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Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1-2 (December 2021)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 1-2 (December 2020)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1-2 (December 2019)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1-2 (December 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1-2 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1-2 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1-2 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1-2 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1-2 (December 2013)

Volume 17 (2012): Issue 1-2 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1-2 (December 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Elementary steps in heterogeneous catalysis: The basis for environmental chemistry

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 11 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Catalysis is an alternative way for reaching an immediate formation of a product, because of a lower energy barrier (between the molecules and the catalysts). Heterogeneous catalysis comprises the acceleration of a chemical reaction through interaction of the molecules involved with the surface of a solid. It is a discipline, which involves all the different aspects of chemistry: inorganic and analytical chemistry in order to characterize the catalysts and the forms of these catalysts. The industrial chemistry puts all these things together to understand the solid chemical handling, chemical reaction and energy engineering and the heat and mass transfer in these catalytic processes. Very often there are more than one, but several products, then the role of the catalyst is not so much related to activity, but to selectivity. The underlying elementary steps can now be investigated down to the atomic scale as will be illustrated mainly with two examples: the oxidation of carbon monoxide (car exhaust catalyst) and the synthesis of ammonia (the basis for nitrogen fertilizer). There is a huge market for the catalysts themselves despite of their high costs. A large fraction is used for petroleum refineries, automotive and industrial cleaning processes. The catalytic processes is a wide field and there are still many problems concerning energy conservation and energy transformation, so there is much to do in the future.

Keywords

  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • environmental chemistry
  • oxidation of carbon monoxide
  • synthesis of ammonia
Open Access

Michael Faraday the educator - an essay to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Faraday’s Death

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 43 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) is renowned for his outstanding contribution to science and technology during the first half of the nineteenth century. However, he is less well known for his contribution to education. In the present paper, an outline of Faraday’s own education is presented, and how this experience inspired him to pass on his knowledge to others. This was mainly achieved through his popular science lectures - Chemical History of a Candle, delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, in London on 19 occasions between 1825 and 1860, and through his popular textbook for students: Chemical Manipulation (London, 1828). The author examines Faraday’s methodology of teaching chemistry by analysing a fragment of one of his lectures, and also by summarizing the content of Chemical Manipulation, and commenting on some excerpts from it. Using Faraday’s approach to chemistry education as a model, the author challenges today’s chemistry teaching programme for schools, and makes a suggestion for its improvement.

Keywords

  • Michael Faraday
  • chemistry education
  • learning by experiment
  • demonstration in chemistry
  • Faraday's lectures
  • explanation of the burning process
Open Access

Stories with microorganisms…

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Microorganisms, usually invisible for us, accompany us always and everywhere. Often we do not realize how decisive its impact on our lives is, how much we use their presence, which of our troubles are the result of their actions, and also how surprising effects result from their activity. Microorganisms also very often play a decisive role in the development of societies, politics and history. One of the most spectacular interventions of micro-organisms in human history include the example of a false “oil fever” that exploded in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was even more significant to redirect Europe's history in the new direction as a result of the “black death” epidemic in the fourteenth century. Microorganisms have created social conditions for the transition to the next epoch - renaissance, which forms the basis of today's shape. Because of the microorganisms J.F. Kennedy could have been in the 1960 President of the United States of America and to direct her development in the new direction and to stop Khrushchev's expansion into the second hemisphere. Microorganisms, not leaders and generals, won battles and wars. It was Rikketsia prowazeki, not the genius of the opponents, that broke Napoleon's power in Europe. Microorganisms fight disease, improving quality of life and prolonging its period. They allowed to control rabies and numerous infectious diseases. In the economy for the cause of microorganisms, powerful monopolies fell. Bacteria were also used to protect civilians in Poland during World War II. There are many similar stories to tell, stories in which microorganisms play an essential role. But would these stories be about microorganisms only? Or perhaps about people who were fascinated by the microscopic world of microbes discovered his secrets, meaning and ... beauty.

Keywords

  • microorganisms
  • history
  • society
  • medicine
Open Access

How can pupils see what is invisible?: Possibilities of inquiry probeware experiment implementation in primary schools

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 69 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

We investigated the difficulties and challenges for teachers in implementing microcomputer-based laboratory and inquiry-based education in basic schools, where pupils were unused to this type of education. To achieve this, we implemented lesson models with worksheets focused on chemical reactions, chemical decomposition and chemical synthesis; with demonstration experiments and video-recording of each lesson. We then utilized a qualitative research design to analyse the videos, concentrating on circumstances leading to increased and decreased pupil attention to the relevant events, and on subsequent student reflection. Experience gained from implementing our model lessons proved that achieving effective teacher-pupil communication was the greatest difficulty hindering teaching success. This particularly involved the formulation of predictions and conclusions which demands strong commitment, determination and skill from every teacher. A further difficulty was ensuring active pupil engagement in the discussion. We therefore instituted a set of teacher ‘working-rules’ to enhance success in this innovative form of education.

Keywords

  • chemical reaction
  • demonstration experiment
  • inquiry-based science education
  • microcomputer-based laboratory
  • worksheets
Open Access

Microwave synthesis of sulfanilic acid

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 93 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Sulfanilic acid represents an important substance, which is frequently utilized in the industry of azo dyes as well as in drug development of antimicrobials (e.g. of sulfonamides). Students can also meet with such type of compounds in chemistry labs, for example, when they estimate pH by methyl orange indicator or prepare Orange II for textile colouring. Both of these dyes are products of azo coupling of sulfanilic acid as diazonium salt with N,N-dimethylaniline or 2-naphthol, respectively. In the article, we focus on the synthesis of sulfanilic acid as a well-known experiment in the organic chemistry education. The synthesis was modified as the solvent free and microwave assisted experiment under semimicroscale conditions. That experiment is very convenient for the organic chemistry courses in the university or the high school teaching.

Keywords

  • synthesis of sulfanilic acid
  • microwave assisted synthesis
  • solvent-free synthesis
  • school experiment
  • organic chemistry education
Open Access

Attitudes among chemistry teachers towards increasing personal competencies in applying ICT

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 99 - 121

Abstract

Abstract

The study analyses opinions and attitudes among Chemistry teachers participating in the national project titled “Modernisation of the Educational Process in Primary and Secondary Schools”. The research part of the study consists of the results of our findings examining the overall satisfaction of course participants with the professional level, difficulty, and contents of the designed TPACK-based (the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) teaching model, as well as their self-assessment of the acquired skills and knowledge regarding the work with particular software and hardware applications. The results indicate that the course based on the TPACK framework and comprising specific examples of teaching activities supported by the use of technology was highly appreciated by teachers. Examples of methodologies for a suitable use of digital technologies in a particular curriculum topic in Chemistry, based on the TPACK model, were evaluated by teachers as the most beneficial ones, in terms of the actual teaching practice. The research confirmed that teachers expect to receive educational technologies together with high-quality methodical guidelines and particular examples of teaching activities involving appropriate and efficient use of the given digital technology in the teaching process.

Keywords

  • ICT in Chemistry teaching
  • teaching methods
  • educational technologies
  • courses for teachers
  • teaching Chemistry
  • Information and Communication Technologies
Open Access

Biocatalytic reduction of ketones in a secondary school laboratory

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 123 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

Biocatalysis is one of the most important industrial methods which has been increasingly attracting attention of scientists as a new and environmentally acceptable method. It is used in the preparation of chiral alcohols - important building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and analogues of natural substances. In biocatalysis the use of traditional chiral agents based on heavy metals has been replaced by the use of enzymes. In many cases, the number of reaction steps has been limited, the selectivity of the desired products has been increased while the negative impact on the environment has been reduced. The principles of biocatalysis have been applied by us to design a simple chemical experiment for the students of higher secondary education. The modified assignment of a lab task consisted of bioreduction of 4-nitroacetophenone using the enzymes present in plant tissues of carrot, parsley and white radish. Within our pedagogical research, the adequacy of the chemical experiment for secondary school students was examined and the extent of understanding of the green chemistry experiment was analysed by the method of a semi-structured interview.

Keywords

  • biocatalysis
  • green chemistry
  • enzymes
  • school experiment
  • semi-structured interview
Open Access

Innovative educational course II: Modelling of odour dispersion from agricultural biogas plants

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 135 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, the European Union is putting a growing emphasis on constructing agricultural biogas plants, especially in the Czech-Polish border region. In this region, there are large areas of agricultural land which can provide biomass as a substrate used in biogas plants. Biogas plants connected to cogeneration units are a useful renewable source of thermal and electrical energy, but they can cause also some problems. Probably the most serious issue is that inadequately technologically operated biogas plants are the source of unpleasant odour which may affect the surrounding population. Therefore, we prepared a continuation of our educational course focused on biogas plants intended for a study program “Physico-technical Measurements and Computer Technology” at the Faculty of Science at the University of Hradec Kralove and for the education of internshipers from the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology at the University of Opole. In this part of the course, the students will learn about the problems with odour released from inadequately technologically operated biogas plants and about the ways how to measure and model the odour contamination in the vicinity of the odour source. An important part of this educational course is a practical exercise on the mathematical modelling of odour contamination from an inadequately technologically operated agricultural biogas plant. Thus, the students will be able to perform the odour modelling using the SYMOS’97 methodology which is approved and used as an official tool for air pollution modelling in the Czech Republic. Students will learn that a biogas plant which is well-operated and correctly located in relation to local hydrometeorological conditions does not annoy local residents by odour.

Keywords

  • agricultural biogas plants
  • odours
  • modelling of odour dispersion
8 Articles
Open Access

Elementary steps in heterogeneous catalysis: The basis for environmental chemistry

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 11 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Catalysis is an alternative way for reaching an immediate formation of a product, because of a lower energy barrier (between the molecules and the catalysts). Heterogeneous catalysis comprises the acceleration of a chemical reaction through interaction of the molecules involved with the surface of a solid. It is a discipline, which involves all the different aspects of chemistry: inorganic and analytical chemistry in order to characterize the catalysts and the forms of these catalysts. The industrial chemistry puts all these things together to understand the solid chemical handling, chemical reaction and energy engineering and the heat and mass transfer in these catalytic processes. Very often there are more than one, but several products, then the role of the catalyst is not so much related to activity, but to selectivity. The underlying elementary steps can now be investigated down to the atomic scale as will be illustrated mainly with two examples: the oxidation of carbon monoxide (car exhaust catalyst) and the synthesis of ammonia (the basis for nitrogen fertilizer). There is a huge market for the catalysts themselves despite of their high costs. A large fraction is used for petroleum refineries, automotive and industrial cleaning processes. The catalytic processes is a wide field and there are still many problems concerning energy conservation and energy transformation, so there is much to do in the future.

Keywords

  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • environmental chemistry
  • oxidation of carbon monoxide
  • synthesis of ammonia
Open Access

Michael Faraday the educator - an essay to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Faraday’s Death

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 43 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) is renowned for his outstanding contribution to science and technology during the first half of the nineteenth century. However, he is less well known for his contribution to education. In the present paper, an outline of Faraday’s own education is presented, and how this experience inspired him to pass on his knowledge to others. This was mainly achieved through his popular science lectures - Chemical History of a Candle, delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, in London on 19 occasions between 1825 and 1860, and through his popular textbook for students: Chemical Manipulation (London, 1828). The author examines Faraday’s methodology of teaching chemistry by analysing a fragment of one of his lectures, and also by summarizing the content of Chemical Manipulation, and commenting on some excerpts from it. Using Faraday’s approach to chemistry education as a model, the author challenges today’s chemistry teaching programme for schools, and makes a suggestion for its improvement.

Keywords

  • Michael Faraday
  • chemistry education
  • learning by experiment
  • demonstration in chemistry
  • Faraday's lectures
  • explanation of the burning process
Open Access

Stories with microorganisms…

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Microorganisms, usually invisible for us, accompany us always and everywhere. Often we do not realize how decisive its impact on our lives is, how much we use their presence, which of our troubles are the result of their actions, and also how surprising effects result from their activity. Microorganisms also very often play a decisive role in the development of societies, politics and history. One of the most spectacular interventions of micro-organisms in human history include the example of a false “oil fever” that exploded in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was even more significant to redirect Europe's history in the new direction as a result of the “black death” epidemic in the fourteenth century. Microorganisms have created social conditions for the transition to the next epoch - renaissance, which forms the basis of today's shape. Because of the microorganisms J.F. Kennedy could have been in the 1960 President of the United States of America and to direct her development in the new direction and to stop Khrushchev's expansion into the second hemisphere. Microorganisms, not leaders and generals, won battles and wars. It was Rikketsia prowazeki, not the genius of the opponents, that broke Napoleon's power in Europe. Microorganisms fight disease, improving quality of life and prolonging its period. They allowed to control rabies and numerous infectious diseases. In the economy for the cause of microorganisms, powerful monopolies fell. Bacteria were also used to protect civilians in Poland during World War II. There are many similar stories to tell, stories in which microorganisms play an essential role. But would these stories be about microorganisms only? Or perhaps about people who were fascinated by the microscopic world of microbes discovered his secrets, meaning and ... beauty.

Keywords

  • microorganisms
  • history
  • society
  • medicine
Open Access

How can pupils see what is invisible?: Possibilities of inquiry probeware experiment implementation in primary schools

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 69 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

We investigated the difficulties and challenges for teachers in implementing microcomputer-based laboratory and inquiry-based education in basic schools, where pupils were unused to this type of education. To achieve this, we implemented lesson models with worksheets focused on chemical reactions, chemical decomposition and chemical synthesis; with demonstration experiments and video-recording of each lesson. We then utilized a qualitative research design to analyse the videos, concentrating on circumstances leading to increased and decreased pupil attention to the relevant events, and on subsequent student reflection. Experience gained from implementing our model lessons proved that achieving effective teacher-pupil communication was the greatest difficulty hindering teaching success. This particularly involved the formulation of predictions and conclusions which demands strong commitment, determination and skill from every teacher. A further difficulty was ensuring active pupil engagement in the discussion. We therefore instituted a set of teacher ‘working-rules’ to enhance success in this innovative form of education.

Keywords

  • chemical reaction
  • demonstration experiment
  • inquiry-based science education
  • microcomputer-based laboratory
  • worksheets
Open Access

Microwave synthesis of sulfanilic acid

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 93 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Sulfanilic acid represents an important substance, which is frequently utilized in the industry of azo dyes as well as in drug development of antimicrobials (e.g. of sulfonamides). Students can also meet with such type of compounds in chemistry labs, for example, when they estimate pH by methyl orange indicator or prepare Orange II for textile colouring. Both of these dyes are products of azo coupling of sulfanilic acid as diazonium salt with N,N-dimethylaniline or 2-naphthol, respectively. In the article, we focus on the synthesis of sulfanilic acid as a well-known experiment in the organic chemistry education. The synthesis was modified as the solvent free and microwave assisted experiment under semimicroscale conditions. That experiment is very convenient for the organic chemistry courses in the university or the high school teaching.

Keywords

  • synthesis of sulfanilic acid
  • microwave assisted synthesis
  • solvent-free synthesis
  • school experiment
  • organic chemistry education
Open Access

Attitudes among chemistry teachers towards increasing personal competencies in applying ICT

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 99 - 121

Abstract

Abstract

The study analyses opinions and attitudes among Chemistry teachers participating in the national project titled “Modernisation of the Educational Process in Primary and Secondary Schools”. The research part of the study consists of the results of our findings examining the overall satisfaction of course participants with the professional level, difficulty, and contents of the designed TPACK-based (the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) teaching model, as well as their self-assessment of the acquired skills and knowledge regarding the work with particular software and hardware applications. The results indicate that the course based on the TPACK framework and comprising specific examples of teaching activities supported by the use of technology was highly appreciated by teachers. Examples of methodologies for a suitable use of digital technologies in a particular curriculum topic in Chemistry, based on the TPACK model, were evaluated by teachers as the most beneficial ones, in terms of the actual teaching practice. The research confirmed that teachers expect to receive educational technologies together with high-quality methodical guidelines and particular examples of teaching activities involving appropriate and efficient use of the given digital technology in the teaching process.

Keywords

  • ICT in Chemistry teaching
  • teaching methods
  • educational technologies
  • courses for teachers
  • teaching Chemistry
  • Information and Communication Technologies
Open Access

Biocatalytic reduction of ketones in a secondary school laboratory

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 123 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

Biocatalysis is one of the most important industrial methods which has been increasingly attracting attention of scientists as a new and environmentally acceptable method. It is used in the preparation of chiral alcohols - important building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and analogues of natural substances. In biocatalysis the use of traditional chiral agents based on heavy metals has been replaced by the use of enzymes. In many cases, the number of reaction steps has been limited, the selectivity of the desired products has been increased while the negative impact on the environment has been reduced. The principles of biocatalysis have been applied by us to design a simple chemical experiment for the students of higher secondary education. The modified assignment of a lab task consisted of bioreduction of 4-nitroacetophenone using the enzymes present in plant tissues of carrot, parsley and white radish. Within our pedagogical research, the adequacy of the chemical experiment for secondary school students was examined and the extent of understanding of the green chemistry experiment was analysed by the method of a semi-structured interview.

Keywords

  • biocatalysis
  • green chemistry
  • enzymes
  • school experiment
  • semi-structured interview
Open Access

Innovative educational course II: Modelling of odour dispersion from agricultural biogas plants

Published Online: 27 Jan 2018
Page range: 135 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, the European Union is putting a growing emphasis on constructing agricultural biogas plants, especially in the Czech-Polish border region. In this region, there are large areas of agricultural land which can provide biomass as a substrate used in biogas plants. Biogas plants connected to cogeneration units are a useful renewable source of thermal and electrical energy, but they can cause also some problems. Probably the most serious issue is that inadequately technologically operated biogas plants are the source of unpleasant odour which may affect the surrounding population. Therefore, we prepared a continuation of our educational course focused on biogas plants intended for a study program “Physico-technical Measurements and Computer Technology” at the Faculty of Science at the University of Hradec Kralove and for the education of internshipers from the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology at the University of Opole. In this part of the course, the students will learn about the problems with odour released from inadequately technologically operated biogas plants and about the ways how to measure and model the odour contamination in the vicinity of the odour source. An important part of this educational course is a practical exercise on the mathematical modelling of odour contamination from an inadequately technologically operated agricultural biogas plant. Thus, the students will be able to perform the odour modelling using the SYMOS’97 methodology which is approved and used as an official tool for air pollution modelling in the Czech Republic. Students will learn that a biogas plant which is well-operated and correctly located in relation to local hydrometeorological conditions does not annoy local residents by odour.

Keywords

  • agricultural biogas plants
  • odours
  • modelling of odour dispersion

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