; however a part-filter method has been shown to improve the accuracy of estimated HS yields. The part-filter method uses only the mouth-end portion of the filter, downstream of the ventilation holes, for analysis. In this portion, the filtration efficiency is relatively constant irrespective of typical puff flow rates of humans and also minimizes butt length effects (e.g. nicotine condensation) on filtration efficiency. Therefore, the estimations of HS cigarette yields are more robust to human smoking conditions than previous whole-filter methods.

British American Tobacco has adopted this method to obtain better understanding of how smokers actually use their products in their everyday environment. This can give information to help understand approaches to harm reduction. Since adopting this method, modifications and quality control features have been added to improve the accuracy of the estimation. This paper will describe in detail the methodology currently in use, along with sources of error, storage studies, quality control, repeatability and reproducibility.

Accès libre

The Effect of Fertilization and Mycorrhiza on Cadmium Uptake by Tobacco

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 244 - 247

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of fertilization and arbuscularmycorrhiza (AM) on cadmium (Cd) uptake by tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.) was studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Two tobacco varieties and five AM fungal isolates were included in this study. Each combination of tobacco variety × AM fungal isolate was compared in two fertilization treatments: a nutrient solution and a slow-release fertilizer. Unexpectedly, root colonisation levels were low for most treatments. They were lower in the treatments having received the slow-release fertilizer than in the treatments with the nutrient solution. Inoculation with two AM fungal isolates led to a significant reduction of the Cd concentration in tobacco leaves. However, the main outcome of this study was the important effect of the fertilization regime on the Cd concentration of tobacco leaves. For one variety, Cd concentration was decreased by 48-58% in the slow-release fertilizer treatment when compared to the nutrient solution treatment. The effect of the fertilization regime on leaf Cd concentration was thus clearly more pronounced than that of AM. Similar results were obtained for the other variety, although the decrease was less pronounced.

Accès libre

Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 248 - 276

Résumé

Abstract

Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

An overview is presented on the different types of smokeless tobaccos consumed around the world. Commercial products differ widely in composition and patterns of use. The smokeless tobaccos of the Western world (Europe and North America) need to be clearly distinguished from those popular in Asia, Africa and South America. The modern smokeless tobaccos used in Europe and North America are reviewed regarding their chemical composition and toxicological properties. Agents of concern found in smokeless tobacco, especially the tobacco specific N-nitrosamines, are dealt with in particular.

The epidemiological evidence is summarized concerning a wide range of health outcomes. Published reviews and studies are presented and interpreted regarding non-neoplastic oral diseases, various forms of cancer, circulatory diseases, several other diseases and pregnancy outcome. While many of the epidemiological studies have weaknesses and data are often inconsistent it is quite obvious that smokeless tobacco use is much less risky for consumers than smoking. In fact, for modern forms of European moist snuff such as Swedish snus, which is subject to strict quality standards, there is evidence for - if any - only very limited serious health risk.

The ongoing public discussion centers around the influence smokeless tobacco may have on smoking rates (initiation or cessation) and the occurrence of tobacco specific diseases - with Sweden being a revealing example. There is an interesting controversy regarding product and marketing regulations for smokeless tobaccos in the European Union.

Accès libre

The Chemical Components Identified in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Prior to 1954: A Chronology of Classical Chemistry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 277 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

Because of the excellent fractionation and identification technologies developed during the early-1950s, the compositions of tobacco and tobacco smoke, both classified as highly complex mixtures, have been defined more completely than the composition of any other highly complex commercial product such as coffee. By year-end 1953, the many years of research by scientists using classical chemical techniques to define the composition of tobacco and its smoke provided meaningful information on the nature of over 300 tobacco components and fewer than 100 tobacco smoke components. Those involved in the pre-1954 research not only provided the cornerstone of our knowledge of the two compositions but also deserve the gratitude of their successors for the early information generated on tobacco and its smoke. This article is our tribute to those researchers who generated much meaningful knowledge on the composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke prior to 1954 despite the now known fractionation and analytical limitations of the so-called classical chemical techniques. It also notes the similarity of some of the early and more recent research results obtained on the chemical and biological properties of smoke condensate and several of its components from tobacco with those obtained by Roffo in the 1930s on a destructive distillate of tobacco.

Accès libre

Letter to the Editor: Analysis of the Data Variability in the Australian Benchmark Study 2000-2001

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 335 - 336

Résumé

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo