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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 19 (2001): Edition 7 (October 2001)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2719-9509
Première publication
01 Jan 1992
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Comparative Study of Leaf Surface Texture and Ability to Expand of Cured Tobacco

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 333 - 338

Résumé

Abstract

Tobacco leaf texture, appreciated by the difference of surface roughness of cured leaves, is studies with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaf texture is obviously determined by the presence or absence of conical cellular protuberances on the adaxial side of the leaf. Considering the anatomic point of view, the leaf thickness, always more important when the leaf texture is open, is the only objective criterion which could be associated to the texture. The ultra-structural study with SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates that the expansion capacity of tobacco doesn't rely on cytological factors such as cellular reserves or debris. The expansion capacity could be inversely proportional with the relative importance of the mesophyll comparing to palisade parenchyma. On the studied material, no direct relation between the leaf texture and the expansion capacity has been noticed.

Accès libre

Synthesis of 3-Oxo-α-ionol Ethyl Carbonate and its Conversion to Megastigmatrienones in Tobacco Smoke

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 339 - 343

Résumé

Abstract

3-Oxo-α-ionol ethyl carbonate, a precursor of megastigmatrienones was prepared by reduction of α-ionone to α-ionol, followed by esterification with ethyl chloroformate and then by oxidation with t-butyl chromate. The total yield was about 23%. Infrared (IR) and mass spectra of this compound were determined. Upon smoking, cigarettes to which 0.002% by weight of the titled compound was added had an improved and more harmonious flavor. The smoke was sweeter and had a cleaner after taste. Experimental results suggest that the title compound added to the tobacco pyrolyzes to form megastigmatrienones during smoking.

Accès libre

Puff-by-puff Mainstream Smoke Analysis by Multiplex Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 345 - 351

Résumé

Abstract

A puff-by-puff mainstream smoke procedure has been developed that provides the sensitivity and selectivity of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. The smoke analysis is based on automated sample collection and injection into the GC system. This development builds on, and complements, prior puff-by-puff procedures developed by Philip Morris USA, that utilized infrared (IR) analysis of gas-phase mainstream smoke. IR analysis of the gas-phase smoke for individual smoke constituents relies on the unique spectroscopic absorption patterns of each analyte. The new multiplex procedure relies on both chromatographic separation as well as spectroscopic separation. A significant feature of this method is that multiple injections are made prior to the complete elution of the first injected sample. The benefits of this methodology are that both sensitivity and the number of detected compounds are enhanced. While the multiplex method increases the complexity of the chromatographic data, the mass spectral analysis provides a means for data reduction to meaningful results. Many smoke constituents that are at concentrations below the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) detection limit are observable with the multiplex analysis while maintaining the feature of puff-by-puff characterization of fresh smoke. The gas-phase mainstream smoke filtration performance of standard adsorption materials are discussed as a demonstration of the versatility and information content of this analytical procedure.

Accès libre

Reaction of Indicator Tobacco Cultivars to Races of Pseudomonas syringaepv. tabaciTox+

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 353 - 359

Résumé

Abstract

Three races of Pseudomonas syringaepv. tabaciTox+ (wildfire) (races 0, 1 and 2) and two races of Tox- (angular leaf spot) (races 1 and 2) have been confirmed on tobacco in Zimbabwe (Zim). Very few cultivars with no resistance to Ps. syringaepv. tabaci are grown commercially and race 0 has not been isolated since 1996. Because we no longer have a viable culture of race 0, we obtained an isolate of race 0 from Kentucky (0 KY), USA in January 2000. We included this isolate in race tests on standard indicator cultivars K E1 (susceptible to all races), KM 10 (resistance to race 0 derived from Nicotianalongiflora), WZ (resistance to races 0 and 1 derived from N. rustica) and a hybrid, K 35 (resistance to races 0 and 0 and 1 derived from N. longiflora and N. rustica respectively). Two leaves on 10-week-old seedlings were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (106 colony forming units [cfu] per mL) by spraying selected areas until just watersoaked and incubating the plants at 28 C and 70% RH for 10 d. The reaction to race 0, measured as lesion diameter, was different from that previously obtained with race 0 (Zim). Races 0 and 1 (Zim) are avirulent on WZ but race 0 (KY) was virulent. Further isolates of race 0 were received from Maryland (MD) and Tennessee (TN). The TN isolates overcame resistance derived from N. longiflora and N. rustica, except where both sets of genes were present in the same cultivar. Reactions have been variable with the race 0 (MD) isolate suggesting it is a mixed culture. We conclude that there are at least four races of Ps. syringaepv. tabaciTox+ worldwide and race 0 (KY) should be designated race 3. On all cultivars, race 2 consistently caused the largest lesions.

Accès libre

Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: Identification, Tobacco Precursors, Control of Levels: A Review

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 361 - 379

Résumé

Abstract

During the period of tobacco smoke research from the early 1950s to the mid-1960s it was repeatedly asserted that a) tobacco and many tobacco components were involved in the pyrogenesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which were reported to initiate tumors on the skin of laboratory animals and b) tobacco additives (flavorants, casing materials, humectants) were highly likely to be similarly involved in PAH pyrogenesis. Extensive knowledge on PAHs was deemed highly necessary because of their claimed importance in the smoking-health issue. The numerous assertions about the generation of PAHs in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) triggered extensive and intensive research both within and outside the Tobacco Industry to define the nature of the PAHs, their per cigarette MSS delivery amounts, their precursors, etc. It was not until 1960 that VAN DUUREN et al. (1) reported three specific aza-arenes in cigarette MSS that were asserted to be involved in smokers’ respiratory tract cancer. As noted in a recent Letter to the Editors (2), the presence of these three aza-arenes in tobacco smoke has never been confirmed. Between 1960 and 1965, other MSS components (phenols as promoters, polonium-210, N-nitrosamines, ciliastatic compounds) were asserted to be responsible for smoking related diseases. However, no major assertions were made that phenols, polonium-210, or the N-nitrosamines were derived from flavorants, casing materials, or humectants. Some investigators did report that several ciliastats were derived from added sugars and glycerol. The ciliastat proposal was drastically diminished in importance by the findings in the 1960s that only a relatively small proportion of the ciliastats reached the smoker's cilia. During that time, pertinent skills and competencies in research on tobacco smoke composition, particularly the PAH fraction, have been developed. Such skills permitted the isolation in crystalline form of 14 PAHs and the quantitation of these and many other PAHs. They were also used to put in perspective the pyrogenesis of PAHs from a) specific tobacco components, b) additives, and c) processed tobaccos (reconstituted tobacco sheet [RTS], expanded tobacco). R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJRT) pioneered the use of RTS (1953) and expanded tobaccos (1969) in cigarette blends and generated much previously unpublished data on the effect of such processed tobaccos on MSS composition.

5 Articles
Accès libre

Comparative Study of Leaf Surface Texture and Ability to Expand of Cured Tobacco

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 333 - 338

Résumé

Abstract

Tobacco leaf texture, appreciated by the difference of surface roughness of cured leaves, is studies with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaf texture is obviously determined by the presence or absence of conical cellular protuberances on the adaxial side of the leaf. Considering the anatomic point of view, the leaf thickness, always more important when the leaf texture is open, is the only objective criterion which could be associated to the texture. The ultra-structural study with SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates that the expansion capacity of tobacco doesn't rely on cytological factors such as cellular reserves or debris. The expansion capacity could be inversely proportional with the relative importance of the mesophyll comparing to palisade parenchyma. On the studied material, no direct relation between the leaf texture and the expansion capacity has been noticed.

Accès libre

Synthesis of 3-Oxo-α-ionol Ethyl Carbonate and its Conversion to Megastigmatrienones in Tobacco Smoke

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 339 - 343

Résumé

Abstract

3-Oxo-α-ionol ethyl carbonate, a precursor of megastigmatrienones was prepared by reduction of α-ionone to α-ionol, followed by esterification with ethyl chloroformate and then by oxidation with t-butyl chromate. The total yield was about 23%. Infrared (IR) and mass spectra of this compound were determined. Upon smoking, cigarettes to which 0.002% by weight of the titled compound was added had an improved and more harmonious flavor. The smoke was sweeter and had a cleaner after taste. Experimental results suggest that the title compound added to the tobacco pyrolyzes to form megastigmatrienones during smoking.

Accès libre

Puff-by-puff Mainstream Smoke Analysis by Multiplex Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 345 - 351

Résumé

Abstract

A puff-by-puff mainstream smoke procedure has been developed that provides the sensitivity and selectivity of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. The smoke analysis is based on automated sample collection and injection into the GC system. This development builds on, and complements, prior puff-by-puff procedures developed by Philip Morris USA, that utilized infrared (IR) analysis of gas-phase mainstream smoke. IR analysis of the gas-phase smoke for individual smoke constituents relies on the unique spectroscopic absorption patterns of each analyte. The new multiplex procedure relies on both chromatographic separation as well as spectroscopic separation. A significant feature of this method is that multiple injections are made prior to the complete elution of the first injected sample. The benefits of this methodology are that both sensitivity and the number of detected compounds are enhanced. While the multiplex method increases the complexity of the chromatographic data, the mass spectral analysis provides a means for data reduction to meaningful results. Many smoke constituents that are at concentrations below the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) detection limit are observable with the multiplex analysis while maintaining the feature of puff-by-puff characterization of fresh smoke. The gas-phase mainstream smoke filtration performance of standard adsorption materials are discussed as a demonstration of the versatility and information content of this analytical procedure.

Accès libre

Reaction of Indicator Tobacco Cultivars to Races of Pseudomonas syringaepv. tabaciTox+

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 353 - 359

Résumé

Abstract

Three races of Pseudomonas syringaepv. tabaciTox+ (wildfire) (races 0, 1 and 2) and two races of Tox- (angular leaf spot) (races 1 and 2) have been confirmed on tobacco in Zimbabwe (Zim). Very few cultivars with no resistance to Ps. syringaepv. tabaci are grown commercially and race 0 has not been isolated since 1996. Because we no longer have a viable culture of race 0, we obtained an isolate of race 0 from Kentucky (0 KY), USA in January 2000. We included this isolate in race tests on standard indicator cultivars K E1 (susceptible to all races), KM 10 (resistance to race 0 derived from Nicotianalongiflora), WZ (resistance to races 0 and 1 derived from N. rustica) and a hybrid, K 35 (resistance to races 0 and 0 and 1 derived from N. longiflora and N. rustica respectively). Two leaves on 10-week-old seedlings were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (106 colony forming units [cfu] per mL) by spraying selected areas until just watersoaked and incubating the plants at 28 C and 70% RH for 10 d. The reaction to race 0, measured as lesion diameter, was different from that previously obtained with race 0 (Zim). Races 0 and 1 (Zim) are avirulent on WZ but race 0 (KY) was virulent. Further isolates of race 0 were received from Maryland (MD) and Tennessee (TN). The TN isolates overcame resistance derived from N. longiflora and N. rustica, except where both sets of genes were present in the same cultivar. Reactions have been variable with the race 0 (MD) isolate suggesting it is a mixed culture. We conclude that there are at least four races of Ps. syringaepv. tabaciTox+ worldwide and race 0 (KY) should be designated race 3. On all cultivars, race 2 consistently caused the largest lesions.

Accès libre

Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: Identification, Tobacco Precursors, Control of Levels: A Review

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2014
Pages: 361 - 379

Résumé

Abstract

During the period of tobacco smoke research from the early 1950s to the mid-1960s it was repeatedly asserted that a) tobacco and many tobacco components were involved in the pyrogenesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which were reported to initiate tumors on the skin of laboratory animals and b) tobacco additives (flavorants, casing materials, humectants) were highly likely to be similarly involved in PAH pyrogenesis. Extensive knowledge on PAHs was deemed highly necessary because of their claimed importance in the smoking-health issue. The numerous assertions about the generation of PAHs in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) triggered extensive and intensive research both within and outside the Tobacco Industry to define the nature of the PAHs, their per cigarette MSS delivery amounts, their precursors, etc. It was not until 1960 that VAN DUUREN et al. (1) reported three specific aza-arenes in cigarette MSS that were asserted to be involved in smokers’ respiratory tract cancer. As noted in a recent Letter to the Editors (2), the presence of these three aza-arenes in tobacco smoke has never been confirmed. Between 1960 and 1965, other MSS components (phenols as promoters, polonium-210, N-nitrosamines, ciliastatic compounds) were asserted to be responsible for smoking related diseases. However, no major assertions were made that phenols, polonium-210, or the N-nitrosamines were derived from flavorants, casing materials, or humectants. Some investigators did report that several ciliastats were derived from added sugars and glycerol. The ciliastat proposal was drastically diminished in importance by the findings in the 1960s that only a relatively small proportion of the ciliastats reached the smoker's cilia. During that time, pertinent skills and competencies in research on tobacco smoke composition, particularly the PAH fraction, have been developed. Such skills permitted the isolation in crystalline form of 14 PAHs and the quantitation of these and many other PAHs. They were also used to put in perspective the pyrogenesis of PAHs from a) specific tobacco components, b) additives, and c) processed tobaccos (reconstituted tobacco sheet [RTS], expanded tobacco). R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJRT) pioneered the use of RTS (1953) and expanded tobaccos (1969) in cigarette blends and generated much previously unpublished data on the effect of such processed tobaccos on MSS composition.

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