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Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part Two. In childhood and beyond, Zeszyt Editor: Barbara Bokus

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Children's Language and Communicative Knowledge, Part One. In Memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar, Zeszyt Editor: Barbara Bokus

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Language as a Tool for Interaction, Zeszyt Editor: Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2083-8506
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1997
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 19 (2015): Zeszyt 3 (December 2015)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2083-8506
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jan 1997
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

4 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Letter Visibility and the Optimal Viewing Position Effect of Isolated Connected and Un-Connected Letters in Arabic

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 174 - 200

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study provides a further exploration of the role of Arabic letter visibility as a possible cause of the Optimal Viewing Position (OVP) effect. We used isolated connected and un-connected Arabic letters of different shapes (basic, initial, medial, final) placed at the center of fixation (Experiment 1) and at various possible positions in isolated presentation (Experiment 2). In order to investigate whether performance in the visual identification task is modulated by letter type, we presented each of the isolated connected and un-connected letter targets in each of the eleven stimulus positions across the array to produce a mean RT (ms) for each of the letter types. Using the initial fixation paradigm enabled us to compare reaction times with correctly identified letter targets appearing in the different possible positions. The findings of the present experiments demonstrated that visual letter recognition is influenced by: (i) the isolated letters’ type (connected, un-connected), as connected letters are easier to recognize than un-connected letters; (ii) isolated letters’ shape (basic, initial, medial, final), as medial and final are harder to recognize than basic and initial letter shapes; (iii) visual field, as reading rates were longer for letter stimuli that were presented in LVF compared to RVF; and (iv) eccentricity, as letter reading rates were correlated with their eccentric placement.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arabic
  • optimal viewing position
  • visual recognition
  • connected
  • un-connected
  • isolated
  • letter
Otwarty dostęp

Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 201 - 221

Abstrakt

Abstract

Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the ability to share and receive feedback from global and local audiences. In this counterbalanced experimental study, 86 seventh- and eighth-grade students responded to two narrative prompts. One prompt was written for the teacher and the other was written for the teacher and peers in an online forum. We examined student writing fluency, mechanical errors, academic word use, and setting. Students were found to be more likely to set narratives in private settings when writing for an audience that included peers. We discuss this finding from cognitive and sociocultural perspectives and how it might inform networked communication research.

Słowa kluczowe

  • audience
  • digital writing
  • experimental design
  • online forums
Otwarty dostęp

Generation and Content Validation of a Persian Syntax Comprehension Test

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 222 - 236

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lack of formal tests for assessing Persian language proficiency is one of the main problems for speech and language pathologists in Iran. The purpose of this study was to generate an item pool for a syntax comprehension test based on the characteristics of the Persian language and Iranian culture, as well as the spoken variant for 4-6 years old native Persian speaking children. We first extracted 41 syntactic structures of Persian for the syntax comprehension test, of which 8 structures were excluded in the first phase. Then, 198 items were developed for the remaining 33 syntactic structures. To determine content validity, 14 experts assessed the structures and 12 experts expressed their views on the items. Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was calculated. 24 structures with CVR > 0.50 were selected. 107 items were selected based on their CVR value (CVR > 0.47). Eleven new items were regenerated to replace items with a CVR below 0.47. According to the results, the test turned out to have a good content validity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • item pool
  • content validity
  • syntactic structure
  • test development
Otwarty dostęp

Book review: Natural Causes of Language: Frames, Biases and Cultural Transmission

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 237 - 243

Abstrakt

4 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Letter Visibility and the Optimal Viewing Position Effect of Isolated Connected and Un-Connected Letters in Arabic

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 174 - 200

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study provides a further exploration of the role of Arabic letter visibility as a possible cause of the Optimal Viewing Position (OVP) effect. We used isolated connected and un-connected Arabic letters of different shapes (basic, initial, medial, final) placed at the center of fixation (Experiment 1) and at various possible positions in isolated presentation (Experiment 2). In order to investigate whether performance in the visual identification task is modulated by letter type, we presented each of the isolated connected and un-connected letter targets in each of the eleven stimulus positions across the array to produce a mean RT (ms) for each of the letter types. Using the initial fixation paradigm enabled us to compare reaction times with correctly identified letter targets appearing in the different possible positions. The findings of the present experiments demonstrated that visual letter recognition is influenced by: (i) the isolated letters’ type (connected, un-connected), as connected letters are easier to recognize than un-connected letters; (ii) isolated letters’ shape (basic, initial, medial, final), as medial and final are harder to recognize than basic and initial letter shapes; (iii) visual field, as reading rates were longer for letter stimuli that were presented in LVF compared to RVF; and (iv) eccentricity, as letter reading rates were correlated with their eccentric placement.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arabic
  • optimal viewing position
  • visual recognition
  • connected
  • un-connected
  • isolated
  • letter
Otwarty dostęp

Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 201 - 221

Abstrakt

Abstract

Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the ability to share and receive feedback from global and local audiences. In this counterbalanced experimental study, 86 seventh- and eighth-grade students responded to two narrative prompts. One prompt was written for the teacher and the other was written for the teacher and peers in an online forum. We examined student writing fluency, mechanical errors, academic word use, and setting. Students were found to be more likely to set narratives in private settings when writing for an audience that included peers. We discuss this finding from cognitive and sociocultural perspectives and how it might inform networked communication research.

Słowa kluczowe

  • audience
  • digital writing
  • experimental design
  • online forums
Otwarty dostęp

Generation and Content Validation of a Persian Syntax Comprehension Test

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 222 - 236

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lack of formal tests for assessing Persian language proficiency is one of the main problems for speech and language pathologists in Iran. The purpose of this study was to generate an item pool for a syntax comprehension test based on the characteristics of the Persian language and Iranian culture, as well as the spoken variant for 4-6 years old native Persian speaking children. We first extracted 41 syntactic structures of Persian for the syntax comprehension test, of which 8 structures were excluded in the first phase. Then, 198 items were developed for the remaining 33 syntactic structures. To determine content validity, 14 experts assessed the structures and 12 experts expressed their views on the items. Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was calculated. 24 structures with CVR > 0.50 were selected. 107 items were selected based on their CVR value (CVR > 0.47). Eleven new items were regenerated to replace items with a CVR below 0.47. According to the results, the test turned out to have a good content validity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • item pool
  • content validity
  • syntactic structure
  • test development
Otwarty dostęp

Book review: Natural Causes of Language: Frames, Biases and Cultural Transmission

Data publikacji: 12 May 2016
Zakres stron: 237 - 243

Abstrakt

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